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1. Polymer Chemistry-1 (introduction).pptx

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1. Polymer Chemistry-1 (introduction).pptx

  1. 1. POLYMER CHEMISTRY Introduction
  2. 2. Polymer : A large molecule (macromolecule) built up by repetitive bonding (covalent) of smaller molecules (monomers) What is the difference between macromolecule & polymer ? A polymer is made up of smaller repeating units called a monomer. A macromolecule is a large molecule that typically does not have any repeating units.
  3. 3. Contoh- contoh polimer
  4. 4. Name(s) Formula Monomer Properties Uses Polyethylene low density (LDPE) –(CH2-CH2)n– ethylene CH2=CH2 soft, waxy solid film wrap, plastic bags Polyethylene high density (HDPE) –(CH2-CH2)n– ethylene CH2=CH2 rigid, translucent solid electrical insulation bottles, toys Polypropylene (PP) different grades –[CH2-CH(CH3)]n– propylene CH2=CHCH3 atactic: soft, elastic solid isotactic: hard, strong solid similar to LDPE carpet, upholstery Poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) –(CH2-CHCl)n– vinyl chloride CH2=CHCl strong rigid solid pipes, siding, flooring Poly(vinylidene chloride) (Saran A) –(CH2-CCl2)n– vinylidene chloride CH2=CCl2 dense, high- melting solid seat covers, films Polystyrene (PS) –[CH2- CH(C6H5)]n– styrene CH2=CHC6H5 hard, rigid, clear solid soluble in organic solvents toys, cabinets packaging (foamed)
  5. 5. Name(s) Formula Monomer Properties Uses Polyacrylonitrile (PAN, Orlon, Acrilan) –(CH2-CHCN)n– acrylonitrile CH2=CHCN high-melting solid soluble in organic solvents rugs, blankets clothing Polytetrafluoro- ethylene (PTFE, Teflon) –(CF2-CF2)n– tetrafluoroethyle ne CF2=CF2 resistant, smooth solid non-stick surfaces electrical insulation Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA, Lucite, Plexiglas) –[CH2- C(CH3)CO2CH3]n– methyl methacrylate CH2=C(CH3)CO2C H3 hard, transparent solid lighting covers, signs skylights Poly(vinyl acetate) (PVAc) –(CH2- CHOCOCH3)n– vinyl acetate CH2=CHOCOCH3 soft, sticky solid latex paints, adhesives cis-Polyisoprene natural rubber –[CH2- CH=C(CH3)- CH2]n– isoprene CH2=CH- C(CH3)=CH2 soft, sticky solid requires vulcanization for practical use Polychloroprene (cis + trans) (Neoprene) –[CH2-CH=CCl- CH2]n– chloroprene CH2=CH-CCl=CH2 tough, rubbery solid synthetic rubber oil resistant
  6. 6. One of the first humans to discover, and make, an artificial polymer, was the German chemist Hans von Pechmann. It was probably an accident. In 1899 he found a suspicious, sticky, white substance at the bottom of a flask in which he had been trying to decompose diazomethane. He had no idea what he had made, so he turned the analysis of the material over to Eugen Bamberger and Friedrich Tschirner, who found long chains of -CH2-, which they called "polymethylene". Some years later (1935) in England, Eric Fawcett and Reginald Gibson had a similar experience. They were trying very hard to make an explosive gas (ethylene) react with a much larger molecule (benzaldehyde), by forcing them together under high pressure. What they got was a useless, (so they thought!), white, waxy solid that couldn't be used for anything interesting or practical. How wrong they were, but nothing much more was done with this "polyethylene" until the start of the Second World War. History
  7. 7. Suddenly there was a need for a flexible, non-reactive insulator to go around the cables of a new invention - radar. The British firm Imperial Chemical Industries re- discovered polyethylene and put it into production in 1939. Small molecules of the odorless gas ethylene were then, and now, transformed into a polymer called polyethylene by uniting the ethylene monomers into a long chain. Some of these chains can be as long as 10,000 units. In some forms these chains branch, and they all coil and fold. Modern manufacturing methods start with ethylene gas which is heated under very high pressure until it becomes what is known as low-density polyethylene. This material is a crystalline, transluscent thermoplastic which softens when heated. Today, consumers buy and use polyethylene in a huge number of ways, everything from packaging, garbage bags, soda bottles and containers, around wires (it's original use), and in almost every toy or house ware product on the market. Modern humans are very, very dependent on this particular artificial polymer.
  8. 8. Prior to the early 1920's, chemists doubted the existence of molecules having molecular weights greater than a few thousand. This limiting view was challenged by Hermann Staudinger, a German chemist with experience in studying natural compounds such as rubber and cellulose. In contrast to the prevailing rationalization of these substances as aggregates of small molecules, Staudinger proposed they were made up of macromolecules composed of 10,000 or more atoms. He formulated a polymeric structure for rubber, based on a repeating isoprene unit (referred to as a monomer). For his contributions to chemistry, Staudinger received the 1953 Nobel Prize.
  9. 9. Perkembangan sains polimer  Polimer dg kestabilan termal & oksidasi yg istimewa : utk aplikasi aerospace kinerja tinggi  Plastik-plastik teknik : polimer yg dirancang menggantikan logam If polypropylene car parts replaced traditional steel, cars would be lighter overall and consume less fuel, for example. And because the material is cheap, plastic could provide a much more affordable manufacturing alternative
  10. 10.  Serat aromatik berkekuatan tinggi, berdsrkan teknologi kristal cair : utk aplikasi platform pemboran minyak lepas pantai  Polimer degradable : utk pengendalian limbah, biomedis dan pertanian  Polimer untuk aplikasi medis : untuk jahitan bedah sampai organ buatan hybrid composites: thermoplastic pipes reinforced with GRE composite and RTP (reinforced thermoplastic pipe) thermoplastic pipes reinforced with glass, aramid or carbon fibers. polyvinylidene difluoride
  11. 11.  Polimer konduktif : untuk aplikasi electrical device, batteries, solar cells, electrochemical sensors  Electro-active polymers : able to transduce electrical to mechanical energy, flexible capacitor  Polimer sebagai zat bantu tak larut untuk katalis atau untuk sintesis protein dan asam nukleat
  12. 12.  Polimer magnetik : utk MRI (magnetic resonance imaging), bioseparation  Polimer thermoresponsive : nanotechnological and biomedical applications poly(N-isopropyl acrylamide) (PNIPAM)
  13. 13. Classification of polymers Main classifications of the polymers: • by origin • by monomer composition • by chain structure • by thermal behaviour • by kinetics or mechanism • by application
  14. 14. Biopolymer
  15. 15. fiber elastomer plastic POLYMER  Linear polymer  High intermolecular forces (that result usually from the presence of polar groups) : hydrogen bonds or dipole- dipole interaction  Less elasticity  High modulus, high tensile strength  Moderate extensibility (less than 20%) can be molded or shaped (such as blowing to form a film), greater stiffness and lack reversible elasticity  Irregular molecular structure  Weak intermolecular forces  Very flexible  Low initial modulus in tension  Very high extensibility (up to 1000%)
  16. 16. Polymers arranged in fibers like this can be spun into threads and used as textiles. The clothes you're wearing are made out of polymeric fibers. So is carpet. So is rope. Here are some of the polymers which can be drawn into fibers: polyethylene, Kevlar, Nylon, polyester, cellulose, polyurethanes, polyacrylonitrile Fibers are always made of polymers which are arranged into crystals. They have to be able to pack into a regular arrangement in order to line up as fibers.
  17. 17. bahan alami :  pati jagung  pati singkong  pati beras  pati kentang bahan terbarukan (disintesis secara mikrobiologi) :  Polylactic acid (PLA)  Polyhydroxy alkanoate (PHA) PLA : dari esterifikasi asam laktat (fermentasi hasil samping produk pertanian) PLA memiliki sifat tahan panas, kuat, dan elastis Biodegradable plastic
  18. 18. Homopolymer or heteropolymer ?
  19. 19. Heteropolymer
  20. 20. Nomenclature of polymer 1- Nomenclature Based on monomer source The addition polymer is often named according to the monomer that was used to form it Example : poly(vinyl chloride) PVC is made from vinyl chloride -CH2-CH(Cl)- If “ X “ is a single word the name of polymer is written out directly ex. polystyrene -CH2-CH(Ph)- Poly-X If “ X “ consists of two or more words parentheses should be used ex , poly(vinyl acetate) -CH2-CH(OCOCH3)- 2- Based on polymer structure The most common method for condensation polymers since the polymer contains different functional groups than the monomer
  21. 21. Copolymer Names (Systematic vs. Concise names) 1) Poly[styrene-co-ethylene] or Copoly(styrene/ethylene) 2) Poly[styrene-alt-ethylene] or Alt-Copoly(styrene/ ethylene) 3) Poly[styrene-block-ethylene] or Block-Copoly(styrene/ ethylene) 4) Poly[styrene-graft-ethylene] or Graft-Copoly(styrene/ ethylene) polyethylene grafted onto polystyrene main chain 5) Poly[styrene-co-ethylene-co-propylene] or Copoly(styrene/ethylene/propylene)
  22. 22. IUPAC Names Use Poly as a prefix and in the brackets list the monomer structure with numbers indicating the attachment of side chains Diene Names : Use cis- and trans- to indicate geometric isomer 1,2- and 1,4- to indicate positions of free double bonds derived from olefin polymerization Examples 1,2-poly(1,3-butadiene) cis-1,4-poly(1,3-butadiene) trans-1,4-poly(1,3-isoprene) (natural rubber)
  23. 23. Problems Gambarkan struktur untuk setiap kopolimer berikut : • Poli[stirena-alt-(anhidrida maleat)-blok-(vinil klorida)] • Blok-kopoli[butadiena/cangkok-ko(stirena/akrilonitril)] • Polistirena-blok-poli[butadiena-alt-(vinil asetat)] • Blok-kopoli[cangkok-ko-(etilena/stirena)/-metilstirena]
  24. 24. Jika A = akrilonitril, B = butadiena, M = metil metakrilat, S = stirena, V = vinil asetat, tuliskan nama setiap kopolimer berikut : MMMMMMMMMMMSVSVSVSVSV S S S S S SSSSSSSSSSVVVVVVVVVMMMMMMMM Poli[(metil metakrilat)-cangkok- stirena]-blok-poli[stirena-alt-(vinil asetat)] Poli[stirena-blok-(vinil asetat) -blok-(metil metakrilat)]
  25. 25. BBBBBBBBBBBVVVVVVVVVVVVVVV M M M M M M M M B B B B B B B B MBMMBVBVVMBBMMVBBMV Polibutadiena-blok-poli[(vinil asetat)-cangkok-[(metil metakrilat)-blok-butadiena] Poli[(metil metakrilat)-ko-butadiena-ko-(vinil asetat)]

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