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Statistics and probability lesson 4

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Grade 11 - Statistics Lecture

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Statistics and probability lesson 4

  1. 1. Lesson 4 – Levels of Measurement Ms. Maria Christita Polinag Miriam College Adult Education
  2. 2. 1. Plan or design the collection of data to verify the validity of the statement in a way that maximizes information content and minimizes bias; 2. Collect the data as required in the plan; 3. Verify the quality of the data after it was collected;
  3. 3. 4. Summarize the information extracted from the data; and 5. Examine the summary statistics so that insight and meaningful information can be produced to support your decision whether to believe or not the given statement.
  4. 4.  Students who eat a healthy breakfast will do best on a quiz, students who eat an unhealthy breakfast will get an average performance, and students who do not eat anything for breakfast will do the worst on a quiz
  5. 5. 1. Nominal Level of measurement arises when we have variables that are categorical and nonnumeric or where the numbers have no sense of ordering e.g. gender, marital status, religious affiliation and numbers on the uniforms of basketball players
  6. 6. 2. Ordinal level also deals with categorical variables like the nominal level, but in this level ordering is important, that is the values of the variable could be ranked  e.g. socio economic status (A to E, where A is wealthy, E is poor), difficulty of questions in an exam (easy, medium difficult), rank in a contest (first place, second place, etc.), and perceptions in Likert scales.
  7. 7.  While there is a sense or ordering, there is no zero point in an ordinal scale  There is no way to find out how much “distance” there is between one category and another In a scale from 1 to 10, the difference between 7 and 8 may not be the same difference between 1 and 2
  8. 8. 3. Interval level tells us that one unit differs by a certain amount of degree from another unit  e.g. Celsius scale, Intelligence Quotient (IQ) of a person
  9. 9.  Interval level allows addition and subtraction operations, but it does not possess an absolute zero.  Zero is arbitrary as it does not mean the value does not exist  Zero only represents an additional measurement point
  10. 10. 4. Ratio level also tells us that one unit has so many times as much of the property as does another unit  possesses a meaningful (unique and non-arbitrary) absolute,  fixed zero point and allows all arithmetic operations  e.g. mass, heights, weights, energy and electric charge
  11. 11. Level Property Basic Empirical Operation Nominal No order, distance, or origin Determination of equivalence Ordinal Has order but no distance or unique origin Determination of greater or lesser values Interval Both with order and distance but no unique origin Determination of equality of intervals or difference Ratio Has order, distance and unique origin Determination of equality of ratios or means
  12. 12. 1. Objective - uses any or combination of the five senses (sense of sight, touch, hearing, taste and smell) to measure the variable 2. Subjective - obtains data by getting responses through a questionnaire Primary data - obtained the data directly from the source
  13. 13. 3. Use of existing records – data collected by other entities for certain purposes these data are Secondary data e.g. data from the Philippine Statistics Authority, administrative records, news articles, internet
  14. 14.  we must be confident of the quality of the data we are using by knowing how the data were gathered  we must remember to request permission and acknowledge the source of the data when using data gathered by other agency or people
  15. 15. a. The website of Philippine Airlines provides a questionnaire instrument that can be answered electronically. b. The latest series of the Consumer Price Index (CPI) generated by the Philippine Statistics Authority was downloaded from PSA website.
  16. 16. c. A reporter recorded the number of minutes to travel from one end to another of the Metro Manila Rail Transit (MRT) during peak and off- peak hours. d. Students getting the height of the plants using a meter stick. e. PSA enumerator conducting the Labor Force Survey goes around the country to interview household head on employment-related variables.
  17. 17. a. The website of Philippine Airlines provides a questionnaire instrument that can be answered electronically. (subjective method, primary data) b. The latest series of the Consumer Price Index (CPI) generated by the Philippine Statistics Authority was downloaded from PSA website. (use of existing record,secondary data)
  18. 18. c. A reporter recorded the number of minutes to travel from one end to another of the Metro Manila Rail Transit (MRT) during peak and off- peak hours. (objective method, primary data) d. Students getting the height of the plants using a meter stick. (objective method, primary data) e. PSA enumerator conducting the Labor Force Survey goes around the country to interview household head on employment-related variables. (subjective method, primary data)
  19. 19.  TEACHING GUIDE FOR SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL - Statistics and Probability by CHED in collaboration with the Philippine Normal University

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