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Unit 1. quality, total quality, tqm

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Unit 1. quality, total quality, tqm

  1. 1. Sub: TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT (06ME758) VII SEM BE (MECH)UNIT - 1 UNIT - 1 QUALITY, TOTAL QUALITY, TQM:Introduction-Definition, Basic Approach, TQM framework, Historical Review, Benefits of TQM. NOTES By: S.B. MALLUR, Mechanical Engineering Dept, STJ Institute of Technology, Ranebennur- 581 115 E-Mail-sbmallur@rediffmail.com, sbmallur@gmail.comIf you are planning for ONE year, grow riceIf you are planning for TEN years, grow treesIf you are planning for HUNDRED years, EDUCATE your children…………………………- Confucius There is a direct relationship between quality and sales, quality and productivity, quality and profit, quality and competitive position. Good quality will lead to good things, such as increased profits, improved productivity, lower cost, and loyal customers. Quality is the responsibility of management. Charles H. Schmauch1.1 INTRODUCTIONTill 300 years ago, people used the power of their own muscles, animals or the force of wind andflowing water to do all works. With the invention of the ‘steam engine’ they got a powerful method ofrunning their machines. This provided a tremendous boost to Industry. Goods started getting producedin larger quantities using machines. This led to the beginning of the factory system. The significantchange from hand-made goods to machine-made goods, which began in Britain in 18th century, isknown as the Industrial Revolution. Why it was called Revolution? Because of the large scale changes itbrought about our economy, society and culture. IR soon spread to other nation like Germany, France,and Portugal. As these countries became industrialized, they needed two things:1. Raw materials for manufacturing and2. New markets to sell the goods they made. They found both raw materials as well as new markets to sell their goods in the non-industrialised countries of Asia and Africa. So they started annexing to meet the needs of their newfactories. Soon they became jealous of each other, and wanted their own empires to grow. Theystarted fighting among themselves. This finally led to a great war in which several nations of the worldwere involved. It came to be known as World War- I (August 1914-1918). Millions of soldiers and otherpeople were killed or wounded. Cities were destroyed and there was shortage of food and everythingelse. In 1939, there was another war, called World War II. It lasted for 6 years and ended in 1945 afterUSA dropped atomic bombs over two Japanese cities – Hiroshima and Nagasaki. After world war – II,most Japanese companies had to start literally from Scratch. Everyday brought new challenges tomanagers and workers alike, and everyday meant progress. They observed hard working ability andbringing new-new technologies are not enough need a culture change towards “TOTAL COMMITMENTand TOTAL IMPROVEMENT”. They also felled that human resource of Japan is highest important andprecious but they need more training for continuous development. Fortunately Japan called / invitedAmerican Experts like Edward Deming, Joseph M.Juran and others in 1950s and early 1960s. In quality movement world wide the Globalization took an important role in 2000. Due totransmission to open economy, a domestic and international competition starts. Gradually TQM Notes on TQM By: SB MALLUR,STJIT,MED,RANEBENNUR 1
  2. 2. considered as the ultimatum for continuous improvement and sustainable growth in present daybusiness. However, in 21 st century, high growth of economy- the new millennium brought aboutincreased emphasis on worldwide quality and the Internet. Japanese and other worlds businessorganization started not only for quality product and services for External customer satisfaction butstarted satisfying them by trying to achieve the highest business excellence model – Deming Award,Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award, CII – EXIM Award and TPM Award and others. Thanks –QUALITY.What is this Quality Then?Quality is an attribute of a product or service that fulfills or exceeds the human expectations. Theseexpectations are based on the intended use and selling / service price. It is somewhat of an intangiblebased on perception. That is why quality is a relative term and each person has his or her owndefinition.As per ISO – 9000:2000: Quality means “The degree to which a set of inherent characteristics fulfillsrequirements”. Here,Degree – quality such as poor, good, and excellentInherent – Permanent attributeRequirement – need based or expectation. According to the oxford dictionary for the business world, “quality is defined as the degree ofexcellence”.Quality means a totality of characteristics of an entity that bear on its ability to satisfy stated andimplied needs. In some references, Quality is referred to as "fitness for use", "fitness for purpose","customer satisfaction", or "conformance to the requirements."The father of Total Quality Management, Dr. William Edward Deming defined Quality should be aimedat the needs of the customer, present and future (continuous Improvement)1.2 Definition of Quality by quality gurues:Quality Guru, J.M.Juran defined quality as: “Fitness for use / Purpose” Quality Guru Philip Crosby defined quality as: “Conformance to specifications” Quality guru Dr. Kaoru Ishikawa defined quality as: Most economical, useful and always satisfactoryto the customer / audience. Eminent Japanese Scientist Armand V.Feigenbaum defined: Quality is the total composite of productand services characteristics of marketing, engineering, manufacturing and maintenance through whichthe product and service in use will meet the expectations of the customer.Therefore, from its definitions we can assume what QUALITY stands for: Q Quest for excellence U Understanding customer’s Needs A Action to achieve Customer’s appreciation L Leadership – determination to be a leader I Involving all People T Team spirit to work for common goal and Y Yardstick to measure ProgressThe dictionary has many definitions of “quality”. A short definition that has achieved acceptance is:“Quality is Customer Satisfaction”. “Fitness for use” is an alternative short definition. Here, customermeans anyone who is impacted by the product or process. Notes on TQM By: SB MALLUR,STJIT,MED,RANEBENNUR 2
  3. 3. Quality is “a predictable degree of uniformity and dependability, at low cost and suited to the market”.Quality is a relative term, generally used with reference to the end-use of a product. Quality should beaimed at the needs of the consumer, present and future.According to ISO 8402, quality is “the totality of features and characteristics of a product or servicethat bear on its ability to satisfy stated or implied needs”.However, there is an international definition of quality: ‘Totality of characteristics of an entity thatbears on its ability to satisfy stated and implied needs’ (BS EN ISO 8402, 1995)Now, Quality can be quantified as follows: Q=P/E Where, Q = Quality, P = Performance and E =Expectations. If Q is greater than 1.0 then the customer has a good feeling about the product orservice.Broadly quality is:a) Fitness for useb) Gradec) Degree of preferenced) Degree of excellencee) Conformity to requirements To achieve satisfactory quality we must concern all stages of the product or service cycle. In thefirst stage quality is due to a definition of needs. In the second stage it is due to product design andconformance. In the last stage quality is due to product support throughout its lifetime. There are two major aspects of quality: quality of design and quality of conformance. Quality ofdesign involves the variations of a product or services in grades or levels of quality. This includes thetypes of materials used in construction, tolerance in manufacturing, reliability, etc. Quality ofconformance concerns how well the product conforms to the specifications and tolerances required bythe design. Quality of conformance is influenced by the choices of manufacturing processes, trainingand supervision of the workforce, the type of quality-assurance system used, and the motivation of theworkforce to achieve quality. Quality can be interpreted as “Customer’s expressed and implied requirements are met fully”.This is a core statement from which some eminent definitions of quality have derived. Some of thedefinitions are: “the totality of features and characteristics of a product or service that bears on itsability to meet a stated or implied need” (ISO standards of 1994), “fitness for use” (Juran and Gryna,1998), and “conformance to requirement” (Crosby, 1979). It is important to note that satisfying the customer’s needs and expectations is the main ideabehind these definitions. Therefore it is imperative for a company to identify such needs early in theproduct/service development cycle. The ability to define accurately the needs related to design,performance, price, safety, delivery, and other business activities and processes will place a firm aheadof its competitors in the market. In 1992 Crosby broadened his definition for quality by adding anintegrated notion to it: “Quality meaning getting everyone to do what they have agreed to do and todo it right the first time is the skeletal structure of an organisation, finance is the nourishment, andrelationships are the soul”. Some Japanese companies find that ‘conformance to a standard’ reflectstoo narrowly to the actual meaning of quality and consequently have started to use a newer definitionof quality as “providing extraordinary customer satisfaction”. Notes on TQM By: SB MALLUR,STJIT,MED,RANEBENNUR 3
  4. 4. 1.3 Definition of Quality Quality” is defined as : (i) “The ability of a product or service to meet customer needs”. (ii) “The totality of features and characteristics of a product or service that bears on its ability to satisfy stated or implied needs”- definition adopted by the American Society for Quality. (iii) “Meeting or exceeding customer requirements now and in the future”. This means that the product or service (iv) “The quality of a product or service is a customer’s perception of the degree to which the product or service meets his or her expectation” (v) “Quality is meeting or exceeding customer’s expectations” (vi) Quality requires continuous improvement (vii) Quality is the single most important force leading to organizational success and company growth in national and international markets. (viii) Quality is a measure of how closely a good or service conforms to specified standards or specifications. (ix) “Quality is every one’s concern, it is job one” (x) “Quality can be described as doing the right thing, doing it the right way, doing it on time, doing it right the first time and doing it right every time” (xi) Quality is a critical factor in strategic performance. (xii) Quality is what is in the eye of the customer. (xiii) Quality is the basic customer’s decision factor for an explosively growing number of products and services today. (xiv) Quality is in its essence a way of managing the organization. (xv) Quality is what the customer say it is-not what the company says. (xvi) Quality means meeting customer’s (agreed) requirements, formal and informal, at the lowest cost, first time and every time. (xvii) Quality means meeting customer’s (agreed) requirements, formal and informal, at the lowest cost, first time and every time. (xviii) Quality is a means to an end. (xix) A study that asked managers of 86 firms in the eastern United States to define quality produced the following different responses: Perfection, Constancy, Eliminating waste, Speed of delivery (xx) “Quality is not an art, it is a habit” – ristotle (xxi) Quality is a company-wide process (xxii) Quality is what the customer says it is (xxiii) Quality and cost are a sum, not a difference (xxiv) Quality requires both individual and team zealotry (xxv) Quality is a way of managing (xxvi) Quality and innovation are mutually dependent (xxvii) Quality is an ethic(xxviii) Quality requires continuous improvement (xxix) Quality is the most cost-effective, least capital-intensive route to productivity (xxx) Quality is implemented with a total system connected with customers and suppliers Early definitions of quality include “fitness for use” and “conformance to requirements”. More recently, Vallabhaneni defines software quality in terms of Features the software must exhibit including: 1. Satisfy a broad spectrum of user requirements, Notes on TQM By: SB MALLUR,STJIT,MED,RANEBENNUR 4
  5. 5. 2. Has few errors,3. Functions efficiently,4. Operates easily to, and5. Has good user documentation [Vallabhaneni90].1.4 EVOLUTION OF QUALITYThe requirement for Quality Control dates back to the time when human race wanted to replicate anobject. The desire to control quality is as old as human’s ability to produce things the forerunningattempts to control quality resulted in rather crude replicas of original objects. These replicas wereproduced in a way that could easily be discerned by the necked eye. As time passed, human’s developed the competence to duplicate objects so that they becomeindistinguishable from one another. The drawback for this was that the assembly with any alternationor adjustment was not possible. Eli Whitney conceived the idea of perfect interchangeability of parts. He emphasized that ifproper raw material, methods and equipment are used and if workmen exercised the right amount ofcourse, items can be produced somewhat in an identical manner. In 1799, he contracted to supplyrifles to the army. Mr. Whitney was partially successful in getting each workman to make one part ofthe exact specification he could still do only selective assembly. But did establish the fact thatproduction time can be reduced. Perhaps this was the germs of man production. It was not until the early 1800s that man beganto realize the necessity of tolerance in parts. The interchangeability in industrial activity resulted inmany problems on measurements. A Swedish engineer named Johansson conceived the idea of a hardmetal block that could be machined and polished to exact dimension, which can be used as points ofreference. These blocks were referred to as ‘Jo’ blocks. In the middle of the 17 century, Pascal, theFrench philosopher and mathematician become quite talker by the games of chance. He formulatedthat theory of probability in association with Pierre Fermat. During the 1800s, considerable progresswas made in the development of the sampling theory. Modern quality control or statistical quality control (SQC) as we know it today started withinvention of quality control chart by Walter A Shewhart of Bell Telephone Labs, USA in 1930s. Dr.Shewhart proposed the statistical methods could be effectively used for examining whether the itemsproduced by any process were of uniform quality or not. The real impetus for the application of thesemethods on a massive scale resulted from the economic pressure for more efficient utilization ofequipment and resources during World War II Dr. Shewhart wrote a book economic control of qualityof manufactured products, which was published in 1931. The objective explicitly put-forth in the titlewas ‘‘Economic Control’’. The influence of the US military services on the adoption of sampling acceptance techniqueswas well established. World War II was the catalyst that made the control charts applicable in the US.By applying quality control, the US was able to produce military requirements inexpensively and in highvolumes. The wartime standards published in those days was known as ‘‘Z–1 standards’’.1.5 Importance of Quality: Good quality of goods and services can provide an organization with competitive edge. Good quality reduces costs due to product returns, rework and scrap. Good quality increases productivity, profits and other measures of success such as brand image, product image and company goodwill. Most importantly, good quality generates satisfied customers today and tomorrow. Good quality creates an atmosphere for high employee morale, which improves productivity. Notes on TQM By: SB MALLUR,STJIT,MED,RANEBENNUR 5
  6. 6. 1.6 Dimensions of Quality: Quality has different dimensions; these dimensions are somewhat – Independence. Therefore aproduct can be excellent in one dimension and average or poor in another. Very few, if any, productsexcel in all dimensions now- a -days. In his Book - Managing quality: The strategic and competitive edge(1988), David A.Garvin has developed a list of nine dimensions of product quality:1. Conformance: Meeting the specifications of the customer or Industry standards, workmanship.2. Performance: Primary product functions such as clarity of voice received in Mobile phone, Radio.3. Features: Added functions (secondary functions) to a product such as recording system in a elevisionset.4. Durability: Lifetime of the products, which include repairs.5. Reliability: The probability of a product performing its intended duty under stated conditionswithout failure for a given period of time.6. Serviceability: speed, courtesy, competence and ease of repair7. Reputation: Customer’s perception about the product which can be understood from a marketresearch survey.8. Aesthetics: The external finish given to a product to attract the customer.9. Response: Human to Human interface, such as the courtesy of the dealerThese dimensions were proposed to facilitate strategic quality analysis by breaking down the wordquality into manageable parts so that the management can define the quality niches in which tocomplete.The following are the components reveal the dimensions of quality.Manufacturing Industries Service IndustriesProduct Features AccuracyPerformance TimelinessReliability CompletenessDurability Friendliness and courtesyEase of use Anticipating customer needsServiceability Knowledge of serverEsthetics EstheticsAvailability ReputationReputation1.7 Factors Affecting Quality (1) Men, Materials and Machines (2) Manufacturing conditions (3) Market research in demand of purchases (4) Money in capability to invest (5) Management policy for quality level (6) Production methods and product design (7) Packing and transportation (8) After sales service Notes on TQM By: SB MALLUR,STJIT,MED,RANEBENNUR 6
  7. 7. 1.8 Quality Planning:Quality planning is the pre determined activities in order to achieve conformation to the requirements.Many organizations are finding that strategic quality plans and business plans are inseparable. Thequality planning procedure given by Joseph.A.Juran has the following steps:· Identify the customers· Determine their needs· Translate those needs into our language.· Develop a product that can respond to those needs· Optimize the product features to meet our and customer needs1.9Customer perception of quality Before 1988 – Performance, Prize and service After 1989 – Performance, service and prize ASQ – American Society for Quality 1. Performance – availability (ready for use), reliability (free from failure), maintainability 2. Features – psychological and technical. Added feature along with main usage 3. Service – intangible, made up of many small things 4. Warranty – Vs guarantee. Customer feels comfortable with this 5. Price – value for money, ready to pay at the same time comparative study to be done 6. Reputation – Branding merges with quality. Good exp reaches 6 bad reaches 15.2.0 QC - Quality ControlQuality control (QC) is a new way of thinking about and viewing management of product/servicequality. In the JIS (Japanese Industrial Standards) terminology standard Z8101-1981, QC has beendefined as: "a system of methods for the cost-effective provision of goods or services whose quality isfit for the purchasers requirement". Kaoru Ishikawa, a leading Japanese expert in QC, views QC as:"Quality control consists of developing, designing, producing, marketing, and servicing products andservices with optimum cost-effectiveness and usefulness, which customers will purchase withsatisfaction".The effective implementation of quality control requires the participation and cooperation of all theemployees of a company from top management through middle management and supervisors down toordinary workers at every stage of the companys activities, from market research through researchand development, product planning, design, production preparation, purchasing and subcontracting,production, inspection, sales, and after-sales service, as well as in the financial, personnel, andeducation functions. Quality control carried out in this way is known as total quality control (TQC).Controlling quality does not simply mean studying statistics or preparing control charts. Real qualitycontrol can only be achieved by marshaling all of a companys strengths.3.0 DEFINITION OF QA/QCQuality Control (QC) is a system of routine technical activities, to measure and control the quality ofthe inventory as it is being developed. The QC system is designed to:(i) Provide routine and consistent checks to ensure data integrity, correctness, and completeness;(ii) Identify and address errors and omissions; Notes on TQM By: SB MALLUR,STJIT,MED,RANEBENNUR 7
  8. 8. (iii) Document and archive inventory material and record all QC activities.QC activities include general methods such as accuracy checks on data acquisition and calculations andthe use of approved standardized procedures for emission calculations, measurements, estimatinguncertainties, archiving information and reporting. Higher tier QC activities include technical reviews ofsource categories, activity and emission factor data, and methods.Quality Assurance (QA) activities include a planned system of review procedures conducted bypersonnel not directly involved in the inventory compilation/development process. Reviews, preferablyby independent third parties, should be performed upon a finalized inventory following theimplementation of QC procedures. Reviews verify that data quality objectives were met, ensure thatthe inventory represents the best possible estimates of emissions and sinks given the current state ofscientific knowledge and data available, and support the effectiveness of the QC programme.4.0 TQC - Total Quality ControlTotal Quality Control (TQC) is based on the principle that as quality improves, productivity improvesand costs are reduced. The implementation of TQC includes several steps - determining what thecompany wants to improve; analyzing the situation and composing a statement of the problem to beaddressed; analyzing the problem; developing measure to address the problem; tracking results;standardizing processes that effectively solved the problem; and making continuing plans for qualityimprovement.The successful implementation of the TQC strategy depends on several factors that have to beconsidered by the companies. These factors are as follows - actions must be guided by principles ofcontinuous quality improvement; decisions must be based on facts, data, and statistical information;organization members must be dedicated to serving extended customers; quality progress must bemeasured against valid customer requirements; and teamwork must be rewarded.The positive impact of the TQC strategy arrives from the fact that this is a management tool which islooking not only at the quality of the product but of every single system in the company. The TQCconcept affects positively inventory through reducing rework and scrap and moving products throughthe plant more quickly. The mastering of the TQC management strategy also increases facilitysproductivity, reduces costs, increases market share, and enhances the overall profits of the company.5.0 TQM - Total Quality ManagementThe concept of Total Quality Management (TQM) was introduced in the 1920’s when the statisticalapproach was first used in quality control in the factories in America. This concept was laterintroduced to the corporate managers in Japan in the 1950’s, at a time when the country was gearingitself towards, industrial development. This concept received a further impetus in the 1980’s with theincreasing awareness worldwide on the importance of quality.These changes have directly affected the views and attitudes of managers in the public and privatesectors on quality management. They have realized that the traditional philosophies and approachesin quality management could no longer guarantee the production of outputs that conform to therequirements of their customers. As a result of this, attention was shifted towards TQM which couldassist them in achieving excellence. The application of TQM not only benefits the customers in thatthey receive quality products but also benefits the organization in terms of cost savings and enhancedoperational efficiency. This is the key to the success of an organization. Notes on TQM By: SB MALLUR,STJIT,MED,RANEBENNUR 8
  9. 9.  TQM is not a project. It is the establishment of systems that assure a continuous improvement.  TQM is not a single individual initiative. It is a collective effort towards achievements.  TQM is not rehabilitation. It is a way of living that the entire team accepts.  TQM is not a remedial procedure for better products. It is a march towards excellence and perfection.  TQM is not a traditional approach. It is unorthodox and innovative.  TQM is not just developing quality. It is an assurance of continuous improvement of quality.  TQM is not achieved through inspectors and supervisors. It is achieved through experimenters and innovators.  TQM is not an inventory of material resources. It is concerned with human resource.  TQM is not about product perfection alone. It is about customer satisfaction as an objective in itself.  TQM is not a simple learning. It is a system of measuring one performance with regard to the proclaimed mission.  Quality products and quality service begin with quality thinking.  Quality, not quantity, is the measure. Well done is better than well said.  Quality standards are contiguous..... Spread them through the organization.  Excellence is to do common thing in an uncommon way.  “Quality levels must not only be attained, but also maintained”, “if you don’t keep ‘doing it better’, your competition will”.  People forget how fast you did a job, but they remember how well you did it.  When you’re out of quality your are out of business. Continuity is quality.6.0 Definition of TQM:TOTAL Everyone and everything that we doQUALITY Giving the customer what they expect all the timeMANAGEMENT The way we act and operate our policies and procedures, and our training andinstruction to all of our employeesTotal Quality Management is a management approach that tries to achieve and sustain long termorganizational success by encouraging employee feedback and participation, satisfying customer needsand expectations, respecting societal values and beliefs, and obeying governmental statutes andregulations.Total Quality Management (TQM) is an enhancement to the traditional way of doing business. It is aproven technique to guarantee survival in world-class competition. Only by changing the actions ofmanagement will the culture and actions of an entire organization be transformed. TQM is for themost part common sense. Analyzing these words.• Quality management is “all activity of the overall management function that determine the qualitypolicy, objectives and responsibilities …… within the quality system” (ISO 9001) • TQM is a philosophy advocating four basic principles (i) intense focus on customer satisfaction, (ii)accurate measurement of activities, (iii) continuous improvement of products and processes, and (iv)empowerment of people. (Noori & Radford, 1995) • TQM is a management philosophy that builds a customer driven, learning organization dedicated tototal customer satisfaction through continuous improvement in the effectiveness and efficiency of theorganization and its processes. (Corrigan, 1995) Notes on TQM By: SB MALLUR,STJIT,MED,RANEBENNUR 9
  10. 10. • TQM is a system of management that gauges a company’s dedication to consistent improvementand a sincere effort to serve its customers with what they expect all the time. It is a philosophy ofmanagement to achieve greater productivity and a total awareness of quality as an increasinglyimportant element in competitiveness (Gould, 1992). Various definitions of total quality management Year Author(s) Definition 1985 Ishikawa TQM as a total system approach, and an integral part of high level strategy which works horizontally across functions and departments, involving all employees, top to bottom, and extends backwards and forwards to include the supply chain and the customer chain. 1989 Oakland TQM is an approach to improve competitiveness, efficiency and flexibility for a whole organization, 1990 Milakovich “TQM is a total organizational approach for meeting customer needs and expectations that involves all managers and employees in using quantitative methods to improve continuously the organization’s processes, products and services.” 1991 Hunt “TQM is not a destination, but a journey toward improvement” 1992 Hutchins “TQM is pure pragmatism” 1993 Ross defined TQM as an integrated management philosophy and set of practices that emphasizes, among other things, continuous improvement, meeting customers’ requirements, reducing rework, long-range thinking, increased employee involvement and teamwork, process redesign, competitive benchmarking, team-based problem solving, constant measuring of results, and closer relationships with suppliers. 1993 Oakland States that TQM is an attempt to improve the whole organization’s competitiveness, effectiveness, and structure. 1994 Dean and Defined quality management as approach to management comprising Bomen mutually supported principles, where each of them is supported by a set of practices and techniques. 1995 Corrigan, TQM is a management philosophy that builds a customer driven, learning organization dedicated to total customer satisfaction through continuous improvement in the effectiveness and efficiency of the organization and its processes. 1996 Pike and Argue that organizations are not only technical systems, but also human Barnes systems. 1999 Dahlgaard TQM is a corporate culture that is characterized by increased customer et al. satisfaction through continuous improvement, involving all employees in the organization. 1999 Dale TQM is the mutual co-operation of everyone in an organization and associated business processes to produce products and services, which meet and, hopefully, exceed the needs and expectations of customers. TQM is both a philosophy and a set of management guiding principles for Managing an organization. TQM is a management approach that encourages everyone in 2001 Feigenbaum the organization to focus exclusively upon serving the customer. 2007 Khurram TQM is a management philosophy that seeks to integrate all organizational Hashmi functions (marketing, finance, design, engineering, and production, customer service, etc.) to focus on meeting customer needs and organizational objectives. Notes on TQM By: SB MALLUR,STJIT,MED,RANEBENNUR 10
  11. 11. 7.0 TQM CONCEPTTQM is a continuous process that involves the whole organization and is customer-driven. This processis aimed at creating a culture of excellence in any organization. Hence, TQM can be seen as a processof culture transformation through which the existing elements of the culture are modified, replaced orstrengthened with better elements. These elements encompass values and attitudes, systems andprocedures, operational practices organization structure and so forth.TQM aims, ultimately, to enable organizations to achieve total quality in all its operational aspects.Hence quality does not only mean the production of quality products and services but alsoencompasses all operations and activities pertaining to an organization. At this stage, quality will bereflected in many ways in an organization such as effectiveness of management, ability of theemployees, efficiency of the operational systems and so forth. The concept of total quality is explainedin Figure I.There are many important features of TQM as shown in Figure 2. These features are the objective ofTQM; the focus of TQM; strategy of TQM for quality improvement; and the authority responsible forimplementing it (implementor)The objective of TQM is to provide customer satisfaction. This is attained by producing outputs thatconform to the requirements of the customer and meeting customer expectations. Every output that isproduced must be defect-free or error-free because defects or errors result in customers beingdissatisfied. Hence, the organization should also ensure that the right outputs are produced asrequired by the customers.Total — made up of the wholeQuality — Degree of Excellence a Product or Service providesManagement — Act, art or manner of handling, controlling, directing etc.The above principles are bandied freely around in the above discussion. Its worth dwelling with eachfor a moment.Be customer–focused means everything you do will be done by placing the customer in the centre. Thecompany should regularly check customer’s attitudes. This will include the external and internalcustomer concept.Do it right first time so that there is no rework. This essentially means cutting down on the amount ofdefective work.Constantly improve, this allows the company gradually to get better. One of the axioms use by TQMpeople is ‘‘A 5% improvement in 100% of the areas is easier than a 100% improvement in 5% of theareas.Quality is an attitude The attitude is what differentiates between excellence and mediocracy.Therefore it’s very important to change the attitude of the entire workforce i.e., basically the way thecompany works company’s work culture.Telling the staff what is going on means keeping the entire workforce informed about he generaldirection the company is headed in typically this includes them briefings, one of the main elements toTQM. Notes on TQM By: SB MALLUR,STJIT,MED,RANEBENNUR 11
  12. 12. FIGURE 1 : THE CONCEPT OF TOTAL QUALITY TOTAL QUALITY is:   Not just the product quality Not just the quality of the service But everything that occurs in the organization For example : A systematic filing Management efficiency systemDedication of DriversDedication of Drivers Efficiency of the telephone system A conductive office environmentTraining and education of the workforce is a vital ingredient, as untrained staff tends to commitmistakes. Enlarging the skill base of the staff essentially makes them do a wider range of jobs and dothem better. In the new system of working under TQM educating the staff is one of the principles.Measurement of work allows the company to make decisions based on facts, it also helps them tomaintain standards and keep processes within the agreed tolerance levels. The involvement of senior management is essential. The lack of which will cause the TQM program tofail.Getting employees to make decision on the spot so that the customer does not face anyinconvenience in empowering the employees.Mailing it a good place to work. In many an organization there exists a lot of fear in the staff. The fearof the boss, fear of mistakes of being sacked. TQM program is any company filled with fear cannotwork; therefore fear has to be driven out of the company before starting of TQM program.Introduce team working, its boosts employee morale. It also reduces conflict among the staff. Itreduces the role of authority and responsibility, and it provides better more balanced solutions. In a lotof companies teamwork is discouraged, so TQM programs must encourage it. Notes on TQM By: SB MALLUR,STJIT,MED,RANEBENNUR 12
  13. 13. Organize by process, not by function. This concentrates on getting the product to the customer byreducing the barriers between the different departments.Management Involvement – Participate in quality program, develop quality council, directparticipationFocus on customer – who is the customer – internal and external, voice of the customer, do it rightfirst time and every time.Involvement and utilisation of entire work force – All levels of managementContinuous improvement – Quality never stops, placing orders, bill errors, delivery, minimize wastageand scrap etc.Treating suppliers as partners – no business exists without suppliers.Performance measures – creating accountability in all levelsTQM focuses on the development of quality systems and work processes. This is because only qualitywork systems and processes can ensure the production of quality outputs. In this respect, TQMemphasizes on customers and suppliers. Feedback and views of the customers are used for thepurpose of designing systems and work processes to ensure that the final output conforms torequirements. Suppliers are treated as business partners who are collectively responsible forproducing quality outputs. Suppliers play a vital role in supplying quality inputs to the organization.Total Quality Management (TQM) can be defined as a total commitment to the continuousimprovement of a companys processes in order to maximize assets, reduce waste and rework, andsatisfy and retain customers. TQM is an endless process of continual improvement. This managementsystem was co-developed by W. Edwards Deming and Joseph Juran. At the heart of TQM are the ideasthat true quality can be achieved only through constant measurement and monitoring and that totalquality requires a continuous, cohesive effort by every person in a company. Its strategy requiressystematic changes in management practice, including the redesign of work, the redefinition ofmanagerial roles, the redesign of organizational structures, the learning of new skills by employees atall levels, and the reorientation of organizational goals.In adopting Demings 14 basic principles (points) in their company, managers will need to stopdepending on inspections to achieve quality; create a constancy of purpose to improve service; makequality the ultimate measure of success; stop awarding business solely on price; constantly improveservice systems; adopt training programs; provide leadership; drive out fear; break down barriersamong staff areas; eliminate slogans and targets; eliminate numerical goals; remove barriers toemployees pride in their work; institute a program for retraining and education; and take action.The successful implementation of TQM can result in a quality perception as well as customer serviceleadership, helping to ensure both customer retention and new customer growth. This concept candirectly improve the productivity of a company of any size, whether it is a start-up, a struggling youngcompany, or an established firm looking to gain an edge on competition. Notes on TQM By: SB MALLUR,STJIT,MED,RANEBENNUR 13
  14. 14. FIGURE 2: FEATURS OF TQM (a) Satisfaction of customer OBJECTIVE (b) Zero defect/error-free (c) Producing the output right the first time (a) Processes and systems FOCUS (b) Organisation culture (c) Customers (d) Suppliers TQM (a) Continuous improvement (b) (b) Total involvement of the (c) organization (d) Strategic actions STRATEGY (e) Orientation towards long term objective (f) Control of quality costs (g) Preventive action (h) Emphasis on quality assurance (i) Systematic problem solving IMPLEMENTOR (a) Top management (leaders) (b) Total participation of workers (c) Work teams8.0 Goal, objective, strategy and methods of TQM Goal: : Total Customer SatisfactionObjectives : To create a Culture of “Continuous Improvement” for zero defects, zero loss and zeroaccident.Strategy : “Do the Right Things, right the first time, and every time.”Methodology : Review,Plan, Train, Empower, Team, Learn from Document, Standardize the Process,Reduce Variation, Auditing the performance, Reward & Recognition9.0 PRINCIPLES OF TQMThe principles of Total Quality Management seek to satisfy the external customer as well as thecompany’s internal customers with quality goods and services; to satisfy the external and internalsuppliers; and to continuously improve processes by working smarter and using special qualitymethods. TQM requires that the principles of quality management should be applied in every branchand at every level in the organization with an emphasis on integration into business practices and abalance between technical, managerial and people issues. It is a company-wide approach to quality,with improvements undertaken on a continuous basis by everyone in the organization. Organizations can successfully practice TQM if they have a conducive work environment.Conducive work environments enable successful implementation of TQM and ensure that it becomes away of life for the organization. To create such an environment organization must emphasize onfollowing management principles as depicted in Fig 3. Notes on TQM By: SB MALLUR,STJIT,MED,RANEBENNUR 14
  15. 15. Top management commitment Continuous Customer improvement focus & satisfaction Teamwork and Training and employee recognition commitment PRINCIPLES OF TQM Fig 1.2: Principles of TQM Long-term strategic Performance & systematic approach measurement Fact based decision making Fig 3: Principles of TQMAs seen above, the principles are universal in nature and therefore are applicable in any organization. 1- Be Customer focused: Whatever you do for quality improvement, remember that ONLY customersdetermine the level of quality. Whatever you do to foster quality improvement, training employees,integrating quality into processes management, ONLY customers determine whether your efforts wereworthwhile. 2-Insure Total Employee Involvement: You must remove fear from work place, then empoweremployee... you provide the proper environment. Notes on TQM By: SB MALLUR,STJIT,MED,RANEBENNUR 15
  16. 16. 3- Process Centered: Fundamental part of TQM is to focus on process thinking. 4- Integrated system: All employees must know the business mission and vision. An integratedbusiness system may be modeled by MBNQA or ISO 9000 5- Strategic and systematic approach: Strategic plan must integrate quality as core component. 6- Continual Improvement: Using analytical, quality tools, and creative thinking to become moreefficient and effective. 7- Fact Based Decision Making: Decision making must be ONLY on data, not personal or situationalthinking. 8- Communication: Communication strategy, method and timeliness must be well defined.Visionary leadershipCustomer-driven excellenceOrganizational and personal learningValuing employees and partnersAgilityFocus on the futureManaging for innovationManagement by factPublic responsibilityFocus of results and creating valuesSystems perspective10.0 The Nature of TQM/The Core Values and Concepts10 core values and concepts form the basis of TQM-driven firms;1. Customer driven quality2. Leadership3. Continuous improvement4. Full participation5. Rapid response6. Prevention, not detection7. Long-range outlook8. Management by fact9. Partnership by development10. Public responsibilityCustomer driven quality ► Feedback from customers is very important in creating ‘customer delight’.Leadership ► Encourage all managers about TQM knowledge so that other subordinates will follow.Continuous improvement ► Improve all matters involved in the products and services is a ‘no end’tasks; procedure, process, production, and service areas.Full participation ► The company management must develop a reward and recognition full employeeparticipation in the TQM effort; training and problem solving course.Rapid response ► Products and services deliver to the customers improved ‘short-cut’ time thancustomers’ normal expectation.Prevention, not detection ► Detection task always take time and cost, proactive step must be takeninstead of reactive manner.Long-range outlook ► Future sales good sake ideas, the company management must has the future‘ahead’ planning i.e. the range of products and services to be served to future customer e.g. Honda Notes on TQM By: SB MALLUR,STJIT,MED,RANEBENNUR 16
  17. 17. Motor (Japan) set up the future 10 years ahead through R&D process..Management by fact ► TQM companies document all of their efforts through data collection, analysis,and comparison.Partnership by development ►TQM firms get the suppliers, vendors, unions, and all other relatedoutside groups to help improve the delivery of goods and services.Public responsibility ►TQM firms also are interested in good corporate citizenship. They accept theresponsibility of providing their customers with safe, detect-free goods and services; work to produceproduct waste; and are prepared to share their experiences to help other firms gain better corporatecitizenship.Vision FormulationWhile working on 10 TQM values and concepts, the management of the company also must formulatea vision regarding its view of total quality e.g.;1. How does TQM fit with the company’s value?2. What is the company’s quality policy?3. If wastes still exist in term of inevitable, can it be developed to make money?Top Management SupportTop rank groups in TQM-driven company must encourage their following ranks to implement TQMtools provided by educating them how make use all of it. It can be done while tasking throughmonitoring and control system.Planning and OrganizingSetting up a total quality management program is to plan and organize the efforts. For example inplanning; how to reduce the rate of defects in goods/services produced; with very clear objective andthe laid out pragmatic steps to implement. Organize means appoint or designating someone to headthe monitoring and control task.Implementing and ControllingThe implementation and controlling steps are often determined when the firm formulates it totalquality plan. In most cases the focus is on key results that can be measured and charted. What are thetools and technique used?.The TQM is applied to many stages of Industrial Cycle which are listed below:1. Marketing2. Engineering3. Purchasing4. Manufacturing5. Mechanical6. Shipping7. Installation and product service.11.0 Fundamental factors affecting Quality : ( 9 M’s)1. Market2. Money3. Management4. Men5. Motivation6. Materials7. Machines and Mechanization8. Modern Information Methods9. Mounting Product Requirements Notes on TQM By: SB MALLUR,STJIT,MED,RANEBENNUR 17
  18. 18. 12.0 Five Pillars of TQM are,· Product· Process· System· People· LeadershipTotal Quality Management is an effective system for integrating the quality development, qualitymaintenance and quality improvement efforts of various groups in an organization continuously, so asto enable marketing, engineering, production and service at the most economic levels which allow forfull customer satisfaction.13.0 TQM has 4 Targets:1. Better, less variable quality of the product and service2. Quicker, less variable response in processes to customer needs3. Greater flexibility in adjusting to customer’s shifting requirements4. Lower cost through quality improvement and eliminating of non value adding work.14.0 HISTORICAL REVIEW OF TQMThe total quality movement had its roots in the time and motion studies conducted by Frederick Taylorin the 1920s. Taylor is now known as “the father of scientific management.” The most fundamental aspect of scientific management was the separation of planning andexecution. Although the division of labor spawned tremendous leaps forward in productivity, itvirtually eliminated the old concept of craftsmanship in which one highly skilled individual performedall the tasks required to produce a quality product. In a sense, a craftsman was CEO, productionworker, and quality controller all rolled into one person. Taylor’s scientific management did away withthis by making planning the job of management and production the job f labor. To keep quality fromfalling through the cracks, it was necessary to create a separate quality department. Such departmentshad shaky beginnings, and just who was responsible for quality became a clouded issue.As the volume and complexity of manufacturing grew, quality became an increasingly difficult issue.Volume and complexity together gave birth to quality engineering in the 1920s and reliabilityengineering in the 1950s. Quality engineering, in turn, resulted in the use of statistical methods in thecontrol of quality, which eventually led to the concepts of control charts and statistical process control,which are now fundamental aspects of the total quality approach.Industrialization led to mass production in which it led to the concept of one product at a time to theassembly line of production. Though workmanship was affected but mass production led to more joband reduction in cost of the product and increase in quality, reduction of defects etc.1924 – After WWI, W.A. Sherwat of Bell Telephone statistical chart for the control of various. Conceptof sample tests were followed. It was a failure in the initial stages.1946 – ASQC American Society for Quality Control, now ASQ. Frequent meetings, conferences andpublications were made to public.1950 – W.Edwards Demings his guidance and lecture to Japan engineers transformed quality conceptsin the organisation. His cycle ACT-PLAN-DO-CHECK1954 – Joseph M.Juran Concept of efficient and productive. Juran Trilogy Quality planning – Quality Control – Quality Improvement1960 – Quality control circles was formed. Zero defects concepts Notes on TQM By: SB MALLUR,STJIT,MED,RANEBENNUR 18
  19. 19. 1970 – Reactive approach to proactive approach. Shift from Japan to USA1980 – SPC – Statistical Process Control. Concepts of parameter and tolerance. Experiments1990 – Concepts of certification of ISO, CMM etc2000 – six sigma concept - Six Sigma stands for Six Standard Deviations (Sigma is the Greek letter usedto represent standard deviation in statistics) from mean. Six Sigma methodologies provide thetechniques and tools to improve the capability and reduce the defects in any process. The history of quality management is undoubtedly as old as the manufacturing industry itself.TQM is now part of a much wider concept that addresses overall organizational performance andrecognizes the importance of processes. There is extensive research evidence that demonstrates thebenefits from the approach. Fig. 4 indicates the quality evolution phases originated from industrialrevolution. ISO 9000s TQM QMS with 1980: TQM 1962: QC TQM Business circle 1951: The activities TQC excellence Deming started Q C Dept dept 1924: Prize Q C Dept (BE) Control initiated statistical statistical Chart by statistical process problem Shewhart Q C Dept. sampling control solving Foremen 100% inspection Operator Verification Inspection (SPC) (SPS) Inspection (SQC) 2000 1980 1990 1960 1920 1940 1900 Fig.4: Quality evolution phase from industrial revolution period to modern times.From the above figure it is clear that the concept of quality has grown in complexity to include design,analysis, techniques, and implementation methodologies, to apply to all aspects of business processesand functions and, thereby, elevate its status to that of a science.15.0 Quality Movement in India:Before Independence in India, quality has been a tradition but not in a consolidated form.Walter Shewhart, the father of Statistical Quality Control, visited India for a short period of threemonths during 1947-48 and initiated the SQC movements in Indian companies.The quality movement was consolidated in the 1980s in the Indian Industries to bring out synergy ofresources by the pioneering efforts of Confederation of Indian Industries (CII)Dr.W.Edward Deming, the father of Quality Control , who taught Japanese about applying PDCA cycle(Deming Cycle) came to India in early 1950s.The TQM movement in USA in 1980s triggered quality movement in India in the year 1982 and QualityCircle was born.Prof. Ishikawa , the founder of quality movement in Japan was invited by CII to come to India to ddressIndian Industry in 1986. Notes on TQM By: SB MALLUR,STJIT,MED,RANEBENNUR 19
  20. 20. CII organized a first major seminar with Joseph Juran in 1987.CII provided a focus and an impetus to the quality movement by forming a TQM division in 1987. Bythen the focus was shifted from quality circles to quality management.CII set up the TQM division with the help of 21 companies who agreed to support the journey of TQMin India. The chief executives of these companies formed a National Committee on Quality.CII also launched the first news letter on Quality.The year 1987 brought the ISO 9000 standards into reality and visible strategies emerged.CII organized training programmes in ISO 9000 quality systems for international standards andcertification in the year 1989.From the year 1991, Indian companies started to get the ISO 9000 certifications.The concept of TQM spread over the service sector and technology apart from engineeringapplications.CII organized and launch of National Quality Campaign in 1992, led by the Prime Minister of India andthe “ Quality Summit ” organized by CII has now become an annual feature across the country.The future thrust on quality movement in India would be based on:Application Research ( Industry and Academics)Experience SharingISO certificationsEnvironmental protection, safety and consumer protection for quality enhancement.16.0 Challenges facing managers and organizations that seek to implement totalquality management. A. Total Quality Management (TQM) – improving the quality of products and services should be the focus of everyone in the organization. 1. Build commitment to quality. 2. Focus on the customer. 3. Find ways to measure quality. 4. Set goals and create incentives to reach them. 5. Obtain input from employees. 6. Find defects and trace them to their source. 7. Use a JIT inventory system. 8. Work closely with suppliers. 9. Design for ease in the production process. 10. Break down barriers between the different functional areas.17.0 Barriers in TQM Implementation1. Lack of commitment from top management – avoiding training for self and employees, meetings2. Lack of employee involvement – particularly at managerial level, supportive attitude, trust3. Lack of team work – Co-operation and co-ordination within workers.4. Lack of customer oriented approach – Know the customer need, demand, taste, shortcomings Notes on TQM By: SB MALLUR,STJIT,MED,RANEBENNUR 20
  21. 21. 5. Lack of attention to feedback and complaints –6. Supplier control – in terms of materials, cost, quality, delivery etc7. Review quality procedures – up gradation, correct past errors. Learn from experience.18.0TQM FrameworkTQM Framework begins with the knowledge provided by gurus of quality. According to the chart theycontributed to development of principles and practices and/or tools and techniques of TQM.19.0 Benefits of TQMTotal Quality Management (TQM) is a philosophy aimed at improving business as a whole. Some of thebenefits lie in the continuous improvement of processes and products, and enhanced efficiency ofpeople and machines leading to improved quality.The application of Total Quality Management helps in streamlining processes, and ensures a proactivework system ready to counter deviations from the ideal state. What are some of the major benefits ofTotal Quality Management?The major thrust of Total Quality Management (TQM) is to achieve productivity and process efficiencyby identifying and eliminating problems in work processes and systems. TQM addresses key problemareas such as mistakes in work processes, redundant processes, unnecessary tasks, and duplicateefforts. TQM interventions also help with predicting and pre-empting such mistakes and unproductiveactivities.Improving process efficiency brings about many benefits to the organizations in terms of costs andtime. Notes on TQM By: SB MALLUR,STJIT,MED,RANEBENNUR 21
  22. 22. The major benefits of TQM in terms of cost savings include:  elimination of non-confirmation and repetitive work  elimination of waste costs and reject products  elimination of repairs and reworks  reduced warranty and customer support costs  process efficiency leading to improved profit per product or service  fiscal discipline through elimination of unnecessary steps and wasteful expenditureCustomer satisfaction oriented benefits :  1. Improvement in product quality  2. Improvement in product design  3. Improvement in production flow  4. Improvement in employee morale and quality consciousness  5. Improvement in product service  6. Improvement in market place acceptanceEconomic improvement oriented benefits :  1. Reduction in operating costs  2. Reduction in operating losses  3. Reduction in field service costs  4. Reduction in liability exposureFor Management-Provides an invaluable problem-solving tool for managers and supervisors to use- Dispels negative attitudes- Management becomes more aware of problems that affect the individual’s work environment- Employees gain a sense of participation- Increases efficiency and productivity- Reduces turnover rate, tardiness, costs, errors,and scrap & rework- Improves communications within and among all departments- Develops management skills that were never taught, or are long forgotten due to lack of application- Develops overall company awareness and company unity- Rearranges priorities which once seemed locked in place- Builds loyalty to the company- Reveals training requirements in all departments- Lessens the number of defects received from suppliers when they are encouraged to train in qualitymanagementFor Employee-Provides opportunity for personal growth and development (as a result of team training activities) andthe opportunity to develop and present recommendations- Increases innovation (through a greater variety of approaches and perspectives) for solving problems,removing fear of failure- Employees use their knowledge and skills to generate data-driven recommendations that will lead towell-informed decisionmaking- Encourages decision-making at the most appropriate level- Increases motivation and acceptance of new ideas- Increases job satisfaction (as a result of the opportunity to participate in and have influence overwork)- Recognizes employees for their knowledge, skills, and contribution toward improvement- Develops mutual respect among employees, management and customers- Promotes teamwork. Notes on TQM By: SB MALLUR,STJIT,MED,RANEBENNUR 22
  23. 23. QUESTION AND ANSWEAR1. What is Quality?Quality is generally defined as conformance to requirements. It is also conformance to a standard thatis required. However, many consider that quality need not just be conformance to requirements butshould be an assurance of being the best in the world of that type. In addition, it should also keep aconstancy of purpose.2. What is Total Quality?Total quality refers not only to the product but also to the way the product is made as well aspresented to the customer. Total quality asks for customer orientation, process orientation, peoplemanagement and leadership. All these are continuous processes.3. What is TQM?TQM is a people driven process. It involves changes in people process orientation and continuousimprovement of the process. It strives for empowerment and autonomy of the people involved in usingprocesses of production. It asks people to continuously look for new ways to adapt to the changingenvironment. It is a continuous improvement plan, with an effort to bring out the best for thestakeholders as well as for the institution.4. What is Misconceptions about TQM?It is not an imposition from top downwards. It is not done through inspections. It can work only whenstakeholders understand the importance of guaranteeing quality and improving continuously. Unlessthe institution and the stakeholders have a keen desire and a constancy of purpose, TQM cannot beintroduced. TQM is not about working according to someone else’s agenda, it should be owned by theinstitution and the members should feel for the cause and act for it.5. Why Focus on Quality? To understand total quality, one must first understand quality. Customers of businesses will definequality very clearly using specifications, standards, and other measures. This makes the point thatquality can be defined and measured. Although few consumers could define quality if asked, all know itwhen they see it. This makes the critical point that quality is in the eye of the beholder. With the totalquality approach, customers ultimately define quality. People deal with the issue of quality continually in their daily lives. We concern ourselves with qualitywhen grocery shopping, eating in a restaurant, and making a major purchase such as an automobile, ahome, a television, or a personal computer. Perceived quality is a major factor by which people makedistinctions in the market place. Whether we articulate them openly or keep them in the back of ourminds. We all apply a number of criteria when making a purchase. The extent to which a purchasemeets these criteria determines its quality in our eyes. One way to understand quality as a consumer-driven concept is to consider the example of eating at arestaurant. How will you judge the quality of the restaurant? Most people apply such criteria as thefollowing:  Service  Response time  Food preparation  Environment/atmosphere  Price  Selection Notes on TQM By: SB MALLUR,STJIT,MED,RANEBENNUR 23
  24. 24. The example gets at one aspect of quality the results aspect. Does the product or service meet orexceed customer expectations? This is a critical aspect of quality, but it is not the only one. Totalquality is a much broader concept that encompasses not just the results aspect but also the quality Ofpeople and the quality of processes.6. Define Total Quality?TQM is an enhancement to the traditional way of doing business. It is the art ofmanaging the whole to achieve excellence. It is defined both a philosophy and a set of guidingprinciples that represent the foundation of a continuously improving organization. It is the applicationof quantitative methods and human resources to improve all the processes within an organization andexceed customer needs now and in the future. It integrates fundamentalmanagement techniques, existing improvement efforts, and technical tools under a disciplinedapproach. 7 Give the Basic Concepts of TQM?• A committed and involved management to provide long-term top-to-bottom organizational support.• An unwavering focuses on the customer, both internally and externally.• Effective involvement and utilization of the entire work force.• Continuous improvement of the business and production process.• Treating suppliers as partners.• Establish performance measures for the processes.8. Give the Obstacles associated with TQM Implementation?• Lack of management commitment• Inability to change organizational culture• Improper planning• Lack of continuous training and education• Incompatible organizational structure and isolated individuals and departments• Ineffective measurement techniques and lack of access to data and results.• Paying inadequate attention to internal and external customers.• Inadequate use of empowerment and teamwork.9. Give the Objectives of TQM?To develop a conceptual understanding of the basic principles and methods associated with TQM;• To develop an understanding of how these principles and methods have been put into effect in avariety of organizations;• To develop an understanding of the relationship between TQM principles and thetheories and models studied in traditional management;• To do the right things, right the first time, every time.10. What is a quality policy? The Quality Policy is a guide for everyone in the organization as to how they should provide products and service to the customers. The common characteristics are • Quality is first among equals. • Meet the needs of the internal and external customers. • Equal or exceed the competition. • Continually improve the quality. • Include business and production practices. • Utilize the entire work force. Notes on TQM By: SB MALLUR,STJIT,MED,RANEBENNUR 24
  25. 25. 11.How Is Total Quality Different? What distinguishes the total quality approach from traditional ways of doing business can be found inhow it is achieved. The distinctive characteristics of total quality are these: customer focus (internaland external), obsession with quality, use of the scientific approach indecision making and problemsolving, long-term commitment, teamwork, employee involvement and empowerment, continualprocess improvement, bottom-up education and training, freedom through control, and unity ofpurpose, all deliberately aimed at supporting the organizational strategy.12. Where did the idea of TQM come from?The notion of TQM was first developed by Feigenbaum and popularises by W Edwards Deming whoimplemented many TQM programmes in Japan, where his ideas, initially at least, were more readilyaccepted. In essence, Deming, Juran, Crosby and all the other gurus, said that total qualitymanagement involves everyone taking a positive and proactive approach to quality and that goodquality, i.e. consistent conformance to customers’ expectations, can only be achieved if:  The organisation understands what customer needs are and could define and specify all of them (see quality characteristics chapter 17).  All employees understand that all parts of an organisation have a role to play in meeting customer expectations, not just the people on the shop floor, but the work of finance staff for example in ensuring error free invoices for example.  Each employee recognises that they have an impact on quality.  All the costs of quality are considered, not just the cost of putting things right when they go wrong, but also the costs of trying to prevent problems, with an emphasis on the latter in order to bring about a reduction in the former.  There is a focus on getting things ‘right first time’ and instead of putting it right when it goes wrong to try to make sure it does not go wrong in the first place.  There are robust and organisation-wide quality systems and procedures that both ensure the things above happen, but also the removal of systems and procedures that can make quality difficult to deliver (see Deliberate Defectives box).  The organisation is concerned with continually improving what it does and how it does it (see chapter 18).13.What are the main differences between traditional quality management and TQM?What was different and important about TQM was that it changed people’s views about the nature ofquality problems and the responsibility for quality. Quality was (and still is in some organisations!) seensimply an issue for manufacturing or service employees where the role of management is to put checksand controls in place (using some of the techniques described in chapter 17) in order to ‘inspect-in’quality. This is what is known as the ‘traditional’ approach to quality. Deming and the other guruschallenged this view with their beliefs that:  Quality was an issue for everyone (everyone in the organisation and also suppliers and customers, i.e. the whole of the supply chain).and  Quality had to be ‘built-in’ to prevent problems occurring.The Eurocamp and Unipart illustrations in the chapter provide examples of this.14. What are the main implementation issues in TQM initiatives?The main implementation issues are: Notes on TQM By: SB MALLUR,STJIT,MED,RANEBENNUR 25
  26. 26.  To realise that TQM is not a ‘quick fix’ but a long-term approach to quality. Good quality needs to be underpinned by systems with clearly set out goals and guidelines.  The need for top management commitment – because TQM involves the whole organisation without top level support any such initiative is doomed to failure. This support usually is evidenced by an executive champion, and a high level steering group.  Involving the people who know – TQM is not a management tool but a means of involving everyone in identifying and solving problems. It is essential that there should be means of involving everyone, providing necessary training and also recognising success when it is achieved.  The final issue is that TQM may, over time, lose its effectiveness (see figure 20.8), if it is seen as a ’programme’ (with an implied start and end) rather than a ‘working philosophy’ that is a part of the organisation’s way of working. To this end many organisations refrain from using the name ‘TQM’ and simply seek to encourage good (TQM) practice. 15. How do quality awards and models contribute towards TQM?The Ulster Carpets box provides a useful example of the application of the EFQM quality award andhow it underpinned the company’s TQM approach.Quality awards are useful because they:  Provide motivation for improving quality and pursuing TQM approaches.  Provide frameworks to assess quality.  Provide incentives to improve quality.  Provide international recognition of success.16.Why TQM Fails?Yes, Total Quality Management fails. We dont hear too much about those. When it does not bringabout improvement in the workplace, it is usually a result of faulty implementation rather thananything intrinsically wrong with the concepts.Reason #1: Improper PlanningOrganizations tend to be so anxious to begin doing "something", that they start off being unclear as towhat they are trying to accomplish and how to get there. There is a time to jump to action and a timeto insure that the actions are properly planned and considered. Jumping in too early creates chaos,and cynicism as expectations are frustrated.Reason #2: Management ConfusionManagers need to lead the organization to quality processes. Too often managers have not consideredwhat this means on a day to day level. Many managers will need some coaching on what their rolesmight be, and how to carry them out, but quite frequently, managers are not prepared for the tasksthey face.Reason #3: Inadequate Support To ManagersSo far, there has been a tendency to hire TQM consultants to visit for a half-day or so to start theprocess. This puts incredible pressure on managers since they have little ongoing access to the experthelp they need to make this work. Also, some activities that are part of TQM are best carried out by"outsiders" who bring a different kind of objectivity to the process.Reason #4: Partial Implementation (Hedging)Many organizations jump in by implementing only one piece of TQM, usually focussing on thecustomer, or collecting information from employees. Customer service is only one part of the puzzle,and empowering employees is not likely to bring about change unless other issues are addressed. Notes on TQM By: SB MALLUR,STJIT,MED,RANEBENNUR 26
  27. 27. Reason #5: Inadequate MarketingThere is considerable cynicism in the public sector these days. Employees have seen management fadscome and go without impact. TQM programs that do not communicate the TQM principles, andmanagement intent usually fail. TQM must be explained in ways which show how it will benefit allmembers of the organization. Then management must lead by example.Reason #6: ImpatienceAny organization change requires perseverance and patience. Management that is not willing to workat it over an extended time will start backing off the principles and become inconsistent in theiractions. That destroys their own credibility and the credibility of organization change in general.17.Write short notes on the Three Spheres of Quality. Quality Control- Includes phases of analysis, relation, and generalization. - Activities relating to quality control include:. Monitoring process capability and stability. Measuring process performance. Reducing process variability. Optimizing processes to nominal measures Quality Assurance - Refers to activities associated with guaranteeing the quality of a product or service. - Quality assurance activities include tasks such as:. Failure mode and effects analysis. Concurrent engineering. Process improvements. Design team formation and management. Quality Management - The management processes that overarch and tie together the control and assurance activities make up quality management. - For this reason, a variety of managers, supervisors, and employees are involved in quality management activities.18. Define quality for the following products: a university, an exercise facility, spaghetti sauce, andtoothpaste. Compare your definitions with those of others in your class. The quality of a university can be defined as:  quality of professors – have Ph.D., helpful, knowledgeable, able to clearly explain material, fair  ability to place students in a good position at a high salary in a timely manner  facilities are up-to-date in terms of technology (i.e. wireless classrooms)  value for the price of the education  ability to prepare students for success in the business world  variety of course offerings  efficiency and accuracy of processing paperwork, such as registration for classes  appearance of the campus  perceived prestige of the university Notes on TQM By: SB MALLUR,STJIT,MED,RANEBENNUR 27
  28. 28. The quality of an exercise facility can be defined as:  variety of gym equipment  variety and availability of fitness classes  value for the price of membership  ability to help members get into shape  accurate billing  atmosphere meets member’s needs  waiting times for machines are two minutes or less The quality of spaghetti sauce can be defined as:  good taste  the jar is filled to 28 ounces plus or minus one ounce  value for price paid  perceived quality of the product  ability to quickly answer questions at the address listed on the jar of sauce  the sauce has chunks of tomatoes  ease of opening jar  ease of preparing the sauce to eat  able to keep leftover sauce in container in refrigerator easily to last longer  length of time the sauce can still be eaten The quality of toothpaste can be defined as:  ability to clean teeth  good taste  perceived quality of the product  ability to keep breath fresh  ability to prevent plaque  ability to whiten teeth  ability to prevent cavities  tube of toothpaste is filled  ability to fight gingivitis  ability to fight tartar  able to quickly and accurately answer questions in a friendly manner at the toll-free number listed on toothpaste tube  tube is filled with 4.2 ounces plus or minus 0.5 ounce.  toothpaste is certified by the American Dental Association (ADA)19. Describe the TQM philosophy and identify its major characteristics.TQM focuses on identifying the causes of quality problems and correcting these problems. TQMemphasizes the need to include every employee in the organization in the quality improvement efforts.TQM emphasizes the need to define quality based on the customer’s needs. Its major characteristicsare customer focus, continuous improvement, quality at the source, employee empowerment,understanding quality tools, a team approach, benchmarking and managing supplier quality.20. Explain how TQM is different from the traditional notions of quality. Also, explain thedifferences between traditional organizations and those that have implemented TQM.Traditional notions of quality focused on inspection of products. Instead of relying on inspection as theprimary tool for quality, TQM focuses on identifying the causes of quality problems and correcting Notes on TQM By: SB MALLUR,STJIT,MED,RANEBENNUR 28
  29. 29. these problems. TQM takes a broader view of the organization than traditional views of quality.Organizations that implemented TQM successfully were able to produce a higher quality product at alower price, thereby increasing market share. Traditional organizations have either failed or will fail inthe future if quality is poor.21. Describe the four dimensions of quality. Which do you think is most important?The four dimensions of quality are the quality of product or service design, quality of conformance todesign, ease of use and post-sales service. The quality of product or service design is determined bythe features that are included in the final design of the product or service. The quality of conformanceto design is the result of how well the product or service meets its specifications. Ease of use isdetermined by the ease of using the product or service, its reliability and its maintainability. Post-salesservice is the level of service provided after the product or service has been purchased.The four dimensions of quality are all important in determining quality. However, quality of design ismost important since it determines the ability to meet customer needs, which is the objective. If thequality of design does not meet customer needs, then it will not matter if the product or service meetsit design specifications, is easy to use or is supported by good post-sale service.22. Explain the Three aspects of qualityThe three aspects of quality and their linkages with each other have been depicted in Fig. 6 below: QUALITY ASSPECTS QUALITY OF CONFERENCE QUALITY OF QUALITY OF PERFORMANCE DESIGN Fig.6. Three Aspects of QualityQuality of Design: The product must be designed to meet the requirement of the customer. Theproduct must be designed right first time and every time and while designing, all aspects of customerexpectations must be incorporated into the product. The factors need to consider while designing theproduct are:Quality of Conformance: The product must be manufactured exactly as designed. The activitiesinvolved at this stage include: defect finding, defect prevention, defect analysis, and rectification. Thedifficulties encountered at the manufacturing stage must be conveyed to the designers formodification in design, if any. The two-way communication between designer and manufacturing mayhelp to improve the quality of the product.Quality of Performance: The product must function as per the expectations of the customer. The twoway communication between designers and customer is the key to have a quality product. Notes on TQM By: SB MALLUR,STJIT,MED,RANEBENNUR 29
  30. 30. 23. What are the elements of TOTAL QUALITY MANGEMENT? ELEMENTS OF TQM CONCEPT Employee empowerment Employee Involvement Training Continuous Customer Improvement focus Team work Value TQM Improvement Universal Prevention of responsibility for Bench defects quality marking Thinking statistically Sustained management commitment Supplier Root cause corrective Teaming actionASSIGNEMENT 1) TQM is too important to be taken up in organization; specifically it should not be subsidiary to profit or productivity “do you agree to the assertion”. Justify your view point. 2) Mention significant difference between two concept quality control and quality assurance. 3) Is there any model demonstration the foundation pillar of TQM .elaborate the pillar of TQM. 4) What do you mean by TQM wheel? Discuses the constituent element and also elaborate employ environment. 5) Define TQM, at least of 7 definitions by various authors. 6) What is the basic approach to be made towards the TQM implementation? 7) Explain in detail various frame work of TQM. 8) Explain the historical review of TQM in detail. 9) What are the benefits of TQM? Notes on TQM By: SB MALLUR,STJIT,MED,RANEBENNUR 30