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Crimes are not to be measured by the issue of events, but by the bad intensions of men. The greatest crimes do not arise from a want offeeling for others but from an over sensibility for ourselves and an over indulgence in our own desires. Monday, September 24, 2012
CYBER CRIME !!The expression ‘Crime’ is defined as an act, which subjects the doer tolegal punishment or any offence against morality, social order or anyunjust or shameful act. The “Offence" is defined in the Code ofCriminal Procedure to mean as an act or omission made punishable byany law for the time being in force.Cyber Crime is emerging as a serious threat. World widegovernments, police departments and intelligence units have startedto react. Monday, September 24, 2012
Cyber Crime is a term used to broadly describe criminal activity in which computersor computer networks are a tool, a target, or a place of criminal activity and include everything from electronic cracking to denial of service attacks. It is also used to include traditional crimes in which computers or networks are used to enable the illicit activity. Computer crime mainly consists of unauthorized access to computer systems dataalteration, data destruction, theft of intellectual property. Cyber crime in the context of national security may involve hacking, traditional espionage, or information warfare and related activities. Pornography, Threatening Email, Assuming someones Identity, Sexual Harassment, Defamation, Spam and Phishing are some examples where computers are used tocommit crime, whereas Viruses, Worms and Industrial Espionage, Software Piracy and Hacking are examples where computers become target of crime. Monday, September 24, 2012
Indian Crime Scene The major Cyber Crimes reported, in India, are Denial of Services, Defacement of Websites, Spam, Computer Virus and Worms, Pornography, Cyber Squatting, Cyber Stalking and Phishing. Given the fact that nearly $ 120 million worth of Mobiles are being lost or stolen in the country every year, the users have to protect Information, Contact details and Telephone numbers as these could be misused. Nearly 69 per cent of information theft is carried out by current and ex-employees and 31 per cent by hackers. India has to go a long way in protecting the vital information. [3 The Hindu, Saturday, Oct 27, 2007].Monday, September 24, 2012
Cyber Crime VariantsHacking"Hacking" is a crime, which entails crackingsystems and gaining unauthorized access to thedata stored in them. Hacking had witnessed a 37per cent increase this year.Cyber SquattingCyber Squatting is the act of registering a famousDomain Name and then selling it for a fortune.This is an issue that has not been tackled inIT ACT 2000. Monday, September 24, 2012
Phishing is just one of the many frauds onthe Internet, trying to fool people intoparting with their money. Phishing refers tothe receipt of unsolicited emails bycustomers of Financial Institutions,requesting them to enter their Username,Password or other personal information toaccess their Account for some reason.The fraudster then has access to thecustomers online bank account and to thefunds contained in that account. Monday, September 24, 2012
Cyber Stalking is use of the Internet or other electronic means to stalk someone. This term is used interchangeably with online harassment and online abuse. Stalking generally involves harassing or threatening behaviour that an individual engages in repeatedly, such as following a person, appearing at a persons home or place of business, making harassing phone calls, leaving written messages or objects, or vandalizing a persons property.Monday, September 24, 2012
VISHING Vishing is the criminal practice of using social engineering and Voice over IP (VoIP) to gain access to private personal and financial information from the public for the purpose of financial reward. The term is a combination of “Voice" and phishing. Vishing exploits the publics trust in landline telephone services. Vishing is typically used to steal credit card numbers or other information used in identity theft schemes fromMonday, September 24, 2012 individuals.
India stands 11th in the ranking for Cyber Crime in the World, constituting 3% of the Global CyberMonday, September 24, 2012 Crime.
Why India?A rapidly growing online userbase 121 Million Internet Users 65 Million Active Internet Users, up by 28% from 51 million in 2010 50 Million users shop online on Ecommerce and Online Shopping Sites 46+ Million Social Network Users 346 million mobile users had subscribed to Data Packages. Monday, September 24, 2012 Source: IAMAI; Juxt; wearesocial 2011
Cyber Crime InIndia The majority of cybercrimes are centered on forgery, fraud and Phishing, India is the third-most targeted country for Phishing attacks after the US and the UK, Social networks as well as ecommerce sites are major targets, 6.9 million bot-infected systems in 2010, 14,348 website defacements in 2010, 6,850 .in and 4,150 .com domains were defaced during 2011, 15,000 sites hacked in 2011, India is the number 1 country in the world for generating spam. Monday, September 24, 2012
Cost Of Cyber Crime In India (2010) 29.9 million people fell victim to cybercrime, $4 billion in direct financial losses, $3.6 billion in time spent resolving the crime, 4 in 5 online adults (80%) have been a victim of Cybercrime, 17% of adults online have experienced cybercrime on their mobile phone.Source: Norton Cybercrime Report 2011Monday, September 24, 2012
We have covered about three instances where high-profile government websites were hacked and defaced. However, the actual number of Government Websites that were hacked are quite huge. A total number of 90, 119, 252 and 219 Government websites tracked by the Indian Computer Emergency Response Team (CERT-In) were hacked / defaced by various hacker groups in the year 2008, 2009, 2010 and Jan–Oct 2011 respectively.Monday, September 24, 2012
Again, this is growing trend and it is surprising that authorities have not taken stern actions to curb the growth of these cyber-crimes. The police have recorded 3,038 cases but made only 2,700 arrests in 3 years (between 2007 and 2010) India registered only 1,350 cases under the IT Act and IPC in 2010 50% of cybercrimes are not even reported. Monday, September 24, 2012
Cyber Laws in IndiaUnder The InformationTechnology Act, 2000CHAPTER XI – OFFENCES – 66. Hacking withcomputer system.(1) Whoever with the Intent to cause or knowing that he is likely to cause Wrongful Loss orDamage to the public or any person Destroys orDeletes or Alters any Information Residing in aComputer Resource or diminishes its value orutility or affects it injuriously by any means,commits hack.(2) Whoever commits hacking shall be punished with imprisonment up to three years, or withfine which may extend up to two lakh rupees, or with both. Monday, September 24, 2012
Whoever without permission of the owner of the computer : Secures Access; Downloads, Copies or extracts any data, computer database or any information; Introduce or causes to be introduce any Virus or Contaminant; Disrupts or causes disruption; Denies or causes denial of access to any person; Provides any assistance to any person to facilitate access Charges the services availed of by a person to the account of another person by Tampering with or Manipulating any Computer, Computer System, or Computer Network; Shall be liable to pay damages by way of compensation not exceeding one crore rupees to the person so affected.Monday, September 24, 2012
Information Technology Amendment Act, 2008Section – 43,Destroys, Deletes or Alters any Information residing in a computer resource ordiminishes its value or utility or affects it injuriously by any means;Steals, conceals, destroys or alters or causes any person to steal, conceal, destroyor alter any computer source code used for a computer resource with an intentionto cause damage;“If any person, dishonestly, or fraudulently, does any act referred to in section 43,he shall be punishable with imprisonment for a term which may extend to twothree years or with fine which may extend to five lakh rupees or with both.” [S.66] Monday, September 24, 2012
S .66A - P u n i s h me n tf or s e ndi ngo f f e n s i v e me s s a g e s t h r o u g hc o mmu n i c a t i o n s e r v i c e , e t c A n y p e r s o n w h o s e n d s , b y me a n s o f a c o mp u t e r r e s o u r c e o r a c o mmu n i c a t i o n d e v i c e ; A n y i n f o r ma t i o n t h a t i s g r o s s l y o f f e n s i v e o r h a s me n a c i n g c ha r a c t e r ; or An y i n f o r ma t i o n w h i c h h e k n o w s t o be f a l s e , but f or t he pur pos e of c a us i ng a nnoy a nc e , i nc onv e ni e nc e , da nge r , obs t r uc t i on , i ns ul t , i n j u r y , c r i mi n a l i n t i mi d a t i o n , e n mi t y , h a t r e d , o r i l l w i l l , pe r s i s t e n t l y ma k e s b y ma k i n g u s e of s u c h c o mp u t e r r e s o u r c e o r a c o mmu n i c a t i o n d e v i c e ; A n y e l e c t r o n i c ma i l o r e l e c t r o n i c Monday, September m 2012 s a g e m a i l 24, e s f or t he pur pos e of c a us i ng a nnoy a nc e or
S. 66C - Punishment for identity theft “Whoever, fraudulently or dishonestly make use of theelectronic signature, password or any other unique identificationfeature of any other person, shall be punished with imprisonmentof either description for a term which may extend to three yearsand shall also be liable to fine which may extend to rupees onelakh”S. 66D - Punishment for cheating by personation by usingcomputer resource “Whoever, by means of any communication device orcomputer resource cheats by personation, shall be punished withimprisonment of either description for a term which may extendto three years and shall also be liable to fine which may extend toone lakh rupees. “ Monday, September 24, 2012
S . 66E - P u n i s h m e n t f o rv i ol a t i on of pr i v a c y .“Wh o e v e r , i n t e n t i o n a l l y o rk n o wi n g l y c a p t u r e s , p u b l i s h e s o rt r a n s mi t s t h e i ma g e o f a p r i v a t ea r e a o f a n y p e r s o n wi t h o u t h i s o rh e r c o n s e n t , u n d e r c i r c u ms t a n c e sv i o l a t i ng t he pr i v a c y of t ha tp e r s o n , s h a l l b e p u n i s h e d wi t hi mp r i s o n me n t w h i c h ma y e x t e n d t ot hr e e y e a r s o r wi t h f i n e n o te x c e e d i n g t wo l a k h r u p e e s , o r wi t hb ot h”S . 67 A - P u n i s h me n t f orpubl i s hi ng or t r a ns mi t t i n go f ma t e r i a l c o n t a i n i ngsMonday,x u a 24, 2012 y e x p l i c i t a e September l l c t , e t c . i n
S. 67 C - Preservation and Retention of informationby intermediaries.“(1) Intermediary shall preserve and retain suchinformation as may be specified for such duration andin such manner and format as the Central Governmentmay prescribe.(2) Any intermediary who intentionally or knowinglycontravenes the provisions of sub section (1) shall bepunished with an imprisonment for a term which mayextend to three years and shall also be liable to fine.”Monday, September 24, 2012
Arrests & Reports Under IT Act Under the IT Act, 966 cybercrime cases were filed in 2010 420 in 2009) Geographic breakdown of cases reported: o 153 from Karnataka, o 148 from Kerala o 142 from Maharashtra o 105 Andhra Pradesh o 52 Rajasthan o 52 Punjab 233 persons were arrested in 2010 33% of the cases registered were related to hacking Source: National Crime Records BureauMonday, September 24, 2012
Arrests & Reports Under IPC Under the IPC, 356 cybercrime cases were registered in 2010 (276 cases in 2009) Geographic breakdown of cases reported -- o 104 from Maharashtra o 66 Andhra Pradesh o 46 Chhattisgarh The majority of these crimes were either forgery or fraud cases. Source: National Crime Records BureauMonday, September 24, 2012
How to Tackle Such Activities?An important question arises that how can these crimes be prevented. Anumber of techniques and solutions have been presented but the problems stillexists and are increasing day by day.Antivirus And Anti Spyware Software:Аntivirus software consists of computer programs that attempt to identify,thwart and eliminate computer viruses and other malicious software. Anti spywares are used to restrict backdoor program, trojans and other spy wares to beinstalled on the computer.Firewalls:A firewall protects a computer network from unauthorized access. Networkfirewalls may be hardware devices, software programs, or a combination of thetwo. A network firewall typically guards an internal computer network againstmalicious access from outside the network. Monday, September 24, 2012
Cr y p t o g r a p h y :Cr y pt ogr a phy i s t he s c i e nc e ofe n c r y pt i ng a nd de c r y pt i ngi n f o r ma t i o n . E n c r y p t i o n i s l i k es e n d i n g a p o s t a l ma i l t o a n o t h e rpa r t y wi t h a l o c k c o d e o n t h ee n v e l o p e wh i c h i s k n o wn o n l y t ot h e s e nde r a nd t he r e c i pi e nt . Anu mb e r o f c r y p t o g r a p h i c me t h o d sha v e b e e n d e v e l o p e d a n d s o me o ft h e m a r e s t i l l not c r a c k e d.Cy b e r E t h i c s a n d L a ws :Cy b e r e t h i c s a n d c y b e r l a ws a r ea l s o be i ng f or mu l a t e d t o s t o pc y b e r c r i me s . I t i s ar e s pons i bi l i t y of e v e r yi ndi v i dua l t o f ol l ow c y be r e t hi c sMonday, September 24, 2012a n d c y b e r l a ws s o t ha t t he
The Future of Cyber-Crimes in India• Continued Website Hacks and Defacements• Data and Information theft• Increasing phishing attacks on Ecommerce and Financial Websites• Cybercriminals targeting Social and Professional Networks• Threats directed at the Mobile Platform: Smartphones and Tablets Monday, September 24, 2012
Conclusion…“Indian Laws are well drafted and are capable of handling all kinds ofchallenges as posed by cyber criminals. However, the enforcementagencies are required to be well versed with the changing technologiesand Laws.”"As internet technology advances so does the threat of cyber crime.In times like these we must protect ourselves from cyber crime. Anti-virus software, firewalls and security patches are just the beginning.Never open suspicious e-mails and only navigate to trusted sites.” Monday, September 24, 2012