Socio-economic Analysis of Haor (wetlands) in Bangladesh

This thesis paper was accomplished under the supervision of Dr. Qazi Kholiquzzaman Ahmad, Chairman, Governing Council and Director, Dhaka School of Economics; as the partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of Masters in Economics from University of Dhaka.

Socio-Economic Analysis of Haor
--A Case Study of the Hakaluki Haor
Thesis Submitted to
University of Dhaka
In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements
for the degree of
MEcon in Environmental Economics
by
M. Anowar Hossain
Examination Roll: 113
Under the Supervision of
Dr. Qazi Kholiquzzaman Ahmad
Dhaka School of Economics
(A Constituent Institution of the University of Dhaka)
December 2013
Dated: 07-12-2013
CERTIFICATE
This is to certify that the thesis entitled: “Socio-Economic Analysis of Haor- A Case
Study of Hakaluki Haor” submitted by “M. Anowar Hossain” for the fulfillment of the
requirements for the degree of Master of Economics (MEcon) in Environmental
Economics is his own independent and original research work carried out in this School
under my supervision. This work has not been submitted in part or full to any other
university or institution for any degree or diploma. I, therefore, forward this thesis for
evaluation and necessary action.
(Dr. Qazi Kholiquzzaman Ahmad)
Chairman, Governing Council and Director,
Dhaka School of Economics
Dated: 07-12-2013
DECLARATION
This is to certify that the dissertation titled: “Socio-Economic Analysis of Haor- A Case
Study of the Hakaluki Haor” submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the
degree of Master of Economics (MEcon) in Environmental Economics under the
University of Dhaka is a record of bonafide research work carried out by me under the
supervision of Dr. Qazi Kholiquzzaman Ahmad. I, further, declare that this has not
previously formed the basis for the award of any degree, diploma, associateship,
fellowship or other similar title of recognition.
………………………………………………………………………….
M. Anowar Hossain Dhaka, Bangladesh.
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Logically, a study is the crystallization of the thoughts of many committed to that by one
person. To begin with the acknowledgement, at the outset, I would like to express my gratitude
to the community people of the study areas who basically have made this possible by
responding to the survey questionnaire, effectively participating in FGDs and providing their
experience and knowledge based opinion and information. Without getting information and
views from them, it could have been impossible to complete the task.
I gratefully acknowledge my indebtedness to Dr. Qazi Kholiquzzaman Ahmad, Director,
Dhaka School of Economics for his very effectual guidance, encouragement, supervision and
valued suggestions in all stages of this course of action. It was a great privilege for me to work
under Mr. Ahmad, whose invaluable suggestions and keen interest made it possible to
accomplish this piece of work.
I am extremely indebted to Mr. M. Anisul Islam, Director, CNRS for his sincere co-operation
and helping hands in providing support of collecting data from fields. It is also worth
mentioning about contribution of Mr. Md. Moshiur Rahman of Concern Worldwide Bangladesh
for his help in different ways.
I must extend thanks to Dr. Nazrul Islam and other faculty members of Dhaka School of
Economics for making their comments and suggestions to improve the quality of the work.
Finally, I must express gratitude to my parents for their prayer and encouragements, to my
beloved wife -Ms. Zinat Zarin and daughter-Ms. Fiona Aryana Niyoosha for their consistent
support and sacrifice throughout the entire course.
December 2013 M. Anowar Hossain
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
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Contents Pages
Acknowledgement I
Table of Contents ii-iv
List of figures V
List of tables Vi
List of maps Vi
Abbreviations and Acronyms vii-viii
Abstract ix-x
CHAPTER-I: INTRODUCTION 1-11
1.1 Background of the study 1-2
1.2 Goals and Objectives of the study 2-3
1.3 Rationale of the study 3-5
1.4 Study Area 6-11
1.4.1 Location of the Hakaluki Haor 6
1.4.2 Administrative boundary of the Hakaluki Haor 7-6
1.4.3 (1) Location Map of Hakaluki Haor and (2) map of Study Area 9
1.4.4 Area and Population in the Hakaluki Haor 9
1.4.5 Major Livelihoods options for people 9
1.4.6 Climate 9
1.4.7 Communication 9
1.4.8 Geology 10
1.4.9 River System 10
1.4.10 Floods in the Hakaluki Haor 11
1.5 Organization of the report 11
CHAPTER-II: LITERATURE REVIEW 12-21
2.1 Introduction 12
2.2 Summary of the reviewed literature from books 12-17
2.3 Summary of reviewed literature from unpublished reports 17-21
CHAPTER-III: METHODOLOGY 22-25
3.1 Techniques and tools used in the study 22
3.2 A brief outline of methodology of the study 22-23
TABLE OF CONTENTS
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3.3 Sources of Data 23
3.4 Sampling Techniques 23-24
3.4.1 Quantitative sample selection technique 23-24
3.4.2 Qualitative sample selection techniques 24
3.5 Sample Size Calculation 24
3.6 Data collection, processing and analysis 25
CHAPTER-IV: FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION 26-61
4.1 Demographic Characteristics of the Hakaluki Haor 26
4.2 Education 26-27
4.3 Occupation and Income 27-30
4.4 Assets of Households 30-32
4.4.1 Land ownership of households 30
4.4.2 Distribution of the household by landholding 30-31
4.4.3 Ownership of non-land assets 31-32
4.5 Poverty and Food security scenario 32-36
4.5.1 Incidence of poverty in the study area 33
4.5.2 Food security Scenario 34-35
4.5.3 Food deficit 35-36
4.6 Loan status 36-37
4.6.1 Loan sources for households during survey 36
4.6.2: Reasons for borrowing/taking loan 36-37
4.7 Water and Sanitation condition 37-38
4.8 Seasonal migration 38
4.9 Common –Pool Resources 39-49
4.9.1 Existing CPR and Uses by Households 40-41
4.9.2 Resources and dependency on CPR 41-44
4.9.3 Purpose of CPR exploitation by the households 44-45
4.9.4 Period of involvement in appropriating CPRs in haor 44-46
4.9.5 Participation of the households in the CPRs in Haor ecosystem 46-47
4.9.6 Figure: Reasons for non-participation in CPR 47-48
4.9.7 Income appropriation from CPR resources in haor ecosystem 48-49
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4.10 existing, lost and reclaimable CPR of the haor ecosystems 49-54
4.10.1 GIS mapping of Reclaimable CPR resources of Studied Ecosystem and
findings
49-52
4.10.2 CPR Declining Scenario 52-54
4.11 CPR Management and Community Response to CPR management system 54-58
4.11.1 Leasing of CPR to a few people versus community management systems 55-56
4.11.2 Community led CPR management systems 56-57
4.11.3 Community perception on involvement of different
stakeholders/organizations in sustainable CPR management
57-58
4.12 Aspects of Physical Alteration of CPR basis 58-59
4.13 Response of State Agencies to protect CPR basis 59-61
4.13.1: Responses on “government is effectively protecting, and managing CPR” 59-60
4.13.2 Barriers to sustainable Management of CPR 60-61
CHAPTER-V: LEGAL APPRAISAL TO HAOR RESOURCES MANAGEMENT
AND HAOR DEVELOPMENT
62-69
5.1 Introduction 62
5.2 Legal and Institutional Framework 62-63
5.3 Anatomy of relevant Policies and Acts 63-69
5.3.1 The Environment Policy, 1992 63
5.3.2 Water Resource Planning Act, 1992 63
5.3.3 Bangladesh Environment Conservation Act 1995 64
5.3.4 Public Jalmals Management Policy, 2009 64-68
5.3.5 Master Plan of Haor Area, 2012 68-69
5.4 Conclusion 69
CHAPTER-VI: SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS 70-75
BIBLIOGRAPHY 76-77
ANNEXURE xi-xxx
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Figure
No.
Title of the Figure Page
No.
1 Education scenario 27
2 Occupational categories 28
3 Income categories 28
4 Women involvement in IGA 29
5 Distribution of the household by landholding 31
6 Non-land assets of households 31
7 Incidence of Poverty 32
8 Poor categories 33
9 Food security scenario by villages in study area 34
10 Number of days of food deficits by month 35
11 Sources of loans by households in 2013 36
12 Reasons for borrowing by the household in four villages 37
13 Sanitation practice and its seasonality dimensions 38
14 Purposes of CPRs exploitation by households(multiple responses recorded) 45
15 Period of involvement in CPR collection by household in a year 46
16 Participation of the households in the CPRs in Haor ecosystem 47
17 Reasons of non-participating in CPR exploitation 47
18 Income appropriation from CPR resources in Haor ecosystem 48
19 CPR declining scenario 53
20 Responses on “CPR should be brought under community management 56
21 Reponses on "CPR management plans should be based on the opinion and
experience of local user communities
57
22 Community perception on involvement of different stakeholders/organizations
in sustainable ECA biodiversity management
58
23 Responses on " quality and types of CPR should not be altered rather they
should be protected and used sustainably
59
24 Responses on “government is effectively protecting, and managing CPR” 60
25 Communities’ observation on barriers to management CPR bases 61
LIST OF FIGURES
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Table
No.
Title of the Map Page
No.
1 Location map of Hakaluki Haor 7
2 Map of Study Area locating union and villages 8
3 Existing, lost and reclaimable CPR status in the study area 50
Table
No.
Title of the Table Page
No.
1 Haor Areas at a glance 1
2 Study area details by district, sub-district, union and villages 6
3 Administrative unit wise break-up of Area of Hakaluki haor 7
4 Seasons are recognized and its characteristics 9
5 Data collection Techniques and Tools, and data sources at a glance 22
6 Households’ characteristics of Hakaluki haor 26
7 Land Ownership of households 30
8 CPR availability in study area 40
9 Percentage of income of households derived from different CPR base 44
LIST OF MAPS
LIST OF TABLES
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AEZ Agro-Ecological Zone
APPG All Party Parliamentary Group
BBS Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics
BCCSAP Bangladesh Climate Change Strategy and Action Plan
BGDP Bangladesh Green Development Programme
BWDB Bangladesh Water Development Board
CBA-ECA Community Based Adaptation in the Ecologically Critical Area
CBN Cost of Basic Needs
CBO Community Based Organization
CIDA Canadian International Development Agency
CNRS Centre for Natural Resources Studies
CPR Common Pool Resources
CPRM Common Pool Resource Management
DCI Data collection instruments
DoE Department of Environment
DRR Disaster Risk Reduction
ECA Environment Conservation Act
ECA Ecologically Critical Area
FAO Food and Agriculture Organization
FAP Flood Action Plan
FGD Focus Group Discussions
FPL Food Poverty Line
GIS Geographic Information System
GO Government Organization
GoB Government of Bangladesh
HHS Household Survey
HMP Haor Master Plan
IGA Income Generating Activities
IUCN The World Conservation Union
KII Key Informant Interview
ABBREVIATIONS
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Ha Hectare
Mm Millimeter
Km Kilometer
MDG Millennium Development Goals
MICS Multi-Indicators Cluster Survey
MoEF Ministry of Environment and Forests
NGO Non-Governmental Organization
RFP Request for Proposal
RIMS Results and Impact Management System
SHS Solar Home System
SEMP Sustainable Environment Management Program
SMC School Management Committee
UNDP United Nations Development Program
UNICEF United Nations Children’s Fund
ACRONYMS
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The study titled “Socio-Economic Analysis of Haor- A Case study of the Hakaluki Haor” has
been conducted with the goal of providing a socio-economic analysis of haor conducive to
effective common-pool resources management and thereby enhance livelihoods of the poor
people and maintain minimum environmental space for the wider community. The specific
objectives are: i) To assess the socio-demographic status, lives and livelihoods, and poverty and
vulnerability scenario in the haor area. ii) To assess the existing, lost and reclaimable CPR of
the haor ecosystems. iii) To provide an economic analysis of the existing, lost and reclaimable
CPR. iv) To provide a legal appraisal on CPR management in the haor ecosystem.
Haor region, alternatively known to as haor basin or Sylhet basin is basically spread over 47
Upazilas under seven north-eastern Bangladesh districts Sylhet, Sunamganj, Habiganj, Maulovi
Bazar, Kishoreganj, Bhramanbaria and Netrokona. Altogether covers an estimated area of 1.99
million ha which is 13.5% of the country’s total surface area. It is a mosaic of wetland habitats,
including rivers, streams and irrigation canals, large areas of seasonally flooded cultivated
plains, and hundreds of haors and beels. Among them 373 haors alone cover 858460 ha which
is around 43% of total haor region. Naturally, haors are depressed lowland areas as well as
getting downward overtime. Because of its natural depression below the surface level haors
remain saturated with water either seasonally or permanently. Characteristically, haor has plenty
of agriculture land, abundance of fish and with much other potential. Despite of having potential
opportunities in the haor areas, haor people in Bangladesh are facing many problems and
becoming marginalized in terms of socio-economic development initiatives. Although the
economic development of Bangladesh is moving steadily at a moderate pace, the haor region
has long been lagging behind mainstream national development. The government has taken
many initiatives including the preparation of national and regional strategies to steer economic
growth and has accordingly prepared plans over the years to boost the country’s development. It
is difficult to foresee the country’s overall progress without the development of the haor region
as it covers a major part of the country and population which deserves special development
initiatives. In recent past, the government has adopted a number of policies to eradicate poverty
from the country. However, poverty in haor areas did not come into focus as it is different and it
should be reduced through proper special initiatives by the government. Though there is a Haor
Development Board, background information on the socio-economic conditions in relation to
lives and livelihoods and CPR remains unsatisfactory and the reliability of existing statistics is
ABSTRACT
x | P a g e
uneven as well which has created scope of conducting an analysis on socio-economy of haor
regions.
As part of conducting the study on socio-economic analysis of haor, primary information has
been collected using both qualitative and quantitative techniques and “Hakaluki Haor” has been
selected as the study area. The “Hakaluki Haor” as the study area has been objectively selected
as it is the largest and the best –known haor in Bangladesh. Because of the critical conditions of
the haor ecology, the government of Bangladesh declared Hakaluki as an Ecologically Critical
Area (ECA) in April 1999.
The study was carried out using three-fold techniques: quantitative techniques, qualitative
techniques and mapping technique (GIS). The methodology included several techniques like
literature review, structured interview, key informant interview, FGDs and interview on CPR.
The primary survey was conducted using a comprehensive structured questionnaire while the
key informant interview was carried out using a set of pre-determined questions and of highly
standardized techniques of recording. FGDs were conducted with different occupational groups
of people using focus points noted before starting the discussion. Collecting both qualitative and
quantitative information, SPSS software was used for data analysis. Data was also generated
using GIS software. Analyzing and interpreting data and information, draft report was prepared
and finally a presentation was made before internal and external faculty members to get their
invaluable feedback which later on incorporated and finalized the report. The report is written
broadly in six chapters and also contains acknowledgements, table of content, list of tables, list
of figures, list of maps, abbreviations, acronyms, references and annexure.
The study, at the outset, provided an overall socio-economic scenario of haor & surveyed on
socio-economic conditions and CPR of the Hakaluki Haor-the ecologically critical area. The
study covered socio-demographic characteristics, lives and livelihoods, poverty and
vulnerability scenario in the haor area. It analyzed the CPR issues comprehensively including
CPR scenario, its management related issues and identified existing-lost-reclaimable CPR.
Finally the study also included a thorough legal appraisal of major policies and acts which are
directly linked to the socio-economic condition, haor ecosystem and lives and livelihoods of
haor people. Based on the findings, the study ended with providing a set of recommendations.
Given this context of the novelty of the study, some findings are altogether new and it is
expected that this will help the resource managers, policy makers and academics.
CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the study
1.2 Goals and Objectives of the study
1.3 Rationale of the study
1.4 Study Area
1.4.1 Location of the Hakaluki Haor
1.4.2 Administrative boundary of the Hakaluki Haor
1.4.3 (1) Location Map of Hakaluki Haor and (2) map of Study Area
1.4.4 Area and Population in the Hakaluki Haor
1.4.5 Major Livelihoods options for people
1.4.6 Climate
1.4.7 Communication
1.4.8 Geology
1.4.9 River System
1.4.10 Floods in the Hakaluki Haor
1.5 Organization of the report
Socio-Economic Analysis of Haor
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INTRODUCTION:
1.1Background of the study:
Haors with their unique hydro-ecological characteristics are large bowl shaped floodplain
depression located in the north-eastern region of Bangladesh covering about 1.99 million ha of
areas and accommodating about 19.37 million people. The area about 373 haors/wetlands
located in the districts of Sunamganj, Habiganj, Netrokona, Kishoreganj, Sylhet, Maulavibavar
and Brahmanbaria. These 373 haors cover an area of about 859,000 ha which is around 43per
cent of the total area of the haor region. It is a mosaic of wetland habitats including rivers,
streams, canals, large areas of seasonally flooded cultivated plains and beels (HMP, 2012).
The physical setting and hydrology of the region has created myriad of opportunities as well as
constraints for inhabitants. The region
has distinctive hydrological
Characteristics. Annual rainfall ranges
From 2200 mm along the western
boundary to 5800 mm in its north east
corner and is high as 12000 mm in the
headwaters of some catchments
extending to India. The region receives
water from catchment slopes of the
Shillong Plateau across the borders in
India to the north and the Tripura Hills
in India to the southeast. Flash flood is the main disaster in the haor area which engulfs the
primary production sector (e.g.; agriculture and fisheries) and thus threatens the lives and
livelihoods of the people. Excess rainfall in the upstream hilly areas and subsequent runoff,
sedimentation in the rivers, deforestation and hill cuts, landslides, improper drainage,
unplanned road and water management infrastructure and the effect of climate variability can
be viewed as the main reasons for the devastation caused by flash floods (HMP, 2012).
The Haor region is subject to flash floods from water cascading from the hills of north-east
India. This area remains flooded for a longer period (6 or 7 months). Compared with the Haor
region, Beel area has better infrastructure and communication systems, which in turn,
Table-1: Haor Areas at a glance
Districts Total
Area in
ha
Haor
Area in
ha
No of
Haors
Sunamgonj 367,000 268,531 95
Sylhet 349,000 189,909 105
Hobigonj 263700 109514 14
Moulovibazar 279900 47602 3
Netrokona 274,400 79,345 52
Kishorgonj 273,100 133,943 97
Brahmanbaria 192,700 29,616 7
Total 1,999,800 858,460 373
Source: Haor Master Plan,2012
CHAPTER ONE
Socio-Economic Analysis of Haor
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contribute to better access to the markets and various administrative departments and also to the
educational and medical services. Though substantial portion of the agricultural land in the Beel
area is double-cropped, only one crop, boro, is cultivated in the Haor regions. Haors and Beels
support major subsistence to the people living in those areas through commercial/non-
commercial fisheries and boro cultivation of the country. These two are the major livelihoods
of the people living in the Haor areas of Bangladesh (Hussain & Salam, 2007).
Haors of Bangladesh have enormous ecological, economic and commercial value as they are
rich in biodiversity having rich flora and fauna. Haors are also important for mother fisheries,
and potential wetland for migratory birds of global and regional significance along with other
aquatic wildlife. The ecology and biodiversity of Haor areas are different from other parts of
Bangladesh. But the species and individual number of plant, fish and wild animals are
decreasing for both natural and man-made causes. As the majority of the Haor residence are
living below the poverty line, it is crucial to explore and develop an in-depth understanding of
the causes of poverty and vulnerability issues in the Haor areas and how they manages their
day to day activities as part of the process of attempting to secure a sustainable livelihood. To
find a sustainable development strategy for Haor areas of the country, poor people’s voice
should be amplified in the policy level that might bring positive impact and way out.
Developing a comprehensive mechanism in this regard is needed to improve the livelihoods of
the people living in the Haor regions in Bangladesh.
1.2 Goals and Objectives of the study :
The study was conducted with the following goal and specific objectives:
Goal of the Study:
The goal of the study is to provide a socio-economic analysis of haor conducive to effective
common-pool resources management and thereby enhance livelihoods of the poor people and
maintain minimum environmental space for the wider community.
Socio-Economic Analysis of Haor
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Specific Objectives:
• To assess the socio-demographic status, lives and livelihoods, and poverty and
vulnerability scenario in the haor area.
• To assess the existing, lost and reclaimable CPR of the haor ecosystems.
• To provide an economic analysis of the existing, lost and reclaimable CPR.
• To provide a legal appraisal on CPR management in the Haor ecosystem.
1.3 Rationale of the study:
Despite potential life and livelihoods opportunities and ecosystem benefits, Haor region
clearly lags behind mainstream national development. Living standard is one of the lowest
in Haor areas. WFP’s 2004 Food Security Atlas of Bangladesh has identified Haor basin as
one of the ‘highly food insecure’ regions of the country. UNICEF-MICS Survey recognized 5
Haor districts as worst performer in the MDG composite index out of 12 such districts in
the country. 28.5per cent Haor people are reported completely unemployed. People in
general live in small raised platform (hati) where population density is very often even
higher than slum areas in cities. Brahmanbaria has the highest population density in the
country 1593 per sq km. The region has one of the poor communication networks. On
average, people perform agriculture 4-5 months a year. Haor fish production is reportedly
decreasing day by day due to over exploitation and continued environmental degradation.
Commercial livestock farming has not yet developed due to poor communication and
transport system. Literacy rate is too low only 38per cent. School dropout is very high
around 44per cent. Only around 44.25per cent Haor people use sanitary latrines,
Netrokana has the poorest coverage of only 35per cent. 3 Haor districts have a very low
coverage of drinking water sources. The region has one of the lowest electricity coverage.
The geographical aspects extensively contribute to flash flooding and Afal which have a
yearlong effect on the livelihoods of haor people. On average, Flash floods destroy crops in
every 2-3 years. Wave/river bank/village erosion is reported common round the year. Out
of 628 rural Haor unions, 93 have no growth centers or rural markets. Arsenic
contamination of groundwater is also reported high in this region.
A set of both geographical and manmade factors are contributed to these Haor
backwardness and vulnerabilities. Haor region as a whole is considered geographically
Socio-Economic Analysis of Haor
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disadvantaged area. Empirical data evident that the region has subsided 30-40 feet in last
several hundred years at a rate of 3-6 mm every year. Connected to this geological setting
and formation processes, Haor region is simultaneously considered a climatic hotspot as
well as enriched with mineral and energy resources. It is evident from the history that
between 1780s till early 20th, population and area under cultivation of this region
experienced a declining trend particularly due to successive natural extreme events
including flash floods, waves. At current stage, Haor region is in between 10 to 20 feet
above the sea surface level. Situated just below hilly regions, the area is prone to extreme
rainfall. Further to this, due to its location in the end point of eastern continuation of the
central broad Indo-Gangetic Plains, excess rainfall/glacial melt in Himalaya impacted the
region. Excess rainfall in upstream hilly areas and/or in upstream river catchments and
subsequent runoff caused a regular phenomenon of flooding and very often flashfloods to
this region. Drainage congestion over time due to river-sedimentation and poor
navigability as well has linked with this (Siddiquee et al., 2013).
Apart from these geographical factors, number of manmade factors particularly caused by
anthropogenic actions, Haor biodiversity estimated to have degraded significantly over
the years. Gradual filling up of Haor wetlands for housing, industry and agricultural
practices, over exploitation of fish and forest resources, hunting water bird, residual
pollution of chemical fertilizer and pesticides, unplanned embankments and road and
water management infrastructures construction and diversions, deforestation and hill
cuts are among others main man-made factors. Including these geographical and man-
made factors couple with limited government and NGO services a costly spiral of poverty
and underdevelopment have been manifested in entire Haor region (ibid ).
Legal/policy regime analyzed not Haor friendly. Historically, certain common laws/Acts
governed all other regions of the country like the Permanent Settlement Regulations
1793, Wakf/Debottar law, State Acquisition and Tenancy (SAT) Act, 1950; Forest Act,
1927;Private Forest Ordinance 1950, implemented as well for managing of distinct Haor
lands/resources. Apart from these, a common set of sectoral policies practiced all over the
country also have been implemented in Haor region. These policies are basically sectoral-
issue driven, independent and are divided. Likely, handsome of agencies/institutions have
Socio-Economic Analysis of Haor
5 | P a g e
been linked with Haor development. The Haor Master Plan has that 17 Ministries, 34
government, NGO, INGO, public and research agencies are at present directly /indirectly
involved for implementing of different sectoral policies at haor regions apart from law
enforcing agencies. There is even conflict between policies, overlap of functions of the
service providing organizations, and their respective power and authority is not always
clear. Lack of coordination among different institutions, lack of policy coherence, lack of
pro-poor legislation and regulation, and a top-down provider- recipient service delivery
mechanism are in place where haor people are conceived merely as governed rather than
as active partner in governing their own businesses, let alone particular focus to haor
distinctness,. In the midst of all these, despite being treated as common pool resources,
few people who are politically or economically powerful ultimately get the opportunity to
consume most of haor resources leaving majority of haor people in abject poverty (ibid).
The haor region has long been lagging behind mainstream national development although the
economic development of Bangladesh is moving steadily at a moderate pace. The government
has taken many initiatives including the preparation of national and regional strategies to steer
economic growth and has accordingly prepared plans over the years to boost the country’s
development. It is difficult to foresee the country’s overall progress without the development of
the haor region as it covers a major part of the country and population which deserves special
development initiatives. In recent past, the government has adopted a number of policies to
eradicate poverty from the country. However, poverty in haor areas did not come into focus as
it is different and it should be reduced through proper special initiative by the government as
well as the Parliament. People in haor areas are needed to be empowered by addressing their
basic needs and raising public awareness at all levels in order to fulfill their rights to live on.
Except these, importance should be given for establishing the rights of the haor people as well.
As per commitment made by the present government through election manifesto, government
has specific commitment to address poverty eradication in Bangladesh. Though there is a Haor
Development Board, background information on the socio-economic conditions in relation to
lives and livelihoods and CPR remains unsatisfactory and the reliability of existing statistics is
uneven as well which has created scope of conducting an analysis on socio-economy of haor
regions.
Socio-Economic Analysis of Haor
6 | P a g e
1.4 Study Area:
As part of conducting the study on socio-economic analysis of haor, primary information has
been collected using both qualitative and quantitative techniques and “Hakaluki Haor” has been
selected as the study area. The “Hakaluki Haor” as study area has been objectively selected as it
is the largest and the best –known haor in Bangladesh. Because of the critical conditions of the
haor ecology, the government of Bangladesh declared Hakaluki as an Ecologically Critical
Area (ECA) in April 1999. The government has designated ECA these as ECAs to bring them
under a management strategy which will ensure their conservation and sustainable use.
Hakaluki Haor has a great importance to the haor ecology, bears representative characteristics
of haor, is with high proximity of natural resources and wider biodiversity. Considering all
mentioned above, the Hakaluki Haor has been selected as study area as representative of haor.
The specific area is tabulated below:
Table-2: Study area details by district, sub-district, union and villages. (map is given
under 1.4.3)
Region District Sub-district Union Villages
Haor Basin Maulavibazar Baralekha Talimpur 1.Halla
2 Shreerampur
3. Ahmedpur
Sujanagar Dasghari
1.4.1 Location of the Hakaluki Haor : The Hakaluki Haor lies between latitude 24°
35' N to 24° 45' N and longitude 92° 00' E to 92° 08' E (location map is given under 1.4.3). It is
bounded by the Kushiara River as well as a part of the Sonai-Bardal River to the north, by the
Fenchuganj-Kulaura Railway to the west as well as to the south, and by the Kulaura-Beanibazar
Road to the east. Hakaluki Haor is about 30 km southeast of the district town of Sylhet and
about 40 km northwest of the district town Moulavibazar (IUCN publication -2005).
1.4.2 Administrative boundary of the Hakaluki Haor: The Hakaluki Haor falls
under two administrative districts and five sub-districts. The breakup of the haor falling under
different administrative units is given in following Table (ibid).
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Table-3: Administrative unit wise break-up of Area of the Hakaluki Haor
District Sub-district Percentage of Area
Moulavibazar Baralekha 40
Moulavibazar Kulaura 30
Sylhet Fenchuganj 15
Sylhet Golapganj 10
Sylhet Beanibazar 5
Source: IUCN and GOB publication on Hakaluki Haor,2005
1.4.3 (1) Location Map of Hakaluki Haor and (2) map of Study Area:
(1) Location map of the Hakaluki Haor Source: GIS unit, CNRS
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(2): Map of Study Area locating union and villages.
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1.4.4 Area and Population in the Hakaluki Haor: The Hakaluki Haor is a complex
ecosystem, containing more than 238 interconnecting beels/Jalmahals (CWBMP, 2005). The
most important beels are Chatla, Pinlarkona, Dulla, Sakua, Barajalla, Pioula, Balijhuri, Lamba,
Tekonia, Haorkhal, Tural, Baghalkuri and Chinaura. The total area of the haor is approximately
18,000 ha, including the area which is completely inundated during monsoon. Of this total area,
beels (permanent wetlands) cover an area of 4,635 ha. This 18,000 ha area represents area
demarcated as ECA declared by the Government of Bangladesh for Hakaluki haor. Some
190,000 people live in the area surrounding the Hakaluki Haor.
1.4.5 Major Livelihoods options for people: The two main sources of livelihood for
these people are fisheries and agriculture. Depending on how water levels are controlled,
tensions arise between the areas available for fish versus the area befitting for agricultural
production.
1.4.6 Climate: The climate of the region is greatly influenced by the onset and
withdrawal of the annual monsoon. Four distinct seasons are recognized. These are:
Table -4: Seasons are recognized and its characteristics
Season Duration Characterized by
Pre-monsoon April-May Increasing rainfall, Sometimes intense rainfall of
short duration
Monsoon June-September Heavy rainfall occurring over longer duration.
About 65 to 69per cent of the annual total rainfall
occurs during monsoon
Post-monsoon October-November Decreasing rainfall. About 6 to 8per cent of total
annual rainfall occurs.
Dry December -March Little or no rainfall. Only 3 to 4 per cent of total
annual rainfall occurs.
Source: Information modified from the book of Chowdhury , et.al ;2005
1.4.7 Communication:
Road: The Hakaluki Haor is approachable from Dhaka by road via either Moulavibazar or
Srimangal-Shamsernagar and from Sylhet via Fenchuganj, Moulavibazar or Beanibazar. The
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Sylhet-Fenchuganj-Brahmanbazar road passess by the southern periphery of the Hakaluki Haor
and runs along the railway track from Fenchuganj to Baramchal. This road meets the
Moulavibazar-Baralekha road at Brahmanbazar . The Moulavibazar-Baralekha road passess by
the eastern periphery of the Hakaluki Haor and this road also runs along the Kulaura-Shabazpur
Railway (Chowdhury et.al, 2005)
Railway: The Haor is surrounded by the Sylhet-Kulaura Railway to the south and by the
Kulaura-Shabazpur Railway to the east. The Railway stations: Fenchuganj, Maizgaon, Bhatera,
Baramchal and Pachkapon are located on the southern periphery of the haor and Juri,
Baralejkha and Kathalthali are located on the eastern periphery of the haor (ibid).
River Route: The Hakaluki Haor is accessible from the southern side by boat from Fenchuganj
through the outfall of the Juri river with the Kushiyara river, which is about 3 km upstream of
the township of Fenchuganj . From the northern side, the Hakaluki haor is accessible by boat
from Jaldhup through the Sonali Bardal River (ibid).
1.4.8 Geology: The Hakaluki Haor lies within the Sylhet trough, one of the major
tectonic structures of Bangladesh. The basement of the trough slopes northwards at great depth,
and passes beneath the Shillong Plateau, from which the Dauki Fault separates. The vast
thickness of sediments filling the Sylhet through was folded in the Late Miocene period to form
the Indo-Burman ranges, a sequence of north-trending anticlines extending from 910E
eastwards into Myanmar. The anticline increase in amplitude eastwards, and plunges
northwards into the trough where they are submerged beneath the more recent sediments. In the
north, however, the submergence of the anticlines has been resisted, and they are exposed as
outliers at Chhatak and Sylhet. The presence of the submerged portions of the anticlines has
been detected by both seismic and geomagnetic surveys (ibid).
1.4.9 River System: The river systems of the northeastern corner of Bangladesh have
played a very significant role in shaping the physical characteristics of Hakaluki haor. The
Kushiyara River flows by the northern boundary of the haor. The two main rivers, namely the
Sonali-Bardal River enters the haor from the east and the Juri River from the southeast. A
smaller river, namely the Phanai River enters the haor from the southwest. Besides, there are a
large number of smaller hilly streams, entering the haor from the surrounding hills (ibid).
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1.4.10 Floods in the Hakaluki Haor: The annual flooding pattern in the Hakaluki Haor
can be distinguished into two types: flash floods and river floods. Flash floods occur in the pre-
monsoon months of April and May as a result of intense rainfall over short duration in the river
catchments. The rapidly rising flood flows into the low-lying areas of the Haor quickly. The
duration of high flood stage is small, often only lasts for a few days. Flash floods cause damage
to boro rice just before or at the time of harvesting in the month of April and May. River floods
occur in the monsoon season when the rivers flow very high causing over bank flow, which is
aggravated greatly by the backwater effect of the Meghna River, resulting in deep flooding
through the Sylhet depression and extending up to the Hakaluki Haor.
1.5 Organization of the report:
The study report is prepared on the basis of the literature review, households’ questionnaire
survey, FGDs, K-II, CPR checklists, and GIS mapping. It is written broadly in six chapters and
contains acknowledgement, table of content, list of tables, list of figures, abbreviations,
acronyms, references and annexure. An executive summary has also been given for quick
understanding for readers. As usual chapter starts with introduction, chapter two contains
literature review and chapter three is methodology. The chapter four refers to the findings and
discussion while chapter five included a legal appraisal or anatomy of policies and acts related
to haor resources management and haor peoples’ lives and livelihoods. Finally chapter six is
summary and conclusion in which in addition to summarization, a record of recommendations
has been provided.
Socio-Economic Analysis of Haor
CHAPTER TWO
LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Summary of the reviewed literature from books
2.3 Summary of reviewed literature from unpublished reports
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LITERATURE REVIEW:
2.1 Introduction: The literature review was done by examining/studying different books,
journal articles, seminar papers, papers from edited volumes, pre-convention publication,
government documents and NGO reports, study conducted by individual and consultancy
firms, etc. that focuses on the issues related to the study topic. Out of many books, journal
articles and reports reviewed, a few have been provided here in a categorized way:
2.2 Summary of the reviewed literature from books:
The book titled “Parliamentarians Can Make The Difference: Neglected Haor Livelihoods” by
Siddique, Hossain and Khan (2013) and has been published as a part of objectively
documenting the vulnerability to haor livelihoods and to identify relevant actors, factors and
forces to these. The book is expected to enable the parliamentarians to effectively deal and act
on issues of haor livelihoods and development. This is expected to further amplify haor voices
into key national policies and strategies through key role played by the legislators. The content
of the book has been developed based on a study which is predominately premised on
qualitative approach. The methodology of this study included only review and consultation.
Haor region, alternatively known to as Haor basin or Sylhet basin is basically spread over 47
Upazilas under seven north-eastern Bangladesh districts Sylhet, Sunamganj, Habiganj,
Maulovi Bazar, Kishoreganj, Bhramanbaria and Netrokona. Altogether covers an estimated
area of 1.99 million ha which is 13.5per cent of the country’s total surface area. It is a mosaic
of wetland habitats, including rivers, streams and irrigation canals, large areas of seasonally
flooded cultivated plains, and hundreds of haors and beels. Among them 373 Haors alone
cover 858460 ha which is around 43per cent of total Haor region. Naturally, haors are
depressed lowland areas as well as getting downward overtime. Because of its natural
depression below the surface level haors remain saturated with water either seasonally or
permanently. Seasonally, between July to November each year haors completely go under
water and look like seas. During wind storm waves reportedly often reach up to 1.5 m in
height. Deeply flooded haors are known more as beels. Usually, small permanent water bodies
remain within beels round the year.
CHAPTER TWO
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Around 19.37 million people live in haor region which is around 12per cent of the country’s
total population. Out of 10.57 million ha rice area, haor area/region alone covers 1.74 million
ha which is 16per cent of grand total. An estimated of 5.25 million metric ton rice produced in
haor region in catastrophe damage free condition which is 18per cent of Bangladesh’s total
production. Tea grows abundant in a few Haor districts. The region has an estimated fish
habitat area of around 967000 ha that contributes nearly 20per cent of total inland fish
production. Approximately 22per cent of country’s total cattle population comes from haor
region. More than 24per cent of country’s total duck population comes from haor region. The
region is enriched with around 296005 ha forest resources. Pearl-mussels reportedly are
available in natural environment of haors. Geological setting and formations have favored
deposition of valuable minerals and energy resources in this region. 90per cent of country’s
total gas production comes from the haor region. Country’s single crude oil mine so far
explored in the haor region. Haors are rich in bio-diversity, important for mother fisheries, and
potential wetland for migratory birds of global and regional significance along with other
aquatic wildlife.
Despite potential life and livelihoods opportunities, on average 29.56per cent haor areas
population live below lower poverty line. This figure stands to over 39per cent in Netrokona
and around 34per cent in Kishorganj. Around 28.5per cent Haor peoples are completely
unemployed. The region has one of the poor communication networks. 11 Haor Upazilas are
not connected with Roads and Highway Department network. Agriculture works are seasonal
cover only 4-5 months a year during dry season. Due to over exploitation and continued
environmental degradation Haor fish production reportedly has reduced to near half in between
1995 to 2003. Commercial livestock farming has not yet developed due to poor communication
and transport system. Literacy rate is one of the poor in Haor districts, on average 38per cent.
Primary school enrolment is low, only 71per cent. School dropout is very high around 44per
cent. On average only 44.25per cent Haor people use sanitary latrines; Netrokana has the
poorest coverage of only 35per cent. Haor districts have a very low coverage of drinking water
sources. Sunamgonj has the lowest use of electricity consumption with only 17kWh per capita
followed by Kishorgonj and Netrokana. Geographical aspects extensively contribute to flash
flooding and Afal which have a yearlong effect. On average, Flash floods destroy crops in
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every 2-3 years. Wave/river bank/village erosion is reported common round the year. Arsenic
contamination of groundwater is also reported high in this region.
Two factors, geographical and manmade are analyzed main for haor vulnerabilities and
backwardness. Haor areas basin constituted the northeast part of the Bengal basin which is
physically in between Indian Plate and Eurasian Plate where a structural crackdown happened
during formation process due to a collision between these two Plates. As part of this, haor
areas are subject to a continuous but slow process of subsidence leaving surface area shifting
downward over time. Empirical data evident that the region has subsided 30-40 feet in last
several hundred years. This has resulted several times shifting of river courses of this region.
By this continual process, lowlands became an immense tract of submerged area covered with
clean still water of no great depth. The lowest haor portion is only 10 feet above the sea
surface level. Some deepest parts are even 20 to 25 feet below the sea surface level. Because of
this geological setting and formation, the haor region is simultaneously considered a
geographically disadvantaged region but enriched with mineral and energy resources.
Livelihoods comprise capabilities, assets and activities required for a means of living. Of these
three components, assets are considered main. DFID further has presented five main categories
of capital assets: natural, economic/financial, human, social and physical. Although a rich set
of natural and economic assets are analyzed prevalent in haor livelihoods and right-bearer
stakeholders are informed of its distinct geography still, geographical distinctness of Haor
region has been neglected at policy regime over the years. This has further negatively impacted
human, social and physical assets building. Misunderstood vulnerability to climatic extreme
events and climate change due to geophysical location of haor region has been linked with this.
Compounding to all these, haors have been manifested with a comparatively backward
livelihoods to other regions of the country. Due to lack of any special and different treatment,
the region is analyzed lacks behind in clear margin in almost all the national development
benchmarks.
There is even conflict between policies, overlap of functions of the service providing
organizations, and their respective power and authority is not always clear. Lack of
coordination among different institutions, lack of policy coherence, lack of pro-poor legislation
and regulation, and a top-down provider- recipient service delivery mechanism are in place
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where haor people are conceived merely as governed rather than as active partner in governing
their own businesses. In the midst of all these, visible initiatives on the ground remain confined
to the delivery of infrastructural packages mostly encompassing the construction of
embankment, water plants, power plants and some other physical infrastructures and
restructuring of a few existing institutions together with a few regulatory measures. But, in
reality, such infrastructural packages and restructuring are not sufficient to ensure sustainable
haor development.
The study focused mostly in analyzing education, health and livelihoods scenarios of the Haor,
which is basically based on the secondary literature available. It didn’t provide any analysis on
CPR issues, including CPR exploitation scenario, income status from CPR, dependency on
CPR and management aspects of CPR which are very much linked to livelihoods of haor
people. Policy analysis part related ecologically critical area is another gaps in this study. As
some statistical information was given based on secondary literature, so there might have a
scope of generating up to date information. In addition, it didn’t provide any information about
lost and reclaimable CPR. The study also didn’t have any focus on Hakaluki Haor which is our
study area. So, it provides a further scope of conducting a study where CPR issues can be
addressed.
The book titled “Hydro-Meterological Characteristics of Hakaluki Haor” by Chowdhury and
Nishat (2005) and published by IUCN-Bangladesh contains location, administrative
boundary, communication, geological characteristics like tectonics , structure and seismicity,
river systems linked to hakaluki haor, seasons, climatic data, rainfall, water levels, soils and
land use pattern in Hakaluki Haor. A study for this book had been conducted of which
objectives were to see inflow and outflow routes of water, identification of wetlands,
hydrological and hydraulic characteristics and soil characteristics.
Hakaluki haor lies mainly within the Agro-Ecological Zone (AEZ) 20-Eatern Surma-Kusiyara
Flood Plain. Surface sediments in the haor and its surroundings consist of plaudal marsh clays,
peats, alluvial silts and clays, valley alluviam and colluviums and dihing and dupi tila
formations. Aus and transplanted aman is almost universal on highland and medium highland
floodplain ridge soils. Aus is widely transplanted in this wet region; elsewhere, sprouted seeds
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are sown on wet puddle soils. Most such land remains fallow in the robi season. With
irrigation, improved variety boro is followed by rain fed transplanted aman.
The book also suggested following activities for the Hakaluki Haor management which are:
-Agricultural development through development of irrigation system
-Increasing the conveyance capacity of the internal rivers by excavation/dredging
-Checking sedimentation in the beels by undertaking suitable interventions
-Declaring Chatla, Sakia,Nagura, Haorkhal and Jingla beel as fish sanctuary
-Stocktaking fish and stopping over fishing by the lessees
-Developing pastures and improving livestock.
The study mostly was hydro-meteorological characteristics of the Hakaluki Haor where socio-
economic analyses were not supposed to do which gives a further scope of conducting this
study.
The book titled “Major Interventions for Sustainable Wetland Resource Management” by
IUCN-Bangladesh (2005)things thatwetlands in Bangladesh are facing serious degradation
lately, leading to the certain extinction of the existing ecosystem structures and functions. This
situation has arisen largely due to the unplanned resource harvesting by the ever-increasing
population. Interventions are thus necessary for changing the users’ behavior first to reverse
such ill resource exploitation practices. During the wet season, the floodplain environment
offers dramatically increased living spaces and availability of resources. Fish and wildlife are
important elements of wetland ecosystems. So far, 266 fish species have been recorded in fresh
and brackish waters of Bangladesh. Apawning of freshwater fish occurs during the flood
season. The wetland dependent birds are those that depend ecologically on wetlands; they
would include fish eagles, the osprey, several kingfishers, and a number of marsh passerines.
There are 125 species of waterfowls recorded in the north-eastern haor region of the country.
The migratory birds use the wetlands of haors are resting and breeding ground during winter.
The inland fisheries of Bangladesh cover an area of 4.3 million ha of which 94per cent
comprise open water capture fisheries, and remaining 6per cent closed water systems
(Rahman, 1989 and 1993, in Khan et al; 1994). The haors, beels and baors offer tremendous
scope and potential for increased fish production by adoption of culture based fishery
enhancement techniques.
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The study mostly was focused in preparing inventory of wetland resources in Bangladesh. On
contrary there are gaps in socio-economic dimension where there is a scope of this study.
2.3 Summary of reviewed literature from unpublished reports:
The report titled “Natural Resource Economic Evaluation of Hakaluki Haor” by IUCN-
Bangladesh in association with CNRS and submitted to MoEF, Government of Bangladesh in
2006.
This study aimed to provide information on the values of conserving the Hakaluki Haor in
terms of its economic, ecological and social benefits for local communities and for the nation at
large. The study was done by conducting a household survey, estimating the economic value of
wetland goods and services and constructing a wetland bio-economic model. The study was
more focused in developing a bio-economic model describing and illustrating the interactions
between the people, resources and economic activities.
The haor system provides a wide range of economic and non-economic benefits to the local
people as well as to the people of Bangladesh and the world at large. These include benefits in
terms of fish production, rice production, cattle and buffalo rearing, duck rearing, collection of
reeds and grasses, and collection of aquatic and other plants. The haor system also protects
the lower floodplains from flash floods occurring in the months of April-May, recharges the
water tables, maintains the supply of fish in other lower riparian water bodies, provides habitat
for migratory and local waterfowl, and generates important carbon sequestration services. At
the same time, the unique haor system is a natural beauty both during the monsoon months
andthe dry season. In monsoon, its unique physical characteristics make it a huge natural bowl
ofwater and in the dry season it is natural grassland with a horizon nearly 35 km wide, with
Pockets of beels serving as the resting place for migratory birds. Such a unique natural system,
if appropriately marketed, could be a major attraction for tourists. However, as of today, there
is little evidence of this.
The property rights regime of the haor is complex. Most of the agricultural lands in the haor
basin are private land. While the majority of the water bodies are owned by the government
and are generally leased out for fishing activities, smaller water bodies are sometimes owned
by local villages or by a few families. The banks of the water bodies, which were once tracts of
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swamp forests, are public land.
The cycle of economic activities in the haor region also varies significantly with changes in
theseasons. During the monsoon months, most of the land is under water and so fishing is the
major economic activity. However, during this time leaseholders have no control over fish,
because they are spread over a large area and people are able to catch them freely. During the
dry season, a large number of activities take place. Agricultural land under private ownership is
often put under Boro rice production. The banks of the wetland provide grazing grounds, and
herds of cattle and buffaloes are brought in. Water bodies are more organized and defined, and
leaseholders take full control of their fish harvests. Local people collect building materials such
as reeds for fences, various plants and fuel wood for personal and commercial use, and
sometimes are engaged in hunting and poaching of migratory birds.
The bio-economic model developed above represents a stylized fact and it is designed to elicit
the outcome of conservation effort in terms of economic values. Results of the simulation
exercises could be improved using an interdisciplinary team to improve the parameters and
assumptions used in this model. At the same time, it would be fair to conclude that the results
of this model are indicative in terms of the benefits from conservation effort. They are never
assumed to be the actual values. The model determined the impact of conservation using tables
and diagrams and it provided an authentic estimate of the gesture that we often use to argue for
conservation. This study is not expected to provide a value for its resources although the
Hakaluki Haor is full of resources. It simply provided a glimpse in terms of changes that would
take place if the resources are not conserved properly.
Another report named “Natural Resource Governance: The Case of Jalmahals in Bangladesh
prepared by Hossain (2011) and submitted to Bangladesh Networks for Environmental
Governance (BNEG) provided a historical overview wetland management system in
Bangladesh.
Before the British rules in India, fishermen accustomed to enjoy customary rights to fish in
rivers, haors, beels, and baors either freely or paid some tolls or handed over some portion of
their each to the estate holders or their agents (Pokrant et al., 1996). The history of access to
fishing grounds of fishers in colonial Bengal (from 1793 to 1950) was that the Viceroy and
Governor General of India introduced a new system of land rights settlement (In 1793) which
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came to be known as Permanent Settlement. Under the Permanent Settlement Regulation-1 of
1793, influential people were granted permanent ownership of large tracts of lands which
included not only vacant lands but also rivers and other waters as well as human settlements.
These groups of people were known as zamindars (Pokrant et al., 1995; Ali, 1992).
Management and Settlements systems of Water bodies in East Bengal (erstwhile East
Pakistan): The system of ownership and lease settlement of water bodies in the shape of
jalmahals continued in East Bengal, which fell into Pakistan after partition of India in 1947. In
1950, the Government of East Bengal decided to abolish the zamindari system and acquire the
rent receiving rights of the zaminders. This was achieved through an enactment, the State
Acquisition and Tenancy Act 1950 (East Bengal Act XXVIII of 1951). The Department of
Revenue took over the ownership and management of all jalmahals (shaireat-mohal/jalkar) on
behalf of the provincial Government of East Bengal. The provincial Board of Revenue attached
to the Department of Revenue was the principal body of the government to administer
management of all land and water bodies in the province except waters inside the reserved
forests.
Between 1950 and about 1965 or so, anybody intending to take lease could participate in the
auction to bid for jalmahal lease. This resulted in the settlement of lease of all jalmahals with
the non-fishermen rich and influential ijaradars. During the late sixties, to help the poor
fishermen community, the Board of Revenue decided to give preference to the fishermen’s
cooperative societies registered with the cooperative department in making lease settlement of
jalmahals, provided the societies agreed to pay the highest bid money offered at the auctions.
But this did not move far. Under this system, Deputy Commissioner (DC) in each district was
provided with an Additional Deputy Commissioner (ADC) to assist the DC to manage all
revenue matters including the revenue management of jalmahals. This system still exists in the
independent Bangladesh.
Scenario of Jalmahals Management during 1980’s and ’90s: In 1974 the government of the
newly independent Bangladesh decided to restrict the auctioning of jalmahals to registered
fishermen’s cooperative societies only. As a result of this new restriction, formation of new
fishermen’s cooperative societies mushroomed, particularly around more valuable jalmahal.
These new societies also obtained registration from the cooperative department. The sole
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object of all these fishermen’s cooperative societies, both new and old was to secure lease of
jalmahals. Most of these cooperatives were organised and formed at the behest of the
traditional non-fishermen ijaradars of the past, who provided necessary financial and other
support to their patronised societies. The reason for such patronization was to secure control of
jalmohals by the traditional non-fishermen leaseholders using the cooperative societies as the
front organizations. The cooperative societies, upon securing the lease, would sub-lease the
jalmahals over to their respective patrons or simply hand the jalmahal over to their respective
patrons.
Control of Jalmahal Management-Tussle of Two Ministries: As per the present law as many as
10,109 government jalmahal are under Ministry of Land (MoL) for management. Along with
the management of these jalmahals are involved Ministry of Fisheries and Livestock for
irrigation to farming and dependent on jalmahals by other nearby inhabitants. Besides,
government revenue enhancement and realization is also a matter of question. In this situation
on which ministry will be involved or be responsible for management of these jalmahals, some
questions arose out and to mitigate problems government took some decisions.
As per the government decision-1980, all the public jalmahals which meanwhile had been
under the MoL handed over to Ministry of fisheries and Livestock. This is to be mentioned
here that as the jalmahals under MoL were under the control of influential, hence government
tried to make a change in the management of jalmahals.
In this regard, Ministry of Land alleged that prior to handing over the jalmahals- the policy
aspect, legal issue and handing over issues were not considered deeply so complicacies arise
for leasing out, conflict settle, appeal and hearing and utilization by people. On the other hand,
the Ministry of Fisheries and Livestock that has been given responsibility for the jalmahal
management raised some issues of problems, such as problems in handing over of jalmahals to
them, lack of manpower for jalmahal management, problems in revenue connection.
Owing to these problems and as per the recommendations of Land Reform Committee, the
government took decision in July of 1983 to give back the responsibility of jalmahal
management, lease and appeal hearing, etc. to Ministry of Land. In this connection, the
government also tagged out some additional responsibilities to this ministry:
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In fact, this review found that a more number of policies on jalmahal management were
framed under the Ministry of Land. It was also found that the management of small close
water bodies was being handed over to the Ministry of Youth and Sports since 1980 for the
benefit of real fishermen. Though jalmahal management was handed over to Fisheries and
Livestock Department, this did not sustain for a long time. So the management responsibility
was reverted to the Ministry of Land. Again dominance of influential on jalmahal started
snowballing.
Local Government was given responsibility to manage the jalmahals of below 20 acres for a
short period. And the jalmahals of upto 20 acres come under the Ministry of Youth. But the
question arises - can the youth society take the management of jalmahals. Does this create any
employment opportunity?
Presently the jalmahals are being managed as per the Latest Jalmahal Policy of 2005. Here are
also some questions arise - can the common fishermen reap any benefit? From the conditions
of leasing it is understood that the influential participate in tender in the name of fishermen co-
operative societies and enjoy the jalmahals. How the interest of common fishermen can be
ensured is a matter to be pondered. How the rights of real fishermen can be ensured to the
public jalmahals has to be seriously looked into.
In the Jalmahals Management and Policies, there is no mention about the rights of indigenous
and non-fishermen distressed people to jalmahals.
And finally, by reviewing the policies, it seems that the management of water bodies in
Bangladesh is based on the single objective of earning revenue.
Since Government has approved new Public Jalmahals Management Policy in 2009, so a
further anatomy is crucial about its spirit and effectiveness towards ensuring the rights of poor
people in the haor areas.
Socio-Economic Analysis of Haor
CHAPTER THREE
METHODOLOGY
3.1 Techniques and tools used in the study
3.2 A brief outline of methodology of the study
3.3 Sources of Data
3.4 Sampling Techniques
3.4.1 Quantitative sample selection technique
3.4.2 Qualitative sample selection techniques
3.5 Sample Size Calculation
3.6 Data collection, processing and analysis
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METHODOLOGY:
Methodology is a way to systematically solve the research problem. It may be understood as a
science of studying how research is done scientifically. An appropriate methodology is
obviously needed for solving each problem. It provides help to organize the scattered views of
different resource persons, information and steps required for fulfilling the objectives.
Sequentially proper working procedure helps to capture the right things at right periods and
finally fulfill the objectives.
3.1 Techniques and tools used in the study:
The study was carried out using three-fold techniques: i.e. information was collected using:
1. Quantitative techniques
2. Qualitative techniques and 3. GIS software.
The methodology of this study includes several techniques like Literature review , Structured
Interview, Key Informant Interview, Focus Group Discussions, Data Collection , Data
Analysis, Draft Report writing, Presentation, Feedback Incorporation and Finalization of the
Report. Different tools like FGD-checklists, structured questionnaire, K-II semi-structured
questionnaire, satellite image, GIS, SPSS etc have been utilized for the above mentioned
techniques. The techniques and tools are tabulated below:
Table -5: Data collection Techniques and Tools, and data sources at a glance
Data Collection Techniques Different tools used for collecting data
Primary data:
1.Structured survey
2.Key Informant Interview
3.Focus Group Discussion
4.GIS data
5.CPR related data
Primary: using structured questionnaire for survey, semi-
structured questionnaire for K-II, key points noted for FGDs,
GIS software for GIS based data like the existing, lost and
potential CPR were mapped by comprehensive mapping tools
(i.e.GIS) collection and satellite image. In addition a
(common –pool resource) CPR checklist was used to collect
CPR related data specifically.
Secondary data: Secondary data : using different related books, journal
papers, report of GO and NGOs, Haor Master Plan etc
3.2 A brief outline of methodology of the study:
The study has been conceptualized by consulting with academic supervisor, other faculty
members and resource persons, and reviewing secondary literature related to the present topic.
CHAPTER THREE
Socio-Economic Analysis of Haor
23 | P a g e
After setting the objectives of the study, to reach to the end, a mental model had made that was
the background of thinking for achieving the goal of the study sequentially. The primary
survey was conducted using a comprehensive structured questionnaire while the key informant
interview was carried out using a set of pre-determined questions and of highly standardized
techniques of recording. A flexible procedure was laid down, asking questions in a form and
ordered prescribed. Focus Group Discussion (FGD) was also conducted with different
occupational groups of people using focus points noted before starting the discussion.
Collecting both qualitative and quantitative information, SPSS software was used for data
analysis. Data was also generated using Geographic Information System (GIS) software. GIS
generated data included GIS mapping and then analyze the fishing practices, land use, aquatic
vegetation, natural growth of swamp trees, fish production scenario and major fish landing
centre of the Hakaluki Haor. Analyzing and interpreting data and information, draft report was
prepared and finally a presentation was made before internal and external faculty members to
get their invaluable feedback which later on incorporated and finalized the report.
3.3 Sources of Data:
A combination of sources of data was utilized for the study. Therefore the sources of data
were:
 Primary data from the target population of the study including (households sample
household), GoB and other stakeholders using quantitative and qualitative approach.
 Secondary data related to hoar ecosystem’s and CPR management including books,
journals, report from different GO’s and NGO’s, Maps etc.
 GIS mapping on CPR of the studied areas including fishing practices, land use, aquatic
vegetation and natural growth of swamp trees, fish production scenario and major fish
landing centre of the Hakaluki Hoar.
3.4 Sampling Techniques:
3.4.1 Quantitative sample selection technique: The study was conducted in
Baralekha Upazila under Moulvibazaar. The total populations of studied areas were estimated
from different secondary sources as BBS and other sources. Therefore, a multistage
systematic random sampling was applied in determining the sample size of the intended
study.
Socio-Economic Analysis of Haor
24 | P a g e
At the first stage, 4 villages (Halla, Shreerampur, Ahmedpur, Dasghari) were purposively
selected based on high proximity of CPR and hardship of the locality. Different secondary
literatures were useful to conceptualize the high proximity of CPR and hardship of the different
locality. The villages Halla, Shreerampur and Ahmedpur are under Talimpur union and
Dasghari village is under Sujanagar union.
 These villages were the primary sampling unit (PSU) of the survey.
 In each village, systematic random sampling was applied for selecting for an eligible
respondent. Starting from one random corner, the every fourth household had been
selected as the eligible respondent.
 A sample of 40 households was randomly drawn from each village for conducting the
household survey. Thus we had randomly selected 160 households (4*40=160) for the
entire study.
3.4.2 Qualitative sample selection techniques: Different types of target groups at the
local level were taken into account for Focus Group Discussion (FGDs), Key Informants
Interviews (KIIs) and CPR Checklist. Respondent/ participants of FGDs, KII and CRP
checklist were selected based on their availability and willingness to participate using
purposive method.
Focus Group Discussions (FGDs): FGDs were carried out with different groups of pre-
selected respondents (consists of 8 -10 participants) of homogenous categories with semi-
structured guideline. The participants of the FGDs were the household’s members of the study
villages. Most of them were direct users of the CPRs. A total of 8 FGDs i.e., 2 from each
village was conducted by the enumerators.
Village basic data collection checklist (CPR checklist): Semi-Structured questionnaire
contained checklist was used to collect the village level information of all the 4 villages under
sample frame. This tool has been used to collect the existing CPRs within the villages.
Key Informant Interviews (KIIs): Checklist has been used for Key Informant Interview
(KII). This tool had been used to collect the CPRs related information from the knowledgeable
persons of the villages. 12 Key Informant Interviews (KIIs) i.e., 3 per village, were
conducted by the enumerators.
Socio-Economic Analysis of Haor
25 | P a g e
3.5 Sample Size Calculation:
A standard statistical formula has been used to calculate the sample size for the household
survey as a part of primary quantitative data collection. The following formula has been used
to estimate the required sample size of target respondents:
Where,
n = the desired sample size which would be sufficient to measure the different variables;
z = the standard normal deviate, usually set at 1.96 at 5per cent significance level for a
two-tailed test which corresponds to 95per cent confidence level;
p = estimated prevalence of main variable or variable of interest, we assume 50per cent or
0.5,
q = 1 – p;
r = response rate. It has been set to 95 per cent point or 0.95 (expressed as decimal);
e = the precision level or the distance from the prevalence estimate in either direction. It
has been set to ± 7.94 per cent point for two tails equation or 0.07941 (expressed as
decimal).
Therefore, this study enrolled a total of 160 respondents, based on a minimum necessary
sample size of 160. The estimation is done based on the prevalence of main variable or variable
of interest.
3.6 Data collection, processing and analysis:
A successful pretesting of developed questionnaires’ was conducted in adjacent areas of
studied villages to find out the gaps in answer options, ambiguities, language issues, poor
sequencing, unnecessary questions, repetition. The entire questionnaire has been checked again
to identify inconsistency in the completed questionnaire. Coding manual was developed to put
the code for the open ended questionnaires. All collected survey data was entered into a
database using Access program and the data was analyzed using SPSS program. Also the Maps
were processed using the GIS mapping software for identify the CPR issues.
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Socio-Economic Analysis of Haor
CHAPTER FOUR
FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION
4.1 Demographic Characteristics of the Hakaluki Haor
4.2 Education
4.3 Occupation and Income
4.4 Assets of Households
4.4.1 Land ownership of households
4.4.2 Distribution of the household by landholding
4.4.3 Ownership of non-land assets
4.5 Poverty and Food security scenario
4.5.1 Incidence of poverty in the study area
4.5.2 Food security Scenario
4.5.3 Food deficit
4.6 Loan status
4.6.1 Loan sources for households during survey
4.6.2: Reasons for borrowing/taking loan
4.7 Water and Sanitation condition
4.8 Seasonal migration
4.9 Common –Pool Resources
4.9.1 Existing CPR and Uses by Households
4.9.2 Resources and dependency on CPR
4.9.3 Purpose of CPR exploitation by the households
4.9.4 Period of involvement in appropriating CPRs in haor
4.9.5 Participation of the households in the CPRs in Haor ecosystem
4.9.6 Figure: Reasons for non-participation in CPR
4.9.7 Income appropriation from CPR resources in haor ecosystem
4.10 existing, lost and reclaimable CPR of the haor ecosystems
Socio-Economic Analysis of Haor
4.10.1 GIS mapping of Reclaimable CPR resources of Studied
Ecosystem and findings
4.10.2 CPR Declining Scenario
4.11 CPR Management and Community Response to CPR management
system
4.11.1 Leasing of CPR to a few people versus community management
systems
4.11.2 Community led CPR management systems
4.11.3 Community perception on involvement of different
stakeholders/organizations in sustainable CPR management
4.12 Aspects of Physical Alteration of CPR basis
4.13 Response of State Agencies to protect CPR basis
4.13.1: Responses on “government is effectively protecting, and
managing CPR bases in the haor”
4.13.2 Barriers to sustainable Management of CPR
Socio-Economic Analysis of Haor
26 | P a g e
FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION:
After collecting both qualitative and quantitative information from four villages, the data were
analyzed by using SPSS software. The quantitative information has been derived from primary
survey while FGDs and K-II derived information were useful to validate the data. Some new
dimensions have also been explored through facilitating qualitative techniques. The
information about CPR in particular about the existing, lost and reclaimable CPR was mapped
by mapping tools GIS. However, the detailed findings on socio-economic characteristics, CPR
status, issues related to CPR, CPR management, etc are placed under this chapter.
4.1 Demographic Characteristics of the Hakaluki Haor:
The population is approximately evenly split by gender, with a female to male ratio of 0.99. It
varies by village. Average family size is 6.58 while the average age of the head of the
household is 46.41. Only 7.50 percent households are female headed. The dependency ratio ie
the ratio of the population under 15 and over 65 years of age to the population over 15 and
below 65 is 0.89 which is comparatively higher than the national average. The region appears
to be more unfavorable with older household head and larger family size with higher
dependency ratio.
Table-6: Households’ characteristics of Hakaluki Haor
Indicators Hakaluki Haor
Average age of the head of the household 46.41
Average Household size 6.58
Dependency ratio 0.89
Percent of female headed households 7.50
Source: HHS, 2013
4.2 Education:
From following Figure-1, it can be said that 21.8per cent of the adult population remain
illiterate where as 42 per cent respondents have only completed the primary education (and can
thus only read and write). 17.7per cent only completed their secondary school and a negligible
CHAPTER FOUR
Socio-Economic Analysis of Haor
27 | P a g e
percentage completed higher secondary or more. Figure-1 demonstrates the education scenario
in the study area.
Figure -1: Education scenario Source: HHS, 2013
A prioritized set of problems related to education in study area have been identified through
consultation with diversified community groups and conducting FGDs, which are:
 Poor institutional capacity: causes no community resources mobilization, no role to
reduce drop out, not ensuring the presence of teachers in school timely, less
accountability to provide stipend in primary education.
 Less accountability mechanism: causes absence of teachers, inefficient utilization of
School level Implementation fund (SLIP), proxy teachers, School Management
Committee (SMC) is formed without involving all stakes. In most of the cases Union
standing committees on education don’t have any linkage or relation to SMC. Lack of
awareness of community on education rights causes service providers less accountable,
not feeling too much interest & commitment to send their children to school.
 Less availability of resources & less accessibility to the services: less number of
schools, classrooms, teachers, Upazilla education officers, in haor areas. It is evident
that around 35per cent staffs are still vacant in education sector.
4.3 Occupation and Income:
On average, the highest percentages of the population in the Hakaluki Haor are engaged
primarily with farming followed by fishing. In addition to farming and fishing, there are
business men, agri-workers, non agriculture-workers, students and day labors. Occupation of
many of the population are basically wetland based ie they are collecting CPR. However, it is
clear from the survey and validated by FGD data that the majority of the people living in the
Socio-Economic Analysis of Haor
28 | P a g e
Hakaluki Haor basin are absentee landlords and the land is used for only one crop. A large
majority of local residents receive their income from agricultural crops (reflecting a
dependency on haor land for rice cultivation),
Figure-2 : Occupational categories Source: HHS, 2013
the next important source is remittance received from abroad (people in this region have a
migration rate to Europe and the US) and the third important source of income is river or water
bodies ie through fishing .Hakaluki haor is very famous for its fish production. A large portion
of peoples’ income source is day laboring in particular in the lean season.
Figure-3: Income categories Source: HHS, 2013
Socio-Economic Analysis of Haor
29 | P a g e
Other income sources are also shown in the figure-3. In the Figure -3, the multiple response
options considered, so the respondents are engaged in multiple income options. Amongst the
resource collectors, around 30per cent households generated almost half of their
livelihoods/income from haor resources, with more than 5per cent being fully dependent on
resource collection for their livelihoods sustenance. Almost all of the remittance-receiving
households are investing in owning agricultural land in haor and earning through leasing out to
the land to sharecroppers.
Although making up half of the working population, women from 35per cent households are
involved in any kind of income generating activities other than that of homestead work, which
is mostly homestead poultry rearing or gardening. Rural women in haor area are often
constrained by various social and cultural norms. Although considering cultural and religious
pressure from society, the above percentage seems quite high, most of the income generating
activities bin which women participate were homestead based and earnings compared to men is
negligible. It is also true, at the same time, that some of the poorest women households are now
getting involved with some of the local micro-credit organizations, such as NGOs, krishi Bank
etc and developing micro-enterprises like poultry-duck-goat-and livestock rearing, vegetable
gardening, and handicrafts. Some women are now a day’s coming to work (day laboring) in the
haor alongside men in earthwork. The remaining 65per cent women are socially considered
idle but in reality they are contributing to their family intangibly which has never been
evaluated and remains
hidden.
Among those involved
women in income earning
activities, poultry and
livestock rearing were the
highest (45.6pe rcent
followed by homestead
gardening. Other IGA
(domestic service,
collecting leftover rice
paddy, midwifery, Figure -4: Women involvement in IGA. Source: HHS,2013
Socio-Economic Analysis of Haor
30 | P a g e
cattle rearing , petty trading and collecting fuel wood) made up 20.8per cent collectively of
which labour selling was 6per cent.
4.4 Assets of Households:
4.4.1 Land ownership of households: The average homestead land and size of
land owned by the household are 11.33 and 69.68 decimal respectively. Table-7 shows
the amount of lands held by the households. Average size of land owned and homestead land
owned are correlated. The total land includes cultivated land, land leased out as well as ponds
or shrimp farms. We have also collected information on khas (government) land possessed by
the households. Amount of khas land possessed by the households is negligible in hakaluki
haor. In the haor ecosystem the households have around 27 decimal of khas land. Households
also change their access or rights to land by either mortgaging/leasing in/out land. The amount
of leased/mortgaged-in land is higher in the haor ecosystem, about 117 decimal in comparison
to other areas in Bangladesh. The households also leased or mortgaged their land out to other
households. Households also access to land by other means, for example some land is jointly
owned.
Table -7: Land Ownership of households
Particulars Value (in dec.)
Avg. homestead land 11.33
Average size of land owned 69.61
Average size of khas land 26.67
Average size of leased/mortgaged in land 116.56
Average size out leased/mortgaged out land 14.88
HH owning pond 13.84
Source: HHS, 2013
4.4.2 Distribution of the household by landholding:
We have classified the households into 5 land categories as shown in the Figure-5. About
64.38per cent of the households are functionally landless, i. e.; they either have no land or land
less than 50 decimal. Those who have land between 50-149 decimal are considered as small
land holders while medium land holders possess land between 150 and 549 decimal . It is
evident from the figure that more than 60per cent people have either no land or having land
Socio-Economic Analysis of Haor
31 | P a g e
below 50 decimal i.e. for haor areas might be considered as marginal land holders.
Figure-5: Distribution of the household by landholding. Source: HHS, 2013
4.4.3 Ownership of non-land assets (per cent of households):
Along with land assets owned by households, more than 80per cent population are using
mobile phone which reflects that almost all the population now a days have access to
Figure -6: Non-land assets of households. Source: HHS, 2013
Socio-Economic Analysis of Haor
32 | P a g e
telecommunication (figure-6). It is also found that more than 60per cent households have
fishing equipments, poultry and more than 50per cent have livestock and around 40per cent
respondents have Solar Home System (SHS). With this, it can also be interpreted that more
than 60per cent people are engaged in fishing either directly by themselves or by engaging
other people.
4.5 Poverty and Food security scenario:
Since 1995-96, Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics has been using the Cost of Basic Needs (CBN)
method as the standard method for estimating the incidence of poverty. This method defines
two poverty lines: i. Lower poverty line, and ii. Upper poverty line. In order to categorize
poverty, the BBS also defines a food and non-food poverty line.
a) Food poverty line: 1) A basic food basket of eleven food items (including fish) is selected.
2) The quantities in the basket are scaled according to the nutritional requirement of 2,122 k.cal
per person per day. 3) The cost of acquiring the basket is calculated.
This estimated cost is considered as the Food Poverty Line (FPL)
b) Non-food poverty line: A non-food poverty line is calculated by estimating the cost of
consuming non- food items by the households close to the food poverty line.
An upper poverty line is also estimated by adding together the food and non-food poverty
lines.
Food poverty lines for each successive year is adjusted by the BBS by taking into account food
price inflation and the non-food poverty lines
are also re-estimated by taking into
consideration of the changes in non-food-food
expenditure. In this study we have considered
the rural poverty line for the districts under
study and adjusted them by the consumer price
index to get the poverty line in 2012 prices. The
headcount poverty measures for study area are
presented in following graphs. Figure-7: Incidence of Poverty. HHS, 2013
Socio-Economic Analysis of Haor
33 | P a g e
4.5.1 Incidence of poverty in the study area:
The poverty situation is generally expressed as percent of population below the lower poverty
line. In study area, 43 per cent population is poor while rests 57per cent are non-poor (figure-
7). Out of 43per cent poor people in the study
area, 38.13per cent are extreme poor (figure-8)
households whose total expenditures on food
and non-food combined are equal to or less than
the food poverty line. 4.38 per cent out of 43per
cent are moderate poor households whose total
expenditures are equal to or less than the upper
poverty line but above the food poverty line.
The non-poor households are those Figure-8: Poor categories, HHS, 2013
households whose total expenditures are above the upper poverty line.
The extreme poor peoples’ percentage (38.13per cent) is higher than the national average of
29.26per cent despite having abundance of natural resources.
A number of studies including primary survey & FGDs conducted for this study have
identified the haor region as one of the “Hot-Spots” of poverty in Bangladesh. The root causes
of the high levels of poverty in the haor region that are reported in the different studies and
evidenced from the FGDs are: Physical conditions of the haor, larger family size compared to
national estimate; extended period of flooding; limited infrastructure development; cropping
season is restricted to a single crop; housing is confined to cramped villages on high grounds;
mobility is restrained; limited access to livelihood opportunities and social sector services, lack
of markets and basic utilities has limited the growth of the non-farm sector and new
employment opportunities; high cost to pay to maintain water supply and sanitation facilities in
functioning order and high degree of control over land and water resources by influential
groups of people.
Effective Common-pool resource management ie ensuring access to and control over natural
resources and services, promoting livelihoods options and reducing risk of income erosion due
to natural disasters could be considered as vital approach in reducing extreme poverty from the
areas.
Socio-Economic Analysis of Haor
34 | P a g e
4.5.2 Food security Scenario: The haor basin is identified by the WFP’s 2004 Food
Security Atlas of Bangladesh as one of the ‘highly food insecure’ regions of the country.
Despite the progress toward alleviating food insecurity at the national level, the relatively large
group of extremely poor or ‘invisible poor’ rural households in the haor areas in Bangladesh
do not participate in virtually any aspect of the movement toward development and are falling
further behind other groups of households (WFP, 2006).
In our survey, we asked the households to self-select them as households who have surplus
food over a period of a year or breakeven with no surplus food or deficit or those who have
month/s of food deficit. From households’ survey, we got the information (figure-9) that in
Halla village 40per cent households are with food surplus while in Dasghari it is only about
7per cent which is lowest among four villages where survey was conducted. In contrast, in
response to question about food sufficiency for whole year with no surplus, the condition is
comparatively better in Dasghari than other villages while the lowest status is in Shreerampur
village which is about 32 to 33per cent households.
Figure -9: Food security scenario by villages in study area Source :Source: HHS, 2013
And in the village Dasghari , around 50per cent households are with food deficit while on an
average in the study area, 40per cent households are with food deficit which is inline reflection
of percentage of extreme poor households (38.13per cent ) derived through conducting the
survey. According to the respondents’ opinion, the reason behind food shortage is crop loss
due to early flash flood and / or lack of income from their livelihoods means. Access to
fisheries is another disaggregated issue as the leaseholders impose ban on open access for the
Socio-Economic Analysis of Haor
35 | P a g e
fishers during dry season .The statistics reflect that these area need special attention with
special interventions to maintain synergy across the country in the process of reduction of
extreme poverty.
4.5.3 Food deficit: As we found that the almost 40per cent households in haor area are
with food deficit, we also collected the information about period of food surplus and deficit. It
is clear from the following figure-10 that in the Bengali month- Falgun, the respondents are
with maximum food deficit and food deficit is the maximum in the Dasghari village while it is
comparatively less in Halla village. In the month of ‘Chaitra’, there are also food deficit with a
declining trend. In Dasghari, in Falgun, almost 19 days out of 30 days the households suffer
with food deficit.
Figure -10: Number of days of food deficits by month. Source: HHS
So, the peak food insecurity months in the Haor ecosystem are Falgun and Chaitra and the
reasons for food deficit as mentioned by respondents are lack of work opportunity as the
primary reason. The lean season is basically before the ‘boro’ season starts. During food deficit
time , many of the households manage this time eating shapla, shaluk, shingara, dhap, ukol,
fukol etc but it is not possible for all to collect aquatic vegetables. Some of them preserved
food for the lean season e.g. dried fish during monsoon, storing crushed rice etc. The wild
vegetables includes a wide range of naturally grown spinach e.g. ahak, kolar mocha, kolmi
shak, etc.
D
A
Y
S
Socio-Economic Analysis of Haor
36 | P a g e
As mentioned by respondents, during lean season, extreme poverty: causes children’
involvement in income generating activities with agriculture field during harvesting (April-
May) & sowing (November-December) time. And usually summer vacation time is in the
month of June. So, In April to June most of the children remain out of school. As a result the
children lose their interest to go to school and thus food deficit is linked with resulting high
dropout rate.
4.6 Loan status:
4.6.1 Loan sources for households during survey: There were many different sources to
borrow for the villagers, of which the main sources were neighbors, friends, relatives, NGOs,
local moneylenders, banks
(e.g. Grameen bank, Krishi Bank etc.),
and CBOs (e.g. fisherscooperative,
farmers cooperative etc.).In most cases
the households borrowed money
capitalizing on their social relationships
(44.1per cent) followed by different NGOs
operating credit program(19.3per cent), local
money lenders (19.0per cent), and the
remainders from the formal banks
(14.4per cent), and CBOs (3.3per cent).
4.6.2: Reasons for borrowing/taking loan: For various reasons, when households did
borrow money from external sources, it was usually for family consumption and maintenance
(43.8per cent), investment in the business (17per cent), other livelihood costs like medical, etc.
(10.8per cent), to go abroad (6.2per cent), loan payback (2.3per cent) and paying input costs
for cultivation (1.3per cent) (Figure 12). At the extreme, 72.2per cent of households in
Dasghari borrowed money for family consumption, 44.4per cent and 27.8per cent of
households Ahmedpur borrowed money to invest in small business / petty trading, and to meet
other livelihood expenses respectively, 27.8per cent households in Shreerampur borrowed
money to go abroad and 16.7per cent of households in Halla for loan payback.
Bank
15%
CBO
3%
Money
Lender
19%Neighbours
/ Friends /
Relatives
44%
NGO
19%
Figure-11: Sources of loans by households in
2013, Source: HHS, 2013
Socio-Economic Analysis of Haor
37 | P a g e
43.8
6.2
1.3
17
10.8
2.3
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35
Family consumption
To go abroad
Input costs (cultivation)
Business investment
Livelihood expenses
Loan pay back
Figure- 12: Reasons for borrowing by the household in four villages. Source: HHS, 2013
4.7 Water and Sanitation condition:
The sanitation condition in the area is quite good (84.3per cent households having their own
latrine) compared to other wetland regions, e.g. in Pagnar haor only 8.57per cent and in Sanour
haor 4.76per cent (average 6.94per cent) with very little seasonality dimensions (Household
Socio-economic Baseline Report, SEMP, 2003). Remarkably in 4 villages, Halla, Ahemdpur,
Shreerampur and Dasghari, more than 80per cent of households have their own latrine
(including water sealed and pit latrine). Some households do not have any provision for
latrine. They usually visit traditional healer (15.7per cent)
The sanitation practice had seasonal variations between seasons (dry and wet) but the choice
varied widely among the villages (even within the village) of the Hakaluki Haor. Generally, in
the monsoon around 20per cent households used water sealed latrines, whilst more than 50per
cent households used pit latrine. The remaining 25per cent households used either hanging
toilets or defecate in open places. In some villages a significant number of its households used
water sealed latrines, namely Halla (61.1per cent), Ahmedpur (44.4per cent) and Shreerampur
(33.3per cent), but in Dasghari 88.9per cent households use of pit latrine which was also
common in other villages.
Socio-Economic Analysis of Haor
38 | P a g e
Water Sealed
20%
Pit Latrine
54%
Open/
Hanged
24%
Open field
/Bush
2%
Monsoon Dry Season
Pit Latrine
54%
Water Sealed
21%
Open/
Hanged
23%
Open field
/Bush
2%
Figure-13: Sanitation practice and its seasonality dimensions Source: HHS 2013
During the 1970s and 1980s, aid organizations installed thousands of wells in Bangladesh,
hoping to halt dysentery and cholera. While this program surpassed its goal of providing "safe"
wells to 80 percent of the country's population by 2000. The condition still exists in the said
society with 47per cent of households owning tube-wells while the others (52.3per cent) had
access to tube wells of neighbours as a source of drinking water. Neighbours always allow
others to take water from their tube wells in view of religious contentment. Among the
surveyed villages–Halla (72.2per cent), Ahmedpur (66.7per cent) and Shreerampur (61.1per
cent) had a higher percentage of households owning tube-wells, whilst in Dashghari there was
a higher percentage of households without tube-wells at their homestead (66.7per cent). As
observed during different field trips and surveys, very few households used other traditional
sources of drinking water, e.g. boiling water collected from ponds / haor, etc. and if they do so,
it is only when the nearest tube well is far away or inaccessible during the monsoon
4.8 Seasonal migration:
At least one person from 28.4per cent of the families migrated to work outside the locality. The
migration was for varied periods of which 20.9per cent were for long-term migration and the
remaining 7.5per cent for short term. The short-term migrant were mostly the marginal
farmers, subsistent fishers, landless and day labors. They migrated in the lean season when
there was no scope for work in the vicinity. Usually they went to nearby towns to work, mostly
as transport workers - rickshaw pullers, etc. and come back shortly.
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39 | P a g e
4.9 Common –Pool Resources:
The literature on commons is vast and there exist a large body of empirical work using
concepts that are not often clearly stated. Therefore it is important to clarify our understanding
on the concepts used in this study. In particular, we need to define what we understand by
commons, common-pool resources and common property resources.
In economics, a common-pool resources (CPR), also called a common property resource, is a
type of good consisting of a natural or human-made resource system (e.g. an irrigation system
or fishing grounds), whose size or characteristics makes it costly, but not impossible, to
exclude potential beneficiaries from obtaining benefits from its use. Unlike pure public goods,
common pool resources face problems of congestion or overuse, because they are subtractable.
A common-pool resource typically consists of a core resource (e.g. water or fish), which
defines the stock variable, while providing a limited quantity of extractable fringe units, which
defines the flow variable. While the core resource is to be protected or nurtured in order to
allow for its continuous exploitation, the fringe units can be harvested or consumed (Ostrom,
1990)
The commons is a general term for shared resources in which each stakeholder has an equal
interest. Studies on the commons include the information commons with issues about public
knowledge, the public domain, open science, and the free exchange of ideas -- all issues at the
core of a direct democracy.
In our study, we considered Common-pool resources (CPRs) as are natural or human-made
resources where one person's use subtracts from another's use and where it is often necessary,
but difficult and costly, to exclude other users outside the group from using the resource.
Common property is a formal or informal property regime that allocates a bundle of rights to
a group. Such rights may include ownership, management, use, exclusion, access of a shared
resource.
In this report we have considered CPR mainly in the context of the management of natural
resources. In more concrete terms we have considered CPRs to include mostly beel, kanda,
river and other waterbodies, agricultural land (khash and fallow), swamp forests, village
pastures and grazing grounds, village forest and woodlots, protected and un-classed
Socio-economic Analysis of Haor (wetlands) in Bangladesh
Socio-economic Analysis of Haor (wetlands) in Bangladesh
Socio-economic Analysis of Haor (wetlands) in Bangladesh
Socio-economic Analysis of Haor (wetlands) in Bangladesh
Socio-economic Analysis of Haor (wetlands) in Bangladesh
Socio-economic Analysis of Haor (wetlands) in Bangladesh
Socio-economic Analysis of Haor (wetlands) in Bangladesh
Socio-economic Analysis of Haor (wetlands) in Bangladesh
Socio-economic Analysis of Haor (wetlands) in Bangladesh
Socio-economic Analysis of Haor (wetlands) in Bangladesh
Socio-economic Analysis of Haor (wetlands) in Bangladesh
Socio-economic Analysis of Haor (wetlands) in Bangladesh
Socio-economic Analysis of Haor (wetlands) in Bangladesh
Socio-economic Analysis of Haor (wetlands) in Bangladesh
Socio-economic Analysis of Haor (wetlands) in Bangladesh
Socio-economic Analysis of Haor (wetlands) in Bangladesh
Socio-economic Analysis of Haor (wetlands) in Bangladesh
Socio-economic Analysis of Haor (wetlands) in Bangladesh
Socio-economic Analysis of Haor (wetlands) in Bangladesh
Socio-economic Analysis of Haor (wetlands) in Bangladesh
Socio-economic Analysis of Haor (wetlands) in Bangladesh
Socio-economic Analysis of Haor (wetlands) in Bangladesh
Socio-economic Analysis of Haor (wetlands) in Bangladesh
Socio-economic Analysis of Haor (wetlands) in Bangladesh
Socio-economic Analysis of Haor (wetlands) in Bangladesh
Socio-economic Analysis of Haor (wetlands) in Bangladesh
Socio-economic Analysis of Haor (wetlands) in Bangladesh
Socio-economic Analysis of Haor (wetlands) in Bangladesh
Socio-economic Analysis of Haor (wetlands) in Bangladesh
Socio-economic Analysis of Haor (wetlands) in Bangladesh
Socio-economic Analysis of Haor (wetlands) in Bangladesh
Socio-economic Analysis of Haor (wetlands) in Bangladesh
Socio-economic Analysis of Haor (wetlands) in Bangladesh
Socio-economic Analysis of Haor (wetlands) in Bangladesh
Socio-economic Analysis of Haor (wetlands) in Bangladesh
Socio-economic Analysis of Haor (wetlands) in Bangladesh
Socio-economic Analysis of Haor (wetlands) in Bangladesh
Socio-economic Analysis of Haor (wetlands) in Bangladesh
Socio-economic Analysis of Haor (wetlands) in Bangladesh
Socio-economic Analysis of Haor (wetlands) in Bangladesh
Socio-economic Analysis of Haor (wetlands) in Bangladesh
Socio-economic Analysis of Haor (wetlands) in Bangladesh
Socio-economic Analysis of Haor (wetlands) in Bangladesh
Socio-economic Analysis of Haor (wetlands) in Bangladesh
Socio-economic Analysis of Haor (wetlands) in Bangladesh
Socio-economic Analysis of Haor (wetlands) in Bangladesh
Socio-economic Analysis of Haor (wetlands) in Bangladesh
Socio-economic Analysis of Haor (wetlands) in Bangladesh
Socio-economic Analysis of Haor (wetlands) in Bangladesh
Socio-economic Analysis of Haor (wetlands) in Bangladesh
Socio-economic Analysis of Haor (wetlands) in Bangladesh
Socio-economic Analysis of Haor (wetlands) in Bangladesh
Socio-economic Analysis of Haor (wetlands) in Bangladesh
Socio-economic Analysis of Haor (wetlands) in Bangladesh
Socio-economic Analysis of Haor (wetlands) in Bangladesh
Socio-economic Analysis of Haor (wetlands) in Bangladesh
Socio-economic Analysis of Haor (wetlands) in Bangladesh
Socio-economic Analysis of Haor (wetlands) in Bangladesh
Socio-economic Analysis of Haor (wetlands) in Bangladesh
Socio-economic Analysis of Haor (wetlands) in Bangladesh
Socio-economic Analysis of Haor (wetlands) in Bangladesh

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Socio-economic Analysis of Haor (wetlands) in Bangladesh

  • 1. Socio-Economic Analysis of Haor --A Case Study of the Hakaluki Haor Thesis Submitted to University of Dhaka In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the degree of MEcon in Environmental Economics by M. Anowar Hossain Examination Roll: 113 Under the Supervision of Dr. Qazi Kholiquzzaman Ahmad Dhaka School of Economics (A Constituent Institution of the University of Dhaka) December 2013
  • 2. Dated: 07-12-2013 CERTIFICATE This is to certify that the thesis entitled: “Socio-Economic Analysis of Haor- A Case Study of Hakaluki Haor” submitted by “M. Anowar Hossain” for the fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Economics (MEcon) in Environmental Economics is his own independent and original research work carried out in this School under my supervision. This work has not been submitted in part or full to any other university or institution for any degree or diploma. I, therefore, forward this thesis for evaluation and necessary action. (Dr. Qazi Kholiquzzaman Ahmad) Chairman, Governing Council and Director, Dhaka School of Economics
  • 3. Dated: 07-12-2013 DECLARATION This is to certify that the dissertation titled: “Socio-Economic Analysis of Haor- A Case Study of the Hakaluki Haor” submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Economics (MEcon) in Environmental Economics under the University of Dhaka is a record of bonafide research work carried out by me under the supervision of Dr. Qazi Kholiquzzaman Ahmad. I, further, declare that this has not previously formed the basis for the award of any degree, diploma, associateship, fellowship or other similar title of recognition. …………………………………………………………………………. M. Anowar Hossain Dhaka, Bangladesh.
  • 4. i | P a g e Logically, a study is the crystallization of the thoughts of many committed to that by one person. To begin with the acknowledgement, at the outset, I would like to express my gratitude to the community people of the study areas who basically have made this possible by responding to the survey questionnaire, effectively participating in FGDs and providing their experience and knowledge based opinion and information. Without getting information and views from them, it could have been impossible to complete the task. I gratefully acknowledge my indebtedness to Dr. Qazi Kholiquzzaman Ahmad, Director, Dhaka School of Economics for his very effectual guidance, encouragement, supervision and valued suggestions in all stages of this course of action. It was a great privilege for me to work under Mr. Ahmad, whose invaluable suggestions and keen interest made it possible to accomplish this piece of work. I am extremely indebted to Mr. M. Anisul Islam, Director, CNRS for his sincere co-operation and helping hands in providing support of collecting data from fields. It is also worth mentioning about contribution of Mr. Md. Moshiur Rahman of Concern Worldwide Bangladesh for his help in different ways. I must extend thanks to Dr. Nazrul Islam and other faculty members of Dhaka School of Economics for making their comments and suggestions to improve the quality of the work. Finally, I must express gratitude to my parents for their prayer and encouragements, to my beloved wife -Ms. Zinat Zarin and daughter-Ms. Fiona Aryana Niyoosha for their consistent support and sacrifice throughout the entire course. December 2013 M. Anowar Hossain ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
  • 5. ii | P a g e Contents Pages Acknowledgement I Table of Contents ii-iv List of figures V List of tables Vi List of maps Vi Abbreviations and Acronyms vii-viii Abstract ix-x CHAPTER-I: INTRODUCTION 1-11 1.1 Background of the study 1-2 1.2 Goals and Objectives of the study 2-3 1.3 Rationale of the study 3-5 1.4 Study Area 6-11 1.4.1 Location of the Hakaluki Haor 6 1.4.2 Administrative boundary of the Hakaluki Haor 7-6 1.4.3 (1) Location Map of Hakaluki Haor and (2) map of Study Area 9 1.4.4 Area and Population in the Hakaluki Haor 9 1.4.5 Major Livelihoods options for people 9 1.4.6 Climate 9 1.4.7 Communication 9 1.4.8 Geology 10 1.4.9 River System 10 1.4.10 Floods in the Hakaluki Haor 11 1.5 Organization of the report 11 CHAPTER-II: LITERATURE REVIEW 12-21 2.1 Introduction 12 2.2 Summary of the reviewed literature from books 12-17 2.3 Summary of reviewed literature from unpublished reports 17-21 CHAPTER-III: METHODOLOGY 22-25 3.1 Techniques and tools used in the study 22 3.2 A brief outline of methodology of the study 22-23 TABLE OF CONTENTS
  • 6. iii | P a g e 3.3 Sources of Data 23 3.4 Sampling Techniques 23-24 3.4.1 Quantitative sample selection technique 23-24 3.4.2 Qualitative sample selection techniques 24 3.5 Sample Size Calculation 24 3.6 Data collection, processing and analysis 25 CHAPTER-IV: FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION 26-61 4.1 Demographic Characteristics of the Hakaluki Haor 26 4.2 Education 26-27 4.3 Occupation and Income 27-30 4.4 Assets of Households 30-32 4.4.1 Land ownership of households 30 4.4.2 Distribution of the household by landholding 30-31 4.4.3 Ownership of non-land assets 31-32 4.5 Poverty and Food security scenario 32-36 4.5.1 Incidence of poverty in the study area 33 4.5.2 Food security Scenario 34-35 4.5.3 Food deficit 35-36 4.6 Loan status 36-37 4.6.1 Loan sources for households during survey 36 4.6.2: Reasons for borrowing/taking loan 36-37 4.7 Water and Sanitation condition 37-38 4.8 Seasonal migration 38 4.9 Common –Pool Resources 39-49 4.9.1 Existing CPR and Uses by Households 40-41 4.9.2 Resources and dependency on CPR 41-44 4.9.3 Purpose of CPR exploitation by the households 44-45 4.9.4 Period of involvement in appropriating CPRs in haor 44-46 4.9.5 Participation of the households in the CPRs in Haor ecosystem 46-47 4.9.6 Figure: Reasons for non-participation in CPR 47-48 4.9.7 Income appropriation from CPR resources in haor ecosystem 48-49
  • 7. iv | P a g e 4.10 existing, lost and reclaimable CPR of the haor ecosystems 49-54 4.10.1 GIS mapping of Reclaimable CPR resources of Studied Ecosystem and findings 49-52 4.10.2 CPR Declining Scenario 52-54 4.11 CPR Management and Community Response to CPR management system 54-58 4.11.1 Leasing of CPR to a few people versus community management systems 55-56 4.11.2 Community led CPR management systems 56-57 4.11.3 Community perception on involvement of different stakeholders/organizations in sustainable CPR management 57-58 4.12 Aspects of Physical Alteration of CPR basis 58-59 4.13 Response of State Agencies to protect CPR basis 59-61 4.13.1: Responses on “government is effectively protecting, and managing CPR” 59-60 4.13.2 Barriers to sustainable Management of CPR 60-61 CHAPTER-V: LEGAL APPRAISAL TO HAOR RESOURCES MANAGEMENT AND HAOR DEVELOPMENT 62-69 5.1 Introduction 62 5.2 Legal and Institutional Framework 62-63 5.3 Anatomy of relevant Policies and Acts 63-69 5.3.1 The Environment Policy, 1992 63 5.3.2 Water Resource Planning Act, 1992 63 5.3.3 Bangladesh Environment Conservation Act 1995 64 5.3.4 Public Jalmals Management Policy, 2009 64-68 5.3.5 Master Plan of Haor Area, 2012 68-69 5.4 Conclusion 69 CHAPTER-VI: SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS 70-75 BIBLIOGRAPHY 76-77 ANNEXURE xi-xxx
  • 8. v | P a g e Figure No. Title of the Figure Page No. 1 Education scenario 27 2 Occupational categories 28 3 Income categories 28 4 Women involvement in IGA 29 5 Distribution of the household by landholding 31 6 Non-land assets of households 31 7 Incidence of Poverty 32 8 Poor categories 33 9 Food security scenario by villages in study area 34 10 Number of days of food deficits by month 35 11 Sources of loans by households in 2013 36 12 Reasons for borrowing by the household in four villages 37 13 Sanitation practice and its seasonality dimensions 38 14 Purposes of CPRs exploitation by households(multiple responses recorded) 45 15 Period of involvement in CPR collection by household in a year 46 16 Participation of the households in the CPRs in Haor ecosystem 47 17 Reasons of non-participating in CPR exploitation 47 18 Income appropriation from CPR resources in Haor ecosystem 48 19 CPR declining scenario 53 20 Responses on “CPR should be brought under community management 56 21 Reponses on "CPR management plans should be based on the opinion and experience of local user communities 57 22 Community perception on involvement of different stakeholders/organizations in sustainable ECA biodiversity management 58 23 Responses on " quality and types of CPR should not be altered rather they should be protected and used sustainably 59 24 Responses on “government is effectively protecting, and managing CPR” 60 25 Communities’ observation on barriers to management CPR bases 61 LIST OF FIGURES
  • 9. vi | P a g e Table No. Title of the Map Page No. 1 Location map of Hakaluki Haor 7 2 Map of Study Area locating union and villages 8 3 Existing, lost and reclaimable CPR status in the study area 50 Table No. Title of the Table Page No. 1 Haor Areas at a glance 1 2 Study area details by district, sub-district, union and villages 6 3 Administrative unit wise break-up of Area of Hakaluki haor 7 4 Seasons are recognized and its characteristics 9 5 Data collection Techniques and Tools, and data sources at a glance 22 6 Households’ characteristics of Hakaluki haor 26 7 Land Ownership of households 30 8 CPR availability in study area 40 9 Percentage of income of households derived from different CPR base 44 LIST OF MAPS LIST OF TABLES
  • 10. vii | P a g e AEZ Agro-Ecological Zone APPG All Party Parliamentary Group BBS Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics BCCSAP Bangladesh Climate Change Strategy and Action Plan BGDP Bangladesh Green Development Programme BWDB Bangladesh Water Development Board CBA-ECA Community Based Adaptation in the Ecologically Critical Area CBN Cost of Basic Needs CBO Community Based Organization CIDA Canadian International Development Agency CNRS Centre for Natural Resources Studies CPR Common Pool Resources CPRM Common Pool Resource Management DCI Data collection instruments DoE Department of Environment DRR Disaster Risk Reduction ECA Environment Conservation Act ECA Ecologically Critical Area FAO Food and Agriculture Organization FAP Flood Action Plan FGD Focus Group Discussions FPL Food Poverty Line GIS Geographic Information System GO Government Organization GoB Government of Bangladesh HHS Household Survey HMP Haor Master Plan IGA Income Generating Activities IUCN The World Conservation Union KII Key Informant Interview ABBREVIATIONS
  • 11. viii | P a g e Ha Hectare Mm Millimeter Km Kilometer MDG Millennium Development Goals MICS Multi-Indicators Cluster Survey MoEF Ministry of Environment and Forests NGO Non-Governmental Organization RFP Request for Proposal RIMS Results and Impact Management System SHS Solar Home System SEMP Sustainable Environment Management Program SMC School Management Committee UNDP United Nations Development Program UNICEF United Nations Children’s Fund ACRONYMS
  • 12. ix | P a g e The study titled “Socio-Economic Analysis of Haor- A Case study of the Hakaluki Haor” has been conducted with the goal of providing a socio-economic analysis of haor conducive to effective common-pool resources management and thereby enhance livelihoods of the poor people and maintain minimum environmental space for the wider community. The specific objectives are: i) To assess the socio-demographic status, lives and livelihoods, and poverty and vulnerability scenario in the haor area. ii) To assess the existing, lost and reclaimable CPR of the haor ecosystems. iii) To provide an economic analysis of the existing, lost and reclaimable CPR. iv) To provide a legal appraisal on CPR management in the haor ecosystem. Haor region, alternatively known to as haor basin or Sylhet basin is basically spread over 47 Upazilas under seven north-eastern Bangladesh districts Sylhet, Sunamganj, Habiganj, Maulovi Bazar, Kishoreganj, Bhramanbaria and Netrokona. Altogether covers an estimated area of 1.99 million ha which is 13.5% of the country’s total surface area. It is a mosaic of wetland habitats, including rivers, streams and irrigation canals, large areas of seasonally flooded cultivated plains, and hundreds of haors and beels. Among them 373 haors alone cover 858460 ha which is around 43% of total haor region. Naturally, haors are depressed lowland areas as well as getting downward overtime. Because of its natural depression below the surface level haors remain saturated with water either seasonally or permanently. Characteristically, haor has plenty of agriculture land, abundance of fish and with much other potential. Despite of having potential opportunities in the haor areas, haor people in Bangladesh are facing many problems and becoming marginalized in terms of socio-economic development initiatives. Although the economic development of Bangladesh is moving steadily at a moderate pace, the haor region has long been lagging behind mainstream national development. The government has taken many initiatives including the preparation of national and regional strategies to steer economic growth and has accordingly prepared plans over the years to boost the country’s development. It is difficult to foresee the country’s overall progress without the development of the haor region as it covers a major part of the country and population which deserves special development initiatives. In recent past, the government has adopted a number of policies to eradicate poverty from the country. However, poverty in haor areas did not come into focus as it is different and it should be reduced through proper special initiatives by the government. Though there is a Haor Development Board, background information on the socio-economic conditions in relation to lives and livelihoods and CPR remains unsatisfactory and the reliability of existing statistics is ABSTRACT
  • 13. x | P a g e uneven as well which has created scope of conducting an analysis on socio-economy of haor regions. As part of conducting the study on socio-economic analysis of haor, primary information has been collected using both qualitative and quantitative techniques and “Hakaluki Haor” has been selected as the study area. The “Hakaluki Haor” as the study area has been objectively selected as it is the largest and the best –known haor in Bangladesh. Because of the critical conditions of the haor ecology, the government of Bangladesh declared Hakaluki as an Ecologically Critical Area (ECA) in April 1999. The study was carried out using three-fold techniques: quantitative techniques, qualitative techniques and mapping technique (GIS). The methodology included several techniques like literature review, structured interview, key informant interview, FGDs and interview on CPR. The primary survey was conducted using a comprehensive structured questionnaire while the key informant interview was carried out using a set of pre-determined questions and of highly standardized techniques of recording. FGDs were conducted with different occupational groups of people using focus points noted before starting the discussion. Collecting both qualitative and quantitative information, SPSS software was used for data analysis. Data was also generated using GIS software. Analyzing and interpreting data and information, draft report was prepared and finally a presentation was made before internal and external faculty members to get their invaluable feedback which later on incorporated and finalized the report. The report is written broadly in six chapters and also contains acknowledgements, table of content, list of tables, list of figures, list of maps, abbreviations, acronyms, references and annexure. The study, at the outset, provided an overall socio-economic scenario of haor & surveyed on socio-economic conditions and CPR of the Hakaluki Haor-the ecologically critical area. The study covered socio-demographic characteristics, lives and livelihoods, poverty and vulnerability scenario in the haor area. It analyzed the CPR issues comprehensively including CPR scenario, its management related issues and identified existing-lost-reclaimable CPR. Finally the study also included a thorough legal appraisal of major policies and acts which are directly linked to the socio-economic condition, haor ecosystem and lives and livelihoods of haor people. Based on the findings, the study ended with providing a set of recommendations. Given this context of the novelty of the study, some findings are altogether new and it is expected that this will help the resource managers, policy makers and academics.
  • 14. CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background of the study 1.2 Goals and Objectives of the study 1.3 Rationale of the study 1.4 Study Area 1.4.1 Location of the Hakaluki Haor 1.4.2 Administrative boundary of the Hakaluki Haor 1.4.3 (1) Location Map of Hakaluki Haor and (2) map of Study Area 1.4.4 Area and Population in the Hakaluki Haor 1.4.5 Major Livelihoods options for people 1.4.6 Climate 1.4.7 Communication 1.4.8 Geology 1.4.9 River System 1.4.10 Floods in the Hakaluki Haor 1.5 Organization of the report
  • 15. Socio-Economic Analysis of Haor 1 | P a g e INTRODUCTION: 1.1Background of the study: Haors with their unique hydro-ecological characteristics are large bowl shaped floodplain depression located in the north-eastern region of Bangladesh covering about 1.99 million ha of areas and accommodating about 19.37 million people. The area about 373 haors/wetlands located in the districts of Sunamganj, Habiganj, Netrokona, Kishoreganj, Sylhet, Maulavibavar and Brahmanbaria. These 373 haors cover an area of about 859,000 ha which is around 43per cent of the total area of the haor region. It is a mosaic of wetland habitats including rivers, streams, canals, large areas of seasonally flooded cultivated plains and beels (HMP, 2012). The physical setting and hydrology of the region has created myriad of opportunities as well as constraints for inhabitants. The region has distinctive hydrological Characteristics. Annual rainfall ranges From 2200 mm along the western boundary to 5800 mm in its north east corner and is high as 12000 mm in the headwaters of some catchments extending to India. The region receives water from catchment slopes of the Shillong Plateau across the borders in India to the north and the Tripura Hills in India to the southeast. Flash flood is the main disaster in the haor area which engulfs the primary production sector (e.g.; agriculture and fisheries) and thus threatens the lives and livelihoods of the people. Excess rainfall in the upstream hilly areas and subsequent runoff, sedimentation in the rivers, deforestation and hill cuts, landslides, improper drainage, unplanned road and water management infrastructure and the effect of climate variability can be viewed as the main reasons for the devastation caused by flash floods (HMP, 2012). The Haor region is subject to flash floods from water cascading from the hills of north-east India. This area remains flooded for a longer period (6 or 7 months). Compared with the Haor region, Beel area has better infrastructure and communication systems, which in turn, Table-1: Haor Areas at a glance Districts Total Area in ha Haor Area in ha No of Haors Sunamgonj 367,000 268,531 95 Sylhet 349,000 189,909 105 Hobigonj 263700 109514 14 Moulovibazar 279900 47602 3 Netrokona 274,400 79,345 52 Kishorgonj 273,100 133,943 97 Brahmanbaria 192,700 29,616 7 Total 1,999,800 858,460 373 Source: Haor Master Plan,2012 CHAPTER ONE
  • 16. Socio-Economic Analysis of Haor 2 | P a g e contribute to better access to the markets and various administrative departments and also to the educational and medical services. Though substantial portion of the agricultural land in the Beel area is double-cropped, only one crop, boro, is cultivated in the Haor regions. Haors and Beels support major subsistence to the people living in those areas through commercial/non- commercial fisheries and boro cultivation of the country. These two are the major livelihoods of the people living in the Haor areas of Bangladesh (Hussain & Salam, 2007). Haors of Bangladesh have enormous ecological, economic and commercial value as they are rich in biodiversity having rich flora and fauna. Haors are also important for mother fisheries, and potential wetland for migratory birds of global and regional significance along with other aquatic wildlife. The ecology and biodiversity of Haor areas are different from other parts of Bangladesh. But the species and individual number of plant, fish and wild animals are decreasing for both natural and man-made causes. As the majority of the Haor residence are living below the poverty line, it is crucial to explore and develop an in-depth understanding of the causes of poverty and vulnerability issues in the Haor areas and how they manages their day to day activities as part of the process of attempting to secure a sustainable livelihood. To find a sustainable development strategy for Haor areas of the country, poor people’s voice should be amplified in the policy level that might bring positive impact and way out. Developing a comprehensive mechanism in this regard is needed to improve the livelihoods of the people living in the Haor regions in Bangladesh. 1.2 Goals and Objectives of the study : The study was conducted with the following goal and specific objectives: Goal of the Study: The goal of the study is to provide a socio-economic analysis of haor conducive to effective common-pool resources management and thereby enhance livelihoods of the poor people and maintain minimum environmental space for the wider community.
  • 17. Socio-Economic Analysis of Haor 3 | P a g e Specific Objectives: • To assess the socio-demographic status, lives and livelihoods, and poverty and vulnerability scenario in the haor area. • To assess the existing, lost and reclaimable CPR of the haor ecosystems. • To provide an economic analysis of the existing, lost and reclaimable CPR. • To provide a legal appraisal on CPR management in the Haor ecosystem. 1.3 Rationale of the study: Despite potential life and livelihoods opportunities and ecosystem benefits, Haor region clearly lags behind mainstream national development. Living standard is one of the lowest in Haor areas. WFP’s 2004 Food Security Atlas of Bangladesh has identified Haor basin as one of the ‘highly food insecure’ regions of the country. UNICEF-MICS Survey recognized 5 Haor districts as worst performer in the MDG composite index out of 12 such districts in the country. 28.5per cent Haor people are reported completely unemployed. People in general live in small raised platform (hati) where population density is very often even higher than slum areas in cities. Brahmanbaria has the highest population density in the country 1593 per sq km. The region has one of the poor communication networks. On average, people perform agriculture 4-5 months a year. Haor fish production is reportedly decreasing day by day due to over exploitation and continued environmental degradation. Commercial livestock farming has not yet developed due to poor communication and transport system. Literacy rate is too low only 38per cent. School dropout is very high around 44per cent. Only around 44.25per cent Haor people use sanitary latrines, Netrokana has the poorest coverage of only 35per cent. 3 Haor districts have a very low coverage of drinking water sources. The region has one of the lowest electricity coverage. The geographical aspects extensively contribute to flash flooding and Afal which have a yearlong effect on the livelihoods of haor people. On average, Flash floods destroy crops in every 2-3 years. Wave/river bank/village erosion is reported common round the year. Out of 628 rural Haor unions, 93 have no growth centers or rural markets. Arsenic contamination of groundwater is also reported high in this region. A set of both geographical and manmade factors are contributed to these Haor backwardness and vulnerabilities. Haor region as a whole is considered geographically
  • 18. Socio-Economic Analysis of Haor 4 | P a g e disadvantaged area. Empirical data evident that the region has subsided 30-40 feet in last several hundred years at a rate of 3-6 mm every year. Connected to this geological setting and formation processes, Haor region is simultaneously considered a climatic hotspot as well as enriched with mineral and energy resources. It is evident from the history that between 1780s till early 20th, population and area under cultivation of this region experienced a declining trend particularly due to successive natural extreme events including flash floods, waves. At current stage, Haor region is in between 10 to 20 feet above the sea surface level. Situated just below hilly regions, the area is prone to extreme rainfall. Further to this, due to its location in the end point of eastern continuation of the central broad Indo-Gangetic Plains, excess rainfall/glacial melt in Himalaya impacted the region. Excess rainfall in upstream hilly areas and/or in upstream river catchments and subsequent runoff caused a regular phenomenon of flooding and very often flashfloods to this region. Drainage congestion over time due to river-sedimentation and poor navigability as well has linked with this (Siddiquee et al., 2013). Apart from these geographical factors, number of manmade factors particularly caused by anthropogenic actions, Haor biodiversity estimated to have degraded significantly over the years. Gradual filling up of Haor wetlands for housing, industry and agricultural practices, over exploitation of fish and forest resources, hunting water bird, residual pollution of chemical fertilizer and pesticides, unplanned embankments and road and water management infrastructures construction and diversions, deforestation and hill cuts are among others main man-made factors. Including these geographical and man- made factors couple with limited government and NGO services a costly spiral of poverty and underdevelopment have been manifested in entire Haor region (ibid ). Legal/policy regime analyzed not Haor friendly. Historically, certain common laws/Acts governed all other regions of the country like the Permanent Settlement Regulations 1793, Wakf/Debottar law, State Acquisition and Tenancy (SAT) Act, 1950; Forest Act, 1927;Private Forest Ordinance 1950, implemented as well for managing of distinct Haor lands/resources. Apart from these, a common set of sectoral policies practiced all over the country also have been implemented in Haor region. These policies are basically sectoral- issue driven, independent and are divided. Likely, handsome of agencies/institutions have
  • 19. Socio-Economic Analysis of Haor 5 | P a g e been linked with Haor development. The Haor Master Plan has that 17 Ministries, 34 government, NGO, INGO, public and research agencies are at present directly /indirectly involved for implementing of different sectoral policies at haor regions apart from law enforcing agencies. There is even conflict between policies, overlap of functions of the service providing organizations, and their respective power and authority is not always clear. Lack of coordination among different institutions, lack of policy coherence, lack of pro-poor legislation and regulation, and a top-down provider- recipient service delivery mechanism are in place where haor people are conceived merely as governed rather than as active partner in governing their own businesses, let alone particular focus to haor distinctness,. In the midst of all these, despite being treated as common pool resources, few people who are politically or economically powerful ultimately get the opportunity to consume most of haor resources leaving majority of haor people in abject poverty (ibid). The haor region has long been lagging behind mainstream national development although the economic development of Bangladesh is moving steadily at a moderate pace. The government has taken many initiatives including the preparation of national and regional strategies to steer economic growth and has accordingly prepared plans over the years to boost the country’s development. It is difficult to foresee the country’s overall progress without the development of the haor region as it covers a major part of the country and population which deserves special development initiatives. In recent past, the government has adopted a number of policies to eradicate poverty from the country. However, poverty in haor areas did not come into focus as it is different and it should be reduced through proper special initiative by the government as well as the Parliament. People in haor areas are needed to be empowered by addressing their basic needs and raising public awareness at all levels in order to fulfill their rights to live on. Except these, importance should be given for establishing the rights of the haor people as well. As per commitment made by the present government through election manifesto, government has specific commitment to address poverty eradication in Bangladesh. Though there is a Haor Development Board, background information on the socio-economic conditions in relation to lives and livelihoods and CPR remains unsatisfactory and the reliability of existing statistics is uneven as well which has created scope of conducting an analysis on socio-economy of haor regions.
  • 20. Socio-Economic Analysis of Haor 6 | P a g e 1.4 Study Area: As part of conducting the study on socio-economic analysis of haor, primary information has been collected using both qualitative and quantitative techniques and “Hakaluki Haor” has been selected as the study area. The “Hakaluki Haor” as study area has been objectively selected as it is the largest and the best –known haor in Bangladesh. Because of the critical conditions of the haor ecology, the government of Bangladesh declared Hakaluki as an Ecologically Critical Area (ECA) in April 1999. The government has designated ECA these as ECAs to bring them under a management strategy which will ensure their conservation and sustainable use. Hakaluki Haor has a great importance to the haor ecology, bears representative characteristics of haor, is with high proximity of natural resources and wider biodiversity. Considering all mentioned above, the Hakaluki Haor has been selected as study area as representative of haor. The specific area is tabulated below: Table-2: Study area details by district, sub-district, union and villages. (map is given under 1.4.3) Region District Sub-district Union Villages Haor Basin Maulavibazar Baralekha Talimpur 1.Halla 2 Shreerampur 3. Ahmedpur Sujanagar Dasghari 1.4.1 Location of the Hakaluki Haor : The Hakaluki Haor lies between latitude 24° 35' N to 24° 45' N and longitude 92° 00' E to 92° 08' E (location map is given under 1.4.3). It is bounded by the Kushiara River as well as a part of the Sonai-Bardal River to the north, by the Fenchuganj-Kulaura Railway to the west as well as to the south, and by the Kulaura-Beanibazar Road to the east. Hakaluki Haor is about 30 km southeast of the district town of Sylhet and about 40 km northwest of the district town Moulavibazar (IUCN publication -2005). 1.4.2 Administrative boundary of the Hakaluki Haor: The Hakaluki Haor falls under two administrative districts and five sub-districts. The breakup of the haor falling under different administrative units is given in following Table (ibid).
  • 21. Socio-Economic Analysis of Haor 7 | P a g e Table-3: Administrative unit wise break-up of Area of the Hakaluki Haor District Sub-district Percentage of Area Moulavibazar Baralekha 40 Moulavibazar Kulaura 30 Sylhet Fenchuganj 15 Sylhet Golapganj 10 Sylhet Beanibazar 5 Source: IUCN and GOB publication on Hakaluki Haor,2005 1.4.3 (1) Location Map of Hakaluki Haor and (2) map of Study Area: (1) Location map of the Hakaluki Haor Source: GIS unit, CNRS
  • 22. Socio-Economic Analysis of Haor 8 | P a g e (2): Map of Study Area locating union and villages.
  • 23. Socio-Economic Analysis of Haor 9 | P a g e 1.4.4 Area and Population in the Hakaluki Haor: The Hakaluki Haor is a complex ecosystem, containing more than 238 interconnecting beels/Jalmahals (CWBMP, 2005). The most important beels are Chatla, Pinlarkona, Dulla, Sakua, Barajalla, Pioula, Balijhuri, Lamba, Tekonia, Haorkhal, Tural, Baghalkuri and Chinaura. The total area of the haor is approximately 18,000 ha, including the area which is completely inundated during monsoon. Of this total area, beels (permanent wetlands) cover an area of 4,635 ha. This 18,000 ha area represents area demarcated as ECA declared by the Government of Bangladesh for Hakaluki haor. Some 190,000 people live in the area surrounding the Hakaluki Haor. 1.4.5 Major Livelihoods options for people: The two main sources of livelihood for these people are fisheries and agriculture. Depending on how water levels are controlled, tensions arise between the areas available for fish versus the area befitting for agricultural production. 1.4.6 Climate: The climate of the region is greatly influenced by the onset and withdrawal of the annual monsoon. Four distinct seasons are recognized. These are: Table -4: Seasons are recognized and its characteristics Season Duration Characterized by Pre-monsoon April-May Increasing rainfall, Sometimes intense rainfall of short duration Monsoon June-September Heavy rainfall occurring over longer duration. About 65 to 69per cent of the annual total rainfall occurs during monsoon Post-monsoon October-November Decreasing rainfall. About 6 to 8per cent of total annual rainfall occurs. Dry December -March Little or no rainfall. Only 3 to 4 per cent of total annual rainfall occurs. Source: Information modified from the book of Chowdhury , et.al ;2005 1.4.7 Communication: Road: The Hakaluki Haor is approachable from Dhaka by road via either Moulavibazar or Srimangal-Shamsernagar and from Sylhet via Fenchuganj, Moulavibazar or Beanibazar. The
  • 24. Socio-Economic Analysis of Haor 10 | P a g e Sylhet-Fenchuganj-Brahmanbazar road passess by the southern periphery of the Hakaluki Haor and runs along the railway track from Fenchuganj to Baramchal. This road meets the Moulavibazar-Baralekha road at Brahmanbazar . The Moulavibazar-Baralekha road passess by the eastern periphery of the Hakaluki Haor and this road also runs along the Kulaura-Shabazpur Railway (Chowdhury et.al, 2005) Railway: The Haor is surrounded by the Sylhet-Kulaura Railway to the south and by the Kulaura-Shabazpur Railway to the east. The Railway stations: Fenchuganj, Maizgaon, Bhatera, Baramchal and Pachkapon are located on the southern periphery of the haor and Juri, Baralejkha and Kathalthali are located on the eastern periphery of the haor (ibid). River Route: The Hakaluki Haor is accessible from the southern side by boat from Fenchuganj through the outfall of the Juri river with the Kushiyara river, which is about 3 km upstream of the township of Fenchuganj . From the northern side, the Hakaluki haor is accessible by boat from Jaldhup through the Sonali Bardal River (ibid). 1.4.8 Geology: The Hakaluki Haor lies within the Sylhet trough, one of the major tectonic structures of Bangladesh. The basement of the trough slopes northwards at great depth, and passes beneath the Shillong Plateau, from which the Dauki Fault separates. The vast thickness of sediments filling the Sylhet through was folded in the Late Miocene period to form the Indo-Burman ranges, a sequence of north-trending anticlines extending from 910E eastwards into Myanmar. The anticline increase in amplitude eastwards, and plunges northwards into the trough where they are submerged beneath the more recent sediments. In the north, however, the submergence of the anticlines has been resisted, and they are exposed as outliers at Chhatak and Sylhet. The presence of the submerged portions of the anticlines has been detected by both seismic and geomagnetic surveys (ibid). 1.4.9 River System: The river systems of the northeastern corner of Bangladesh have played a very significant role in shaping the physical characteristics of Hakaluki haor. The Kushiyara River flows by the northern boundary of the haor. The two main rivers, namely the Sonali-Bardal River enters the haor from the east and the Juri River from the southeast. A smaller river, namely the Phanai River enters the haor from the southwest. Besides, there are a large number of smaller hilly streams, entering the haor from the surrounding hills (ibid).
  • 25. Socio-Economic Analysis of Haor 11 | P a g e 1.4.10 Floods in the Hakaluki Haor: The annual flooding pattern in the Hakaluki Haor can be distinguished into two types: flash floods and river floods. Flash floods occur in the pre- monsoon months of April and May as a result of intense rainfall over short duration in the river catchments. The rapidly rising flood flows into the low-lying areas of the Haor quickly. The duration of high flood stage is small, often only lasts for a few days. Flash floods cause damage to boro rice just before or at the time of harvesting in the month of April and May. River floods occur in the monsoon season when the rivers flow very high causing over bank flow, which is aggravated greatly by the backwater effect of the Meghna River, resulting in deep flooding through the Sylhet depression and extending up to the Hakaluki Haor. 1.5 Organization of the report: The study report is prepared on the basis of the literature review, households’ questionnaire survey, FGDs, K-II, CPR checklists, and GIS mapping. It is written broadly in six chapters and contains acknowledgement, table of content, list of tables, list of figures, abbreviations, acronyms, references and annexure. An executive summary has also been given for quick understanding for readers. As usual chapter starts with introduction, chapter two contains literature review and chapter three is methodology. The chapter four refers to the findings and discussion while chapter five included a legal appraisal or anatomy of policies and acts related to haor resources management and haor peoples’ lives and livelihoods. Finally chapter six is summary and conclusion in which in addition to summarization, a record of recommendations has been provided.
  • 26. Socio-Economic Analysis of Haor CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 Introduction 2.2 Summary of the reviewed literature from books 2.3 Summary of reviewed literature from unpublished reports
  • 27. Socio-Economic Analysis of Haor 12 | P a g e LITERATURE REVIEW: 2.1 Introduction: The literature review was done by examining/studying different books, journal articles, seminar papers, papers from edited volumes, pre-convention publication, government documents and NGO reports, study conducted by individual and consultancy firms, etc. that focuses on the issues related to the study topic. Out of many books, journal articles and reports reviewed, a few have been provided here in a categorized way: 2.2 Summary of the reviewed literature from books: The book titled “Parliamentarians Can Make The Difference: Neglected Haor Livelihoods” by Siddique, Hossain and Khan (2013) and has been published as a part of objectively documenting the vulnerability to haor livelihoods and to identify relevant actors, factors and forces to these. The book is expected to enable the parliamentarians to effectively deal and act on issues of haor livelihoods and development. This is expected to further amplify haor voices into key national policies and strategies through key role played by the legislators. The content of the book has been developed based on a study which is predominately premised on qualitative approach. The methodology of this study included only review and consultation. Haor region, alternatively known to as Haor basin or Sylhet basin is basically spread over 47 Upazilas under seven north-eastern Bangladesh districts Sylhet, Sunamganj, Habiganj, Maulovi Bazar, Kishoreganj, Bhramanbaria and Netrokona. Altogether covers an estimated area of 1.99 million ha which is 13.5per cent of the country’s total surface area. It is a mosaic of wetland habitats, including rivers, streams and irrigation canals, large areas of seasonally flooded cultivated plains, and hundreds of haors and beels. Among them 373 Haors alone cover 858460 ha which is around 43per cent of total Haor region. Naturally, haors are depressed lowland areas as well as getting downward overtime. Because of its natural depression below the surface level haors remain saturated with water either seasonally or permanently. Seasonally, between July to November each year haors completely go under water and look like seas. During wind storm waves reportedly often reach up to 1.5 m in height. Deeply flooded haors are known more as beels. Usually, small permanent water bodies remain within beels round the year. CHAPTER TWO
  • 28. Socio-Economic Analysis of Haor 13 | P a g e Around 19.37 million people live in haor region which is around 12per cent of the country’s total population. Out of 10.57 million ha rice area, haor area/region alone covers 1.74 million ha which is 16per cent of grand total. An estimated of 5.25 million metric ton rice produced in haor region in catastrophe damage free condition which is 18per cent of Bangladesh’s total production. Tea grows abundant in a few Haor districts. The region has an estimated fish habitat area of around 967000 ha that contributes nearly 20per cent of total inland fish production. Approximately 22per cent of country’s total cattle population comes from haor region. More than 24per cent of country’s total duck population comes from haor region. The region is enriched with around 296005 ha forest resources. Pearl-mussels reportedly are available in natural environment of haors. Geological setting and formations have favored deposition of valuable minerals and energy resources in this region. 90per cent of country’s total gas production comes from the haor region. Country’s single crude oil mine so far explored in the haor region. Haors are rich in bio-diversity, important for mother fisheries, and potential wetland for migratory birds of global and regional significance along with other aquatic wildlife. Despite potential life and livelihoods opportunities, on average 29.56per cent haor areas population live below lower poverty line. This figure stands to over 39per cent in Netrokona and around 34per cent in Kishorganj. Around 28.5per cent Haor peoples are completely unemployed. The region has one of the poor communication networks. 11 Haor Upazilas are not connected with Roads and Highway Department network. Agriculture works are seasonal cover only 4-5 months a year during dry season. Due to over exploitation and continued environmental degradation Haor fish production reportedly has reduced to near half in between 1995 to 2003. Commercial livestock farming has not yet developed due to poor communication and transport system. Literacy rate is one of the poor in Haor districts, on average 38per cent. Primary school enrolment is low, only 71per cent. School dropout is very high around 44per cent. On average only 44.25per cent Haor people use sanitary latrines; Netrokana has the poorest coverage of only 35per cent. Haor districts have a very low coverage of drinking water sources. Sunamgonj has the lowest use of electricity consumption with only 17kWh per capita followed by Kishorgonj and Netrokana. Geographical aspects extensively contribute to flash flooding and Afal which have a yearlong effect. On average, Flash floods destroy crops in
  • 29. Socio-Economic Analysis of Haor 14 | P a g e every 2-3 years. Wave/river bank/village erosion is reported common round the year. Arsenic contamination of groundwater is also reported high in this region. Two factors, geographical and manmade are analyzed main for haor vulnerabilities and backwardness. Haor areas basin constituted the northeast part of the Bengal basin which is physically in between Indian Plate and Eurasian Plate where a structural crackdown happened during formation process due to a collision between these two Plates. As part of this, haor areas are subject to a continuous but slow process of subsidence leaving surface area shifting downward over time. Empirical data evident that the region has subsided 30-40 feet in last several hundred years. This has resulted several times shifting of river courses of this region. By this continual process, lowlands became an immense tract of submerged area covered with clean still water of no great depth. The lowest haor portion is only 10 feet above the sea surface level. Some deepest parts are even 20 to 25 feet below the sea surface level. Because of this geological setting and formation, the haor region is simultaneously considered a geographically disadvantaged region but enriched with mineral and energy resources. Livelihoods comprise capabilities, assets and activities required for a means of living. Of these three components, assets are considered main. DFID further has presented five main categories of capital assets: natural, economic/financial, human, social and physical. Although a rich set of natural and economic assets are analyzed prevalent in haor livelihoods and right-bearer stakeholders are informed of its distinct geography still, geographical distinctness of Haor region has been neglected at policy regime over the years. This has further negatively impacted human, social and physical assets building. Misunderstood vulnerability to climatic extreme events and climate change due to geophysical location of haor region has been linked with this. Compounding to all these, haors have been manifested with a comparatively backward livelihoods to other regions of the country. Due to lack of any special and different treatment, the region is analyzed lacks behind in clear margin in almost all the national development benchmarks. There is even conflict between policies, overlap of functions of the service providing organizations, and their respective power and authority is not always clear. Lack of coordination among different institutions, lack of policy coherence, lack of pro-poor legislation and regulation, and a top-down provider- recipient service delivery mechanism are in place
  • 30. Socio-Economic Analysis of Haor 15 | P a g e where haor people are conceived merely as governed rather than as active partner in governing their own businesses. In the midst of all these, visible initiatives on the ground remain confined to the delivery of infrastructural packages mostly encompassing the construction of embankment, water plants, power plants and some other physical infrastructures and restructuring of a few existing institutions together with a few regulatory measures. But, in reality, such infrastructural packages and restructuring are not sufficient to ensure sustainable haor development. The study focused mostly in analyzing education, health and livelihoods scenarios of the Haor, which is basically based on the secondary literature available. It didn’t provide any analysis on CPR issues, including CPR exploitation scenario, income status from CPR, dependency on CPR and management aspects of CPR which are very much linked to livelihoods of haor people. Policy analysis part related ecologically critical area is another gaps in this study. As some statistical information was given based on secondary literature, so there might have a scope of generating up to date information. In addition, it didn’t provide any information about lost and reclaimable CPR. The study also didn’t have any focus on Hakaluki Haor which is our study area. So, it provides a further scope of conducting a study where CPR issues can be addressed. The book titled “Hydro-Meterological Characteristics of Hakaluki Haor” by Chowdhury and Nishat (2005) and published by IUCN-Bangladesh contains location, administrative boundary, communication, geological characteristics like tectonics , structure and seismicity, river systems linked to hakaluki haor, seasons, climatic data, rainfall, water levels, soils and land use pattern in Hakaluki Haor. A study for this book had been conducted of which objectives were to see inflow and outflow routes of water, identification of wetlands, hydrological and hydraulic characteristics and soil characteristics. Hakaluki haor lies mainly within the Agro-Ecological Zone (AEZ) 20-Eatern Surma-Kusiyara Flood Plain. Surface sediments in the haor and its surroundings consist of plaudal marsh clays, peats, alluvial silts and clays, valley alluviam and colluviums and dihing and dupi tila formations. Aus and transplanted aman is almost universal on highland and medium highland floodplain ridge soils. Aus is widely transplanted in this wet region; elsewhere, sprouted seeds
  • 31. Socio-Economic Analysis of Haor 16 | P a g e are sown on wet puddle soils. Most such land remains fallow in the robi season. With irrigation, improved variety boro is followed by rain fed transplanted aman. The book also suggested following activities for the Hakaluki Haor management which are: -Agricultural development through development of irrigation system -Increasing the conveyance capacity of the internal rivers by excavation/dredging -Checking sedimentation in the beels by undertaking suitable interventions -Declaring Chatla, Sakia,Nagura, Haorkhal and Jingla beel as fish sanctuary -Stocktaking fish and stopping over fishing by the lessees -Developing pastures and improving livestock. The study mostly was hydro-meteorological characteristics of the Hakaluki Haor where socio- economic analyses were not supposed to do which gives a further scope of conducting this study. The book titled “Major Interventions for Sustainable Wetland Resource Management” by IUCN-Bangladesh (2005)things thatwetlands in Bangladesh are facing serious degradation lately, leading to the certain extinction of the existing ecosystem structures and functions. This situation has arisen largely due to the unplanned resource harvesting by the ever-increasing population. Interventions are thus necessary for changing the users’ behavior first to reverse such ill resource exploitation practices. During the wet season, the floodplain environment offers dramatically increased living spaces and availability of resources. Fish and wildlife are important elements of wetland ecosystems. So far, 266 fish species have been recorded in fresh and brackish waters of Bangladesh. Apawning of freshwater fish occurs during the flood season. The wetland dependent birds are those that depend ecologically on wetlands; they would include fish eagles, the osprey, several kingfishers, and a number of marsh passerines. There are 125 species of waterfowls recorded in the north-eastern haor region of the country. The migratory birds use the wetlands of haors are resting and breeding ground during winter. The inland fisheries of Bangladesh cover an area of 4.3 million ha of which 94per cent comprise open water capture fisheries, and remaining 6per cent closed water systems (Rahman, 1989 and 1993, in Khan et al; 1994). The haors, beels and baors offer tremendous scope and potential for increased fish production by adoption of culture based fishery enhancement techniques.
  • 32. Socio-Economic Analysis of Haor 17 | P a g e The study mostly was focused in preparing inventory of wetland resources in Bangladesh. On contrary there are gaps in socio-economic dimension where there is a scope of this study. 2.3 Summary of reviewed literature from unpublished reports: The report titled “Natural Resource Economic Evaluation of Hakaluki Haor” by IUCN- Bangladesh in association with CNRS and submitted to MoEF, Government of Bangladesh in 2006. This study aimed to provide information on the values of conserving the Hakaluki Haor in terms of its economic, ecological and social benefits for local communities and for the nation at large. The study was done by conducting a household survey, estimating the economic value of wetland goods and services and constructing a wetland bio-economic model. The study was more focused in developing a bio-economic model describing and illustrating the interactions between the people, resources and economic activities. The haor system provides a wide range of economic and non-economic benefits to the local people as well as to the people of Bangladesh and the world at large. These include benefits in terms of fish production, rice production, cattle and buffalo rearing, duck rearing, collection of reeds and grasses, and collection of aquatic and other plants. The haor system also protects the lower floodplains from flash floods occurring in the months of April-May, recharges the water tables, maintains the supply of fish in other lower riparian water bodies, provides habitat for migratory and local waterfowl, and generates important carbon sequestration services. At the same time, the unique haor system is a natural beauty both during the monsoon months andthe dry season. In monsoon, its unique physical characteristics make it a huge natural bowl ofwater and in the dry season it is natural grassland with a horizon nearly 35 km wide, with Pockets of beels serving as the resting place for migratory birds. Such a unique natural system, if appropriately marketed, could be a major attraction for tourists. However, as of today, there is little evidence of this. The property rights regime of the haor is complex. Most of the agricultural lands in the haor basin are private land. While the majority of the water bodies are owned by the government and are generally leased out for fishing activities, smaller water bodies are sometimes owned by local villages or by a few families. The banks of the water bodies, which were once tracts of
  • 33. Socio-Economic Analysis of Haor 18 | P a g e swamp forests, are public land. The cycle of economic activities in the haor region also varies significantly with changes in theseasons. During the monsoon months, most of the land is under water and so fishing is the major economic activity. However, during this time leaseholders have no control over fish, because they are spread over a large area and people are able to catch them freely. During the dry season, a large number of activities take place. Agricultural land under private ownership is often put under Boro rice production. The banks of the wetland provide grazing grounds, and herds of cattle and buffaloes are brought in. Water bodies are more organized and defined, and leaseholders take full control of their fish harvests. Local people collect building materials such as reeds for fences, various plants and fuel wood for personal and commercial use, and sometimes are engaged in hunting and poaching of migratory birds. The bio-economic model developed above represents a stylized fact and it is designed to elicit the outcome of conservation effort in terms of economic values. Results of the simulation exercises could be improved using an interdisciplinary team to improve the parameters and assumptions used in this model. At the same time, it would be fair to conclude that the results of this model are indicative in terms of the benefits from conservation effort. They are never assumed to be the actual values. The model determined the impact of conservation using tables and diagrams and it provided an authentic estimate of the gesture that we often use to argue for conservation. This study is not expected to provide a value for its resources although the Hakaluki Haor is full of resources. It simply provided a glimpse in terms of changes that would take place if the resources are not conserved properly. Another report named “Natural Resource Governance: The Case of Jalmahals in Bangladesh prepared by Hossain (2011) and submitted to Bangladesh Networks for Environmental Governance (BNEG) provided a historical overview wetland management system in Bangladesh. Before the British rules in India, fishermen accustomed to enjoy customary rights to fish in rivers, haors, beels, and baors either freely or paid some tolls or handed over some portion of their each to the estate holders or their agents (Pokrant et al., 1996). The history of access to fishing grounds of fishers in colonial Bengal (from 1793 to 1950) was that the Viceroy and Governor General of India introduced a new system of land rights settlement (In 1793) which
  • 34. Socio-Economic Analysis of Haor 19 | P a g e came to be known as Permanent Settlement. Under the Permanent Settlement Regulation-1 of 1793, influential people were granted permanent ownership of large tracts of lands which included not only vacant lands but also rivers and other waters as well as human settlements. These groups of people were known as zamindars (Pokrant et al., 1995; Ali, 1992). Management and Settlements systems of Water bodies in East Bengal (erstwhile East Pakistan): The system of ownership and lease settlement of water bodies in the shape of jalmahals continued in East Bengal, which fell into Pakistan after partition of India in 1947. In 1950, the Government of East Bengal decided to abolish the zamindari system and acquire the rent receiving rights of the zaminders. This was achieved through an enactment, the State Acquisition and Tenancy Act 1950 (East Bengal Act XXVIII of 1951). The Department of Revenue took over the ownership and management of all jalmahals (shaireat-mohal/jalkar) on behalf of the provincial Government of East Bengal. The provincial Board of Revenue attached to the Department of Revenue was the principal body of the government to administer management of all land and water bodies in the province except waters inside the reserved forests. Between 1950 and about 1965 or so, anybody intending to take lease could participate in the auction to bid for jalmahal lease. This resulted in the settlement of lease of all jalmahals with the non-fishermen rich and influential ijaradars. During the late sixties, to help the poor fishermen community, the Board of Revenue decided to give preference to the fishermen’s cooperative societies registered with the cooperative department in making lease settlement of jalmahals, provided the societies agreed to pay the highest bid money offered at the auctions. But this did not move far. Under this system, Deputy Commissioner (DC) in each district was provided with an Additional Deputy Commissioner (ADC) to assist the DC to manage all revenue matters including the revenue management of jalmahals. This system still exists in the independent Bangladesh. Scenario of Jalmahals Management during 1980’s and ’90s: In 1974 the government of the newly independent Bangladesh decided to restrict the auctioning of jalmahals to registered fishermen’s cooperative societies only. As a result of this new restriction, formation of new fishermen’s cooperative societies mushroomed, particularly around more valuable jalmahal. These new societies also obtained registration from the cooperative department. The sole
  • 35. Socio-Economic Analysis of Haor 20 | P a g e object of all these fishermen’s cooperative societies, both new and old was to secure lease of jalmahals. Most of these cooperatives were organised and formed at the behest of the traditional non-fishermen ijaradars of the past, who provided necessary financial and other support to their patronised societies. The reason for such patronization was to secure control of jalmohals by the traditional non-fishermen leaseholders using the cooperative societies as the front organizations. The cooperative societies, upon securing the lease, would sub-lease the jalmahals over to their respective patrons or simply hand the jalmahal over to their respective patrons. Control of Jalmahal Management-Tussle of Two Ministries: As per the present law as many as 10,109 government jalmahal are under Ministry of Land (MoL) for management. Along with the management of these jalmahals are involved Ministry of Fisheries and Livestock for irrigation to farming and dependent on jalmahals by other nearby inhabitants. Besides, government revenue enhancement and realization is also a matter of question. In this situation on which ministry will be involved or be responsible for management of these jalmahals, some questions arose out and to mitigate problems government took some decisions. As per the government decision-1980, all the public jalmahals which meanwhile had been under the MoL handed over to Ministry of fisheries and Livestock. This is to be mentioned here that as the jalmahals under MoL were under the control of influential, hence government tried to make a change in the management of jalmahals. In this regard, Ministry of Land alleged that prior to handing over the jalmahals- the policy aspect, legal issue and handing over issues were not considered deeply so complicacies arise for leasing out, conflict settle, appeal and hearing and utilization by people. On the other hand, the Ministry of Fisheries and Livestock that has been given responsibility for the jalmahal management raised some issues of problems, such as problems in handing over of jalmahals to them, lack of manpower for jalmahal management, problems in revenue connection. Owing to these problems and as per the recommendations of Land Reform Committee, the government took decision in July of 1983 to give back the responsibility of jalmahal management, lease and appeal hearing, etc. to Ministry of Land. In this connection, the government also tagged out some additional responsibilities to this ministry:
  • 36. Socio-Economic Analysis of Haor 21 | P a g e In fact, this review found that a more number of policies on jalmahal management were framed under the Ministry of Land. It was also found that the management of small close water bodies was being handed over to the Ministry of Youth and Sports since 1980 for the benefit of real fishermen. Though jalmahal management was handed over to Fisheries and Livestock Department, this did not sustain for a long time. So the management responsibility was reverted to the Ministry of Land. Again dominance of influential on jalmahal started snowballing. Local Government was given responsibility to manage the jalmahals of below 20 acres for a short period. And the jalmahals of upto 20 acres come under the Ministry of Youth. But the question arises - can the youth society take the management of jalmahals. Does this create any employment opportunity? Presently the jalmahals are being managed as per the Latest Jalmahal Policy of 2005. Here are also some questions arise - can the common fishermen reap any benefit? From the conditions of leasing it is understood that the influential participate in tender in the name of fishermen co- operative societies and enjoy the jalmahals. How the interest of common fishermen can be ensured is a matter to be pondered. How the rights of real fishermen can be ensured to the public jalmahals has to be seriously looked into. In the Jalmahals Management and Policies, there is no mention about the rights of indigenous and non-fishermen distressed people to jalmahals. And finally, by reviewing the policies, it seems that the management of water bodies in Bangladesh is based on the single objective of earning revenue. Since Government has approved new Public Jalmahals Management Policy in 2009, so a further anatomy is crucial about its spirit and effectiveness towards ensuring the rights of poor people in the haor areas.
  • 37. Socio-Economic Analysis of Haor CHAPTER THREE METHODOLOGY 3.1 Techniques and tools used in the study 3.2 A brief outline of methodology of the study 3.3 Sources of Data 3.4 Sampling Techniques 3.4.1 Quantitative sample selection technique 3.4.2 Qualitative sample selection techniques 3.5 Sample Size Calculation 3.6 Data collection, processing and analysis
  • 38. Socio-Economic Analysis of Haor 22 | P a g e METHODOLOGY: Methodology is a way to systematically solve the research problem. It may be understood as a science of studying how research is done scientifically. An appropriate methodology is obviously needed for solving each problem. It provides help to organize the scattered views of different resource persons, information and steps required for fulfilling the objectives. Sequentially proper working procedure helps to capture the right things at right periods and finally fulfill the objectives. 3.1 Techniques and tools used in the study: The study was carried out using three-fold techniques: i.e. information was collected using: 1. Quantitative techniques 2. Qualitative techniques and 3. GIS software. The methodology of this study includes several techniques like Literature review , Structured Interview, Key Informant Interview, Focus Group Discussions, Data Collection , Data Analysis, Draft Report writing, Presentation, Feedback Incorporation and Finalization of the Report. Different tools like FGD-checklists, structured questionnaire, K-II semi-structured questionnaire, satellite image, GIS, SPSS etc have been utilized for the above mentioned techniques. The techniques and tools are tabulated below: Table -5: Data collection Techniques and Tools, and data sources at a glance Data Collection Techniques Different tools used for collecting data Primary data: 1.Structured survey 2.Key Informant Interview 3.Focus Group Discussion 4.GIS data 5.CPR related data Primary: using structured questionnaire for survey, semi- structured questionnaire for K-II, key points noted for FGDs, GIS software for GIS based data like the existing, lost and potential CPR were mapped by comprehensive mapping tools (i.e.GIS) collection and satellite image. In addition a (common –pool resource) CPR checklist was used to collect CPR related data specifically. Secondary data: Secondary data : using different related books, journal papers, report of GO and NGOs, Haor Master Plan etc 3.2 A brief outline of methodology of the study: The study has been conceptualized by consulting with academic supervisor, other faculty members and resource persons, and reviewing secondary literature related to the present topic. CHAPTER THREE
  • 39. Socio-Economic Analysis of Haor 23 | P a g e After setting the objectives of the study, to reach to the end, a mental model had made that was the background of thinking for achieving the goal of the study sequentially. The primary survey was conducted using a comprehensive structured questionnaire while the key informant interview was carried out using a set of pre-determined questions and of highly standardized techniques of recording. A flexible procedure was laid down, asking questions in a form and ordered prescribed. Focus Group Discussion (FGD) was also conducted with different occupational groups of people using focus points noted before starting the discussion. Collecting both qualitative and quantitative information, SPSS software was used for data analysis. Data was also generated using Geographic Information System (GIS) software. GIS generated data included GIS mapping and then analyze the fishing practices, land use, aquatic vegetation, natural growth of swamp trees, fish production scenario and major fish landing centre of the Hakaluki Haor. Analyzing and interpreting data and information, draft report was prepared and finally a presentation was made before internal and external faculty members to get their invaluable feedback which later on incorporated and finalized the report. 3.3 Sources of Data: A combination of sources of data was utilized for the study. Therefore the sources of data were:  Primary data from the target population of the study including (households sample household), GoB and other stakeholders using quantitative and qualitative approach.  Secondary data related to hoar ecosystem’s and CPR management including books, journals, report from different GO’s and NGO’s, Maps etc.  GIS mapping on CPR of the studied areas including fishing practices, land use, aquatic vegetation and natural growth of swamp trees, fish production scenario and major fish landing centre of the Hakaluki Hoar. 3.4 Sampling Techniques: 3.4.1 Quantitative sample selection technique: The study was conducted in Baralekha Upazila under Moulvibazaar. The total populations of studied areas were estimated from different secondary sources as BBS and other sources. Therefore, a multistage systematic random sampling was applied in determining the sample size of the intended study.
  • 40. Socio-Economic Analysis of Haor 24 | P a g e At the first stage, 4 villages (Halla, Shreerampur, Ahmedpur, Dasghari) were purposively selected based on high proximity of CPR and hardship of the locality. Different secondary literatures were useful to conceptualize the high proximity of CPR and hardship of the different locality. The villages Halla, Shreerampur and Ahmedpur are under Talimpur union and Dasghari village is under Sujanagar union.  These villages were the primary sampling unit (PSU) of the survey.  In each village, systematic random sampling was applied for selecting for an eligible respondent. Starting from one random corner, the every fourth household had been selected as the eligible respondent.  A sample of 40 households was randomly drawn from each village for conducting the household survey. Thus we had randomly selected 160 households (4*40=160) for the entire study. 3.4.2 Qualitative sample selection techniques: Different types of target groups at the local level were taken into account for Focus Group Discussion (FGDs), Key Informants Interviews (KIIs) and CPR Checklist. Respondent/ participants of FGDs, KII and CRP checklist were selected based on their availability and willingness to participate using purposive method. Focus Group Discussions (FGDs): FGDs were carried out with different groups of pre- selected respondents (consists of 8 -10 participants) of homogenous categories with semi- structured guideline. The participants of the FGDs were the household’s members of the study villages. Most of them were direct users of the CPRs. A total of 8 FGDs i.e., 2 from each village was conducted by the enumerators. Village basic data collection checklist (CPR checklist): Semi-Structured questionnaire contained checklist was used to collect the village level information of all the 4 villages under sample frame. This tool has been used to collect the existing CPRs within the villages. Key Informant Interviews (KIIs): Checklist has been used for Key Informant Interview (KII). This tool had been used to collect the CPRs related information from the knowledgeable persons of the villages. 12 Key Informant Interviews (KIIs) i.e., 3 per village, were conducted by the enumerators.
  • 41. Socio-Economic Analysis of Haor 25 | P a g e 3.5 Sample Size Calculation: A standard statistical formula has been used to calculate the sample size for the household survey as a part of primary quantitative data collection. The following formula has been used to estimate the required sample size of target respondents: Where, n = the desired sample size which would be sufficient to measure the different variables; z = the standard normal deviate, usually set at 1.96 at 5per cent significance level for a two-tailed test which corresponds to 95per cent confidence level; p = estimated prevalence of main variable or variable of interest, we assume 50per cent or 0.5, q = 1 – p; r = response rate. It has been set to 95 per cent point or 0.95 (expressed as decimal); e = the precision level or the distance from the prevalence estimate in either direction. It has been set to ± 7.94 per cent point for two tails equation or 0.07941 (expressed as decimal). Therefore, this study enrolled a total of 160 respondents, based on a minimum necessary sample size of 160. The estimation is done based on the prevalence of main variable or variable of interest. 3.6 Data collection, processing and analysis: A successful pretesting of developed questionnaires’ was conducted in adjacent areas of studied villages to find out the gaps in answer options, ambiguities, language issues, poor sequencing, unnecessary questions, repetition. The entire questionnaire has been checked again to identify inconsistency in the completed questionnaire. Coding manual was developed to put the code for the open ended questionnaires. All collected survey data was entered into a database using Access program and the data was analyzed using SPSS program. Also the Maps were processed using the GIS mapping software for identify the CPR issues. 2 2 er qpz n   
  • 42. Socio-Economic Analysis of Haor CHAPTER FOUR FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION 4.1 Demographic Characteristics of the Hakaluki Haor 4.2 Education 4.3 Occupation and Income 4.4 Assets of Households 4.4.1 Land ownership of households 4.4.2 Distribution of the household by landholding 4.4.3 Ownership of non-land assets 4.5 Poverty and Food security scenario 4.5.1 Incidence of poverty in the study area 4.5.2 Food security Scenario 4.5.3 Food deficit 4.6 Loan status 4.6.1 Loan sources for households during survey 4.6.2: Reasons for borrowing/taking loan 4.7 Water and Sanitation condition 4.8 Seasonal migration 4.9 Common –Pool Resources 4.9.1 Existing CPR and Uses by Households 4.9.2 Resources and dependency on CPR 4.9.3 Purpose of CPR exploitation by the households 4.9.4 Period of involvement in appropriating CPRs in haor 4.9.5 Participation of the households in the CPRs in Haor ecosystem 4.9.6 Figure: Reasons for non-participation in CPR 4.9.7 Income appropriation from CPR resources in haor ecosystem 4.10 existing, lost and reclaimable CPR of the haor ecosystems
  • 43. Socio-Economic Analysis of Haor 4.10.1 GIS mapping of Reclaimable CPR resources of Studied Ecosystem and findings 4.10.2 CPR Declining Scenario 4.11 CPR Management and Community Response to CPR management system 4.11.1 Leasing of CPR to a few people versus community management systems 4.11.2 Community led CPR management systems 4.11.3 Community perception on involvement of different stakeholders/organizations in sustainable CPR management 4.12 Aspects of Physical Alteration of CPR basis 4.13 Response of State Agencies to protect CPR basis 4.13.1: Responses on “government is effectively protecting, and managing CPR bases in the haor” 4.13.2 Barriers to sustainable Management of CPR
  • 44. Socio-Economic Analysis of Haor 26 | P a g e FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION: After collecting both qualitative and quantitative information from four villages, the data were analyzed by using SPSS software. The quantitative information has been derived from primary survey while FGDs and K-II derived information were useful to validate the data. Some new dimensions have also been explored through facilitating qualitative techniques. The information about CPR in particular about the existing, lost and reclaimable CPR was mapped by mapping tools GIS. However, the detailed findings on socio-economic characteristics, CPR status, issues related to CPR, CPR management, etc are placed under this chapter. 4.1 Demographic Characteristics of the Hakaluki Haor: The population is approximately evenly split by gender, with a female to male ratio of 0.99. It varies by village. Average family size is 6.58 while the average age of the head of the household is 46.41. Only 7.50 percent households are female headed. The dependency ratio ie the ratio of the population under 15 and over 65 years of age to the population over 15 and below 65 is 0.89 which is comparatively higher than the national average. The region appears to be more unfavorable with older household head and larger family size with higher dependency ratio. Table-6: Households’ characteristics of Hakaluki Haor Indicators Hakaluki Haor Average age of the head of the household 46.41 Average Household size 6.58 Dependency ratio 0.89 Percent of female headed households 7.50 Source: HHS, 2013 4.2 Education: From following Figure-1, it can be said that 21.8per cent of the adult population remain illiterate where as 42 per cent respondents have only completed the primary education (and can thus only read and write). 17.7per cent only completed their secondary school and a negligible CHAPTER FOUR
  • 45. Socio-Economic Analysis of Haor 27 | P a g e percentage completed higher secondary or more. Figure-1 demonstrates the education scenario in the study area. Figure -1: Education scenario Source: HHS, 2013 A prioritized set of problems related to education in study area have been identified through consultation with diversified community groups and conducting FGDs, which are:  Poor institutional capacity: causes no community resources mobilization, no role to reduce drop out, not ensuring the presence of teachers in school timely, less accountability to provide stipend in primary education.  Less accountability mechanism: causes absence of teachers, inefficient utilization of School level Implementation fund (SLIP), proxy teachers, School Management Committee (SMC) is formed without involving all stakes. In most of the cases Union standing committees on education don’t have any linkage or relation to SMC. Lack of awareness of community on education rights causes service providers less accountable, not feeling too much interest & commitment to send their children to school.  Less availability of resources & less accessibility to the services: less number of schools, classrooms, teachers, Upazilla education officers, in haor areas. It is evident that around 35per cent staffs are still vacant in education sector. 4.3 Occupation and Income: On average, the highest percentages of the population in the Hakaluki Haor are engaged primarily with farming followed by fishing. In addition to farming and fishing, there are business men, agri-workers, non agriculture-workers, students and day labors. Occupation of many of the population are basically wetland based ie they are collecting CPR. However, it is clear from the survey and validated by FGD data that the majority of the people living in the
  • 46. Socio-Economic Analysis of Haor 28 | P a g e Hakaluki Haor basin are absentee landlords and the land is used for only one crop. A large majority of local residents receive their income from agricultural crops (reflecting a dependency on haor land for rice cultivation), Figure-2 : Occupational categories Source: HHS, 2013 the next important source is remittance received from abroad (people in this region have a migration rate to Europe and the US) and the third important source of income is river or water bodies ie through fishing .Hakaluki haor is very famous for its fish production. A large portion of peoples’ income source is day laboring in particular in the lean season. Figure-3: Income categories Source: HHS, 2013
  • 47. Socio-Economic Analysis of Haor 29 | P a g e Other income sources are also shown in the figure-3. In the Figure -3, the multiple response options considered, so the respondents are engaged in multiple income options. Amongst the resource collectors, around 30per cent households generated almost half of their livelihoods/income from haor resources, with more than 5per cent being fully dependent on resource collection for their livelihoods sustenance. Almost all of the remittance-receiving households are investing in owning agricultural land in haor and earning through leasing out to the land to sharecroppers. Although making up half of the working population, women from 35per cent households are involved in any kind of income generating activities other than that of homestead work, which is mostly homestead poultry rearing or gardening. Rural women in haor area are often constrained by various social and cultural norms. Although considering cultural and religious pressure from society, the above percentage seems quite high, most of the income generating activities bin which women participate were homestead based and earnings compared to men is negligible. It is also true, at the same time, that some of the poorest women households are now getting involved with some of the local micro-credit organizations, such as NGOs, krishi Bank etc and developing micro-enterprises like poultry-duck-goat-and livestock rearing, vegetable gardening, and handicrafts. Some women are now a day’s coming to work (day laboring) in the haor alongside men in earthwork. The remaining 65per cent women are socially considered idle but in reality they are contributing to their family intangibly which has never been evaluated and remains hidden. Among those involved women in income earning activities, poultry and livestock rearing were the highest (45.6pe rcent followed by homestead gardening. Other IGA (domestic service, collecting leftover rice paddy, midwifery, Figure -4: Women involvement in IGA. Source: HHS,2013
  • 48. Socio-Economic Analysis of Haor 30 | P a g e cattle rearing , petty trading and collecting fuel wood) made up 20.8per cent collectively of which labour selling was 6per cent. 4.4 Assets of Households: 4.4.1 Land ownership of households: The average homestead land and size of land owned by the household are 11.33 and 69.68 decimal respectively. Table-7 shows the amount of lands held by the households. Average size of land owned and homestead land owned are correlated. The total land includes cultivated land, land leased out as well as ponds or shrimp farms. We have also collected information on khas (government) land possessed by the households. Amount of khas land possessed by the households is negligible in hakaluki haor. In the haor ecosystem the households have around 27 decimal of khas land. Households also change their access or rights to land by either mortgaging/leasing in/out land. The amount of leased/mortgaged-in land is higher in the haor ecosystem, about 117 decimal in comparison to other areas in Bangladesh. The households also leased or mortgaged their land out to other households. Households also access to land by other means, for example some land is jointly owned. Table -7: Land Ownership of households Particulars Value (in dec.) Avg. homestead land 11.33 Average size of land owned 69.61 Average size of khas land 26.67 Average size of leased/mortgaged in land 116.56 Average size out leased/mortgaged out land 14.88 HH owning pond 13.84 Source: HHS, 2013 4.4.2 Distribution of the household by landholding: We have classified the households into 5 land categories as shown in the Figure-5. About 64.38per cent of the households are functionally landless, i. e.; they either have no land or land less than 50 decimal. Those who have land between 50-149 decimal are considered as small land holders while medium land holders possess land between 150 and 549 decimal . It is evident from the figure that more than 60per cent people have either no land or having land
  • 49. Socio-Economic Analysis of Haor 31 | P a g e below 50 decimal i.e. for haor areas might be considered as marginal land holders. Figure-5: Distribution of the household by landholding. Source: HHS, 2013 4.4.3 Ownership of non-land assets (per cent of households): Along with land assets owned by households, more than 80per cent population are using mobile phone which reflects that almost all the population now a days have access to Figure -6: Non-land assets of households. Source: HHS, 2013
  • 50. Socio-Economic Analysis of Haor 32 | P a g e telecommunication (figure-6). It is also found that more than 60per cent households have fishing equipments, poultry and more than 50per cent have livestock and around 40per cent respondents have Solar Home System (SHS). With this, it can also be interpreted that more than 60per cent people are engaged in fishing either directly by themselves or by engaging other people. 4.5 Poverty and Food security scenario: Since 1995-96, Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics has been using the Cost of Basic Needs (CBN) method as the standard method for estimating the incidence of poverty. This method defines two poverty lines: i. Lower poverty line, and ii. Upper poverty line. In order to categorize poverty, the BBS also defines a food and non-food poverty line. a) Food poverty line: 1) A basic food basket of eleven food items (including fish) is selected. 2) The quantities in the basket are scaled according to the nutritional requirement of 2,122 k.cal per person per day. 3) The cost of acquiring the basket is calculated. This estimated cost is considered as the Food Poverty Line (FPL) b) Non-food poverty line: A non-food poverty line is calculated by estimating the cost of consuming non- food items by the households close to the food poverty line. An upper poverty line is also estimated by adding together the food and non-food poverty lines. Food poverty lines for each successive year is adjusted by the BBS by taking into account food price inflation and the non-food poverty lines are also re-estimated by taking into consideration of the changes in non-food-food expenditure. In this study we have considered the rural poverty line for the districts under study and adjusted them by the consumer price index to get the poverty line in 2012 prices. The headcount poverty measures for study area are presented in following graphs. Figure-7: Incidence of Poverty. HHS, 2013
  • 51. Socio-Economic Analysis of Haor 33 | P a g e 4.5.1 Incidence of poverty in the study area: The poverty situation is generally expressed as percent of population below the lower poverty line. In study area, 43 per cent population is poor while rests 57per cent are non-poor (figure- 7). Out of 43per cent poor people in the study area, 38.13per cent are extreme poor (figure-8) households whose total expenditures on food and non-food combined are equal to or less than the food poverty line. 4.38 per cent out of 43per cent are moderate poor households whose total expenditures are equal to or less than the upper poverty line but above the food poverty line. The non-poor households are those Figure-8: Poor categories, HHS, 2013 households whose total expenditures are above the upper poverty line. The extreme poor peoples’ percentage (38.13per cent) is higher than the national average of 29.26per cent despite having abundance of natural resources. A number of studies including primary survey & FGDs conducted for this study have identified the haor region as one of the “Hot-Spots” of poverty in Bangladesh. The root causes of the high levels of poverty in the haor region that are reported in the different studies and evidenced from the FGDs are: Physical conditions of the haor, larger family size compared to national estimate; extended period of flooding; limited infrastructure development; cropping season is restricted to a single crop; housing is confined to cramped villages on high grounds; mobility is restrained; limited access to livelihood opportunities and social sector services, lack of markets and basic utilities has limited the growth of the non-farm sector and new employment opportunities; high cost to pay to maintain water supply and sanitation facilities in functioning order and high degree of control over land and water resources by influential groups of people. Effective Common-pool resource management ie ensuring access to and control over natural resources and services, promoting livelihoods options and reducing risk of income erosion due to natural disasters could be considered as vital approach in reducing extreme poverty from the areas.
  • 52. Socio-Economic Analysis of Haor 34 | P a g e 4.5.2 Food security Scenario: The haor basin is identified by the WFP’s 2004 Food Security Atlas of Bangladesh as one of the ‘highly food insecure’ regions of the country. Despite the progress toward alleviating food insecurity at the national level, the relatively large group of extremely poor or ‘invisible poor’ rural households in the haor areas in Bangladesh do not participate in virtually any aspect of the movement toward development and are falling further behind other groups of households (WFP, 2006). In our survey, we asked the households to self-select them as households who have surplus food over a period of a year or breakeven with no surplus food or deficit or those who have month/s of food deficit. From households’ survey, we got the information (figure-9) that in Halla village 40per cent households are with food surplus while in Dasghari it is only about 7per cent which is lowest among four villages where survey was conducted. In contrast, in response to question about food sufficiency for whole year with no surplus, the condition is comparatively better in Dasghari than other villages while the lowest status is in Shreerampur village which is about 32 to 33per cent households. Figure -9: Food security scenario by villages in study area Source :Source: HHS, 2013 And in the village Dasghari , around 50per cent households are with food deficit while on an average in the study area, 40per cent households are with food deficit which is inline reflection of percentage of extreme poor households (38.13per cent ) derived through conducting the survey. According to the respondents’ opinion, the reason behind food shortage is crop loss due to early flash flood and / or lack of income from their livelihoods means. Access to fisheries is another disaggregated issue as the leaseholders impose ban on open access for the
  • 53. Socio-Economic Analysis of Haor 35 | P a g e fishers during dry season .The statistics reflect that these area need special attention with special interventions to maintain synergy across the country in the process of reduction of extreme poverty. 4.5.3 Food deficit: As we found that the almost 40per cent households in haor area are with food deficit, we also collected the information about period of food surplus and deficit. It is clear from the following figure-10 that in the Bengali month- Falgun, the respondents are with maximum food deficit and food deficit is the maximum in the Dasghari village while it is comparatively less in Halla village. In the month of ‘Chaitra’, there are also food deficit with a declining trend. In Dasghari, in Falgun, almost 19 days out of 30 days the households suffer with food deficit. Figure -10: Number of days of food deficits by month. Source: HHS So, the peak food insecurity months in the Haor ecosystem are Falgun and Chaitra and the reasons for food deficit as mentioned by respondents are lack of work opportunity as the primary reason. The lean season is basically before the ‘boro’ season starts. During food deficit time , many of the households manage this time eating shapla, shaluk, shingara, dhap, ukol, fukol etc but it is not possible for all to collect aquatic vegetables. Some of them preserved food for the lean season e.g. dried fish during monsoon, storing crushed rice etc. The wild vegetables includes a wide range of naturally grown spinach e.g. ahak, kolar mocha, kolmi shak, etc. D A Y S
  • 54. Socio-Economic Analysis of Haor 36 | P a g e As mentioned by respondents, during lean season, extreme poverty: causes children’ involvement in income generating activities with agriculture field during harvesting (April- May) & sowing (November-December) time. And usually summer vacation time is in the month of June. So, In April to June most of the children remain out of school. As a result the children lose their interest to go to school and thus food deficit is linked with resulting high dropout rate. 4.6 Loan status: 4.6.1 Loan sources for households during survey: There were many different sources to borrow for the villagers, of which the main sources were neighbors, friends, relatives, NGOs, local moneylenders, banks (e.g. Grameen bank, Krishi Bank etc.), and CBOs (e.g. fisherscooperative, farmers cooperative etc.).In most cases the households borrowed money capitalizing on their social relationships (44.1per cent) followed by different NGOs operating credit program(19.3per cent), local money lenders (19.0per cent), and the remainders from the formal banks (14.4per cent), and CBOs (3.3per cent). 4.6.2: Reasons for borrowing/taking loan: For various reasons, when households did borrow money from external sources, it was usually for family consumption and maintenance (43.8per cent), investment in the business (17per cent), other livelihood costs like medical, etc. (10.8per cent), to go abroad (6.2per cent), loan payback (2.3per cent) and paying input costs for cultivation (1.3per cent) (Figure 12). At the extreme, 72.2per cent of households in Dasghari borrowed money for family consumption, 44.4per cent and 27.8per cent of households Ahmedpur borrowed money to invest in small business / petty trading, and to meet other livelihood expenses respectively, 27.8per cent households in Shreerampur borrowed money to go abroad and 16.7per cent of households in Halla for loan payback. Bank 15% CBO 3% Money Lender 19%Neighbours / Friends / Relatives 44% NGO 19% Figure-11: Sources of loans by households in 2013, Source: HHS, 2013
  • 55. Socio-Economic Analysis of Haor 37 | P a g e 43.8 6.2 1.3 17 10.8 2.3 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 Family consumption To go abroad Input costs (cultivation) Business investment Livelihood expenses Loan pay back Figure- 12: Reasons for borrowing by the household in four villages. Source: HHS, 2013 4.7 Water and Sanitation condition: The sanitation condition in the area is quite good (84.3per cent households having their own latrine) compared to other wetland regions, e.g. in Pagnar haor only 8.57per cent and in Sanour haor 4.76per cent (average 6.94per cent) with very little seasonality dimensions (Household Socio-economic Baseline Report, SEMP, 2003). Remarkably in 4 villages, Halla, Ahemdpur, Shreerampur and Dasghari, more than 80per cent of households have their own latrine (including water sealed and pit latrine). Some households do not have any provision for latrine. They usually visit traditional healer (15.7per cent) The sanitation practice had seasonal variations between seasons (dry and wet) but the choice varied widely among the villages (even within the village) of the Hakaluki Haor. Generally, in the monsoon around 20per cent households used water sealed latrines, whilst more than 50per cent households used pit latrine. The remaining 25per cent households used either hanging toilets or defecate in open places. In some villages a significant number of its households used water sealed latrines, namely Halla (61.1per cent), Ahmedpur (44.4per cent) and Shreerampur (33.3per cent), but in Dasghari 88.9per cent households use of pit latrine which was also common in other villages.
  • 56. Socio-Economic Analysis of Haor 38 | P a g e Water Sealed 20% Pit Latrine 54% Open/ Hanged 24% Open field /Bush 2% Monsoon Dry Season Pit Latrine 54% Water Sealed 21% Open/ Hanged 23% Open field /Bush 2% Figure-13: Sanitation practice and its seasonality dimensions Source: HHS 2013 During the 1970s and 1980s, aid organizations installed thousands of wells in Bangladesh, hoping to halt dysentery and cholera. While this program surpassed its goal of providing "safe" wells to 80 percent of the country's population by 2000. The condition still exists in the said society with 47per cent of households owning tube-wells while the others (52.3per cent) had access to tube wells of neighbours as a source of drinking water. Neighbours always allow others to take water from their tube wells in view of religious contentment. Among the surveyed villages–Halla (72.2per cent), Ahmedpur (66.7per cent) and Shreerampur (61.1per cent) had a higher percentage of households owning tube-wells, whilst in Dashghari there was a higher percentage of households without tube-wells at their homestead (66.7per cent). As observed during different field trips and surveys, very few households used other traditional sources of drinking water, e.g. boiling water collected from ponds / haor, etc. and if they do so, it is only when the nearest tube well is far away or inaccessible during the monsoon 4.8 Seasonal migration: At least one person from 28.4per cent of the families migrated to work outside the locality. The migration was for varied periods of which 20.9per cent were for long-term migration and the remaining 7.5per cent for short term. The short-term migrant were mostly the marginal farmers, subsistent fishers, landless and day labors. They migrated in the lean season when there was no scope for work in the vicinity. Usually they went to nearby towns to work, mostly as transport workers - rickshaw pullers, etc. and come back shortly.
  • 57. Socio-Economic Analysis of Haor 39 | P a g e 4.9 Common –Pool Resources: The literature on commons is vast and there exist a large body of empirical work using concepts that are not often clearly stated. Therefore it is important to clarify our understanding on the concepts used in this study. In particular, we need to define what we understand by commons, common-pool resources and common property resources. In economics, a common-pool resources (CPR), also called a common property resource, is a type of good consisting of a natural or human-made resource system (e.g. an irrigation system or fishing grounds), whose size or characteristics makes it costly, but not impossible, to exclude potential beneficiaries from obtaining benefits from its use. Unlike pure public goods, common pool resources face problems of congestion or overuse, because they are subtractable. A common-pool resource typically consists of a core resource (e.g. water or fish), which defines the stock variable, while providing a limited quantity of extractable fringe units, which defines the flow variable. While the core resource is to be protected or nurtured in order to allow for its continuous exploitation, the fringe units can be harvested or consumed (Ostrom, 1990) The commons is a general term for shared resources in which each stakeholder has an equal interest. Studies on the commons include the information commons with issues about public knowledge, the public domain, open science, and the free exchange of ideas -- all issues at the core of a direct democracy. In our study, we considered Common-pool resources (CPRs) as are natural or human-made resources where one person's use subtracts from another's use and where it is often necessary, but difficult and costly, to exclude other users outside the group from using the resource. Common property is a formal or informal property regime that allocates a bundle of rights to a group. Such rights may include ownership, management, use, exclusion, access of a shared resource. In this report we have considered CPR mainly in the context of the management of natural resources. In more concrete terms we have considered CPRs to include mostly beel, kanda, river and other waterbodies, agricultural land (khash and fallow), swamp forests, village pastures and grazing grounds, village forest and woodlots, protected and un-classed