A fetal weight of more than
4.5 kg at term or
fetal birth weight > 90
percentile for the gestational
Genetic or constitutional:
obese women tend to give
birth to macrosomic babies.
Diabetes and prediabetes.
Multiparity: The first baby is about 100 gm
smaller than the next.
5. Macrosomia and diabetes
¼ th of insulin dependent
mothers have Macrosomic
Excess growth happens in 3rd
GDM mothers have same
incidence of Macrosomic infants
as other diabetics
11. Definition !
IUGR is defined as a fetus that has an estimated
weight that is less than the 10th percentile for it’s
At term, the cutoff birth weight for IUGR is 2,500 g (5 lb, 8 oz)
14. Is small for gestational age (SGA) the
same as IUGR?
• IUGR is used synonymously with small for
gestational age (SGA) but implies a pathologic
EFW at or below 10th percentile is used to
identify fetuses at risk
However a certain number of fetuses at or
below the 10th percentile just may be
constitutionally small and not growth
15. IUGR VS SGA
IUGR: fetus with birth weight <10th
percentile for gestational age due to pathologic
SGA: fetus with birth weight <10th
percentile for gestational age in the absence of
16. 1. Symmetrical growth restriction
20 % of IUGR Infants
proportional decrease in all organs
HC/AC ratio is normal
Occurs in early pregnancy : Cellular hyperplasia
Increase risk for long term neurodevelopmental dysfunction
Due to Intrinsic factor
17. 2.Asymmetrical growth restriction
80% of IUGR Infants
Increase HC/AC ratio : decrease in abdominal size
Brain sparing effects
Occurs in late pregnancy : cellular hypertrophy
Risk for perinatal hypoxia, neonatal hypoglycemia
Due to extrinsic factors : Uteroplacental insufficiency
Maternal vascular disease: hypertension
18. 3. Combined type
More morbidities and mortalities
More long term effects
19. Ponderal Index
Ultrasound criteria for diagnosis of fetal malnutrition;
Gestation age independent;
Way of characterizing the relationship of height to
mass for an individual.
PI = 1000 x
Typical values are 20 to 25.
PI is normal in symmetric IUGR.
PI is low in asymmetric IUGR.
26. Case #4
Infant is delivered at 38
weeks to mom who
presents with headaches
and epigastric pain
BW: 2.1 kg
27. Case # 5- What if?
Mom with no
at EGA 34 weeks
28. Case # 6- What if?
An infant is
delivered at 42
weeks via c- section
due to NRHTs after
- decreased subcutaneous fat
- skin desquamation
- wizened facies
- large AF(diminished membranous
- meconium staining
Symmetric IUGR Asmmetric IUGR
Small symmetrically. Head is larger than abdomen.
Ponderal index is normal. Ponderal index is low.
Normal head-abdomen ratio. High head-abdomen ratio.
Genetic, infections. Placental vascular insufficiency.
Complicated neonatal course. Benign neonatal course if
complications are treated adequately.
33. History for risk factor
– Teen age
– High altitude
– Socioeconomic factor
– Smoking , Alcohol , Drugs
– Previous IUGR pregnancy history
– previous IUGR in family
Seldom elicited before 28 weeks of gestation:
Failure of fetus and uterus to grow at the normal rate over
a 4 week period;
Uterine fundal height should be at least 2cm less than
expected for the length of gestation;
Poor maternal weight gain;
Diminished fetal movements.
35. Physical examination
Uterine fundal height
Uterine fundus Pubic symphysis
Simple, Safe, Inexpensive for screening
Between 18 and 30 weeks,
the uterine fundal height in centimeters coincides with
weeks of gestation.
If the measurement is more than 2 to 3 cm from the
expected height or < 1oth percentile from normal curve,
inappropriate fetal growth may be suspected
38. Ultrasonography Biometry
The measurements most commonly used to measure and
follow fetal growth are:
Ratio :- Head circumference to the abdominal circumference (HC/AC)
39. Amniotic Fluid Index
Mild IUGR – Normal amniotic fluid
Severe IUGR – Oligohydramnios (AFI is ≤ 5)
On ultrasonography - a pocket of fluid < 1cm is diagnosed
40. The amniotic fluid index is obtained by summing the
largest cord-free vertical pocket in each of the four
quadrants of an equally divided uterus.
41. Abnormal umbilical artery Doppler velocimetry
A. Normal velocimetry pattern
with an S/D ratio of <30.
B. The diastolic velocity
approaching zero reflects
increased placental vascular
C. During diastole, arterial
flow is reversed (negative
S/D ratio), which is an
ominous sign that may
precede fetal demise
– characterized by absent or reversed end-diastolic
– associated with fetal growth restriction
43. An IUGR infant is at risk for
decreased subcutaneous fat, increased
surface- volume ratio, decreased heat
decreased glycogen stores/
increased metabolic rate
deficient catecholamine release
Associated with perinatal stress, asphyxia,
Prepregnancy: to prevent it by identifying risk factors and
treat as necessary (e.g. improve nutrition intake, stop
smoking or alcohol, ASA in APA syndrome, and Heparin in
Antepartum: identify risk factors that can be changed.
Fetal surveillance by ultrasound (BPP) and fetal heart
monitoring (Non-Stress Test). To decide on timing and mode
45. Growth restriction near term
Recommend delivery at 34 weeks or beyond if
there is clinically significant oligohydramnios
46. Growth restriction remote from term
No specific treatment
If diagnosed in prior to 34 weeks, and amnionic
fluid volume and fetal surveillance are normal
Observation is recommended
toxoplasmosis,herpes,rubella,CMV and others
Specific treatment(causes of IUGR) and
If severe IUGR or bad obstetric conditions
Terminate pregnancy should be considered
47. IUGR- Outcome
etiology and adverse event dependent
lower intelligence, learning/ behavioral
disorders, neurologic handicaps
symmetric, chromosomal disorders, congenital
infections--- poorer outcome
school performance influenced by social class
SW a16 years old G1 P0+0 presented early for prenatal
Medications: Prenatal vitamins
Social Hx: + Tobacco 1ppd x > 5 years, No illicit drug use
• B average in high school and good support system
• Lives in Denver, HIGH ALTITUDE
• Poor nutrition
50. She followed up regularly and had an uncomplicated
• At 18 weeks fundal height measured 17 cm
• At 22 weeks fundal height measured 20 cm
• At 24 weeks fundal height measured 21 cm
At this point I am worried about IUGR with this
Although we do not use fundal height to diagnose
IUGR, it can be a clue to a developing problem.
•A fundal height that lags by more than 3 cm or is
increasing in disparity with the gestational age
may signal IUGR.
• A lag of 4 cm or more certainly suggests growth
• The size of the uterus should be assessed at each
51. So now we have increasing concern
over her poor fundal height. What
other risk factors for IUGR does AMY
B) Poor nutrition
C) Poor abdominal girth growth
D) High altitude
F)All of the above
53. Risk Factors of IUGR
With all these risk factors, poor weight gain,
and an inadequate fundal height…
What would you do to further evaluate for
1)Consult OB now
2) Get an ultrasound
3) Do an NST
4) Continue to watch one more week
54. The result of 32 wks US
a single intrauterine pregnancy. No obvious fetal anatomic
abnormalities were seen. Not all malformations of the above
mentioned organ systems can be detected by ultrasound.
There is an overall growth lag of two weeks, with the head
and abdomen lagging three weeks.
Amniotic fluid is lower limits of normal measuring 8.5 cm . S/D
ratio is slightly elevated. She declined amniocentesis.
Recommend follow up growth in three weeks. This
appointment was scheduled today
55. History of Present Illness
• That was her ultrasound at 24 weeks. You repeat it at 27
weeks: 3 week growth lag and AFI 8.5
• Repeat US at 30 weeks: normal growth since last US – 15
day lag; AFI 10.5
• Repeat US at 32 weeks: EFW 9% AFI 5.9
Is this IUGR? What do you do now?
56. She has an overall 3 week lag and an
EGW 12% at 32 weeks. Is this IUGR?
A) Yes ,any growth lag is IUGR
B)Yes any EFW<l15% is IUGR
C)No ,too early to diagnose IUGR
D) No, IUGR is EGW overall lag 4 weeks
57. IUGR is usually not detectable before 32-34 weeks
(maximal fetal growth). But it must be suspected
occur before 28
58. What is Intrauterine Growth
A fetus with IUGR often has an estimated fetal weight associated
with which of the following?
A) Abdominal circumference is below 5th percentile
B) Abdominal circumference is below the 2.5th percentile
C) Less than the 5th percentile for its gestational age
D) Less than the 10th percentile for its gestational age
59. What is one of the pathologic
Maternal/Placental causes for
60. Which of the following is not a
pathologic FETAL cause for IUGR?
B)Cleft lip/palateA)Trisomy 21
61. Does SW have symmetrical or
62. Comments of the ultrasound at 32 weeks.
A complete detailed scan of a single intrauterine pregnancy was
obvious fetal anatomic abnormalities were seen. Not all
malformations of the
above mentioned organ systems can be detected by ultrasound.
There is an overall
growth lag of two weeks, with the head and abdomen lagging
three weeks. Amniotic
fluid is lower limits of normal measuring 5.9 cm . S/D ratio is
63. How else can IUGR be diagnosed in addition
to a <10% weight for gestational age?
B) Inadequate Maternal Weight gain
C) Non-reassuring NST
D) Fundal Height
64. So SW has had a 32 wk US with
EFW 10% and AFI 6.9.
What is your next step?
65. Yes! Correct Answer:
Repeat US in 3-4 weeks
Repeat US at 35 weeks:
A repeat ultrasound of this single intrauterine pregnancy was performed.
EFW is in the less than 10th percentile in growth.
Amniotic fluid is within normal limits for this gestation.
Umbilical artery dopplers performed and S/D ratio is
1. follow up ultrasound in 1 week for AFI and dopplers
2. follow-up ultrasound in 2 weeks for growth
3. NST testing twice weekly.
66. SW is in your office to review the results. You
explain the results and schedule her for an
ultrasound next week and the week after.
Any other advice for her?
Click for advice
1. Rest as much as possible-
she does not work and is out of school.
2. Perform daily kick counts.
3. She will need weekly visits with biweekly NSTs.
She asks you: “Why so many
ultrasounds?” What do you tell her?
67. You tell her:
“Ultrasound measurement of the fetus is the gold
standard for assessing fetal growth.”
“We need to follow the amount of fluid around the baby as
well. If it is too low, we will need to deliver your baby
Click here next
68. When should we (Family Practice)
Transfer care to the Obstetricians?
A)Whenever you are unsure or
uncomfortable with the situation
B)Definite need for C-Section
C)Worsening fetal status
D)Severe/worsening Maternal Disease
E)Unsure of IUGR etiology
F)All of the above
69. Which of the following may we see after
the birth of a baby with IUGR?
A) Decreased oxygen levels
B) Meconium aspiration
D) Difficulty maintaining normal body temperature
G) All of the Above
70. Case Close
• SW remained on the family practice service because she
remained stable and her biweekly BPP and NST were
• In the 36th week, she was found to have
oligohydramnios by US AFI = 3.2 along with IUGR
EFW < 10%
• Pt was at this time transferred to OB for care.
• She was already known to them because we consulted
them at the first signs of IUGR.
• Amniocentesis was done to ensure fetal lung maturity
and she was induced soon there after.
• Patient vaginally delivered a baby with Down’s
• No other complications at birth