5. Tools of thinking
• Combinations of concepts :rules ,laws and
• Language symbols : vocal and written
• Images : a mental representation of visual
• Cognitive maps : a mental representation
of familiar parts of the environment
6. ?What is concept
• A concept is a mental event used to
represent a category ,class or group
of actions or objects , not just
individual cases .
• It is to know the common properties
and the rule that relate them.
• It is one of the higher cognitive
7. Why do we need
• Combination of concepts
Combined concepts guide
thoughts and actions . Rules ,
laws, and principles combine so
many concepts in certain
8. Knowledge of the common
properties has great impact on
how we deal with the objects
9. Concepts enable us to go
beyond the information we
perceive . Having some visible
properties of an object allow us
to infer properties that are not
visible . This ability is
fundamental to thought .
10. Concepts allow us to apply the
common properties that we
already know to objects or people
we encounter for the first time .
11. Concepts of widely used
activities such as eating ,
abstract things such as truth or
justice or states as being old
allow us to communicate quickly
about things that occur
12. If we had no way to organize or-
classify our experiences , our
impressions of our environment
and of ourselves would be
14. • Generalization
Inability to differentiate
between familiar and non familiar objects .
Distinction between different items.
Inability to grasp the essentials of a whole
and the hidden meaning .
• It is tested by proverbs
• Medical implication ( abstract and
concrete thinking ) In certain forms of
psychiatric and physical illnesses .
15. Factors playing a role in
Although our concepts , principles and beliefs may
guide our thinking , personal feelings and prejudices
may falsify our ideas and lead to erroneous
Your own concept of a certain thing may not agree in
all respects with the standard definition as your own
concept consists of what you know or believe about
this thing and its interaction with your personality .
practicing objective observations and straight
thinking decrease such errors .
16. Types of concepts
1. Formal ( classical )
All the members have all attributes
2. Natural ( real )
Often cannot be easily defined
(fuzzy) , with ill defined attributes
17. • Prototype
It is the member of a concept that best
typifies or represents that concept or
properties to describe the best examples
It is a way to help us better define natural
The properties that are the most essential
for being a member of the concept
18. :Types of thinking
1. Autistic thinking .
2. Purposive thinking.
e.g problem solving.
e.g logical thinking.
3. Creative thinking .
4. Concrete and abstract thinking
19. Autistic thinking
• Does not go with the real world or its facts.
• Not directed towards any purpose.
• Passive , does not need any attention.
• does not lead to any mental exhaustion .
• Forms : imaginative play in children ,
daydreams and night dreams
• Beneficial if it is moderate ( escape or
gratification of certain desires .
• Pathological if the whole thinking is
directed through this unrealistic way as in
• It leads to withdrawal from reality and social
• May use symbols with very personal
21. Problem solving
• It is the process of seeking and finding the
ways and means to solve a problem .
• It is an active process
• It is a higher cognitive function .
• problems are usually solved by a mixture
• Trial and error
• Insight learning
• we may solve the problem by trial and error
then gain insight retrospectively how it was
22. Trial and error
A rat in a maze
After many trials of exploration ,
.the rat reaches the food box
The rat learned the direction of the
goal in a situation with which it
has become familiar
23. Insight learning
A chimpanzees and a
.bunch of banana
Insight means planning the
solution on a mental level
insight is affected by past
experience and full
information about the
24. Steps of problem
• Initiation phase
Recognition of the problem and definition of the goal
• Information gathering
Gathering relevant information to the problem
• Solving state
Using tools of thinking
Putting alternative solutions
Elimination of the irrelevant solution
Revising previously solved similar problems
• Evaluation state
Assessment of the result
25. Problem solving
Strategy is a systematic plan for generating possible
solutions that can be tested to see if they are correct.
• Types of strategies
1. Algorithms : evaluating all possible solutions
2. Heuristics : evaluating probabilities that you think to be
more reasonable .
3. Reduction : dividing the problem into small sub - problems
more easier to manage
4. Finding analogue : finding the similarities between the
current problems and previous problems .
26. Barriers for effective
1) Indefinite goal
2) Insufficient or irrelevant data
3) Mental set : tendency to perceive or
respond in a particular way
Lack of motivation .
Failure to retrieve memory .
Inability to control emotional factors .
Attitude :inflexibility( 4
Using incorrect strategies( 5
6) Insufficient tools of thinking or
27. Logical thinking
It is to reach a conclusion which is
accepted by the thinker as certain
or at least probable conclusion by
.using relevant data
The opposite is illogical or loose
thinking ; using irrelevant data to
reach unaccepted conclusion
29. Phases of creative
Data collection and understanding all about the
It is a waiting period . Work is neglected consciously
.but unconscious work is done
Inspiration or illumination phase.3
. The solution comes suddenly out of the blue
Testing the solution
Experimental work to verify scientific hypothesis
30. Concrete and abstract
inability to understand the
meaning behind a word or
Ability to understand the
essentials and hidden meaning
behind a word or a statement
34. Disorders of content
Preoccupation with obsessions , fears ,and suicidal
Delusions of reference
Delusions of infidelity
Delusions of nihilism
Delusions of hypochondraisis
Delusions of grandiosity