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Applications and Advantages
of Palm Specialty Fats
By Teah Yau Kun
MPOC
PALM OIL
Anatomy of an Oil Palm Fruit
Mesocarp: Palm Oil (PO)
Shell
Kernel:
Palm Kernel Oil (PKO)
Basic Facts
•Kernel per fruit: 5-...
PALM OIL IS VERY VERSATILE
Characteristics of Different Palm
Products For Food
Parameters PO HPO Int.
PO
POo
(x 1)
POo
(x 2)
HPOo Int.
POo
POs
(soft)...
Solid Fat Profile of
Palm Oil Products
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40
Palm oil
Hyd.palm oil
IE pa...
Basic Facts on Oil Palm
Average Oil Yield
(t/ha/year)
Oil Palm vs. Other Oilseed Crops
Soybean
0.45
Sunflower
0.50
Rapesee...
PROBLEMS
Limited supply of vegetable oils
Insufficient physical properties
• Soyabean oil
• Canola oil
• Sunflower oil
•...
• Problem : Each food commodity needs variable melting points
and characteristics.
• Solutions : Hydrogenation to a specif...
MERITS OF MALAYSIAN PALM OIL
- Stable and sustainable supply
- Competitive pricing
- UNIQUE Composition
- Versatile functi...
MALAYSIAN PALM OIL
UNIQUE Composition, NATURALLY BALANCED
Technically Superior in Food Applications:
Frying Baking Confect...
THE UNIQUE COMPOSITION OF
MALAYSIAN PALM OIL
Fatty Acids (%):
C16:0 Palmitic 44.6
C18:0 Stearic 4.1
C18:1 Oleic 39.1
C18:2...
14
Controlled Crystallization
Liquid Fraction
(PK Olein)
Dry Fractionation
Palm Kernel Oil
Fraction Separation
by
Filtrati...
Palm Oil Versatility from Fractionation
16
Palm Olein
Soft Palm Mid-fraction Double fractionated
palm olein
The Use of Palm Oil in Confectionery Fats
Hard Palm Mi...
Palm Confectionery Fats - Uses
• Coatings
• Fillings
• Toffees and Caramels
• Ice Cream
18
Cocoa Butter
Equivalents (CBEs)
Permitted for use in EU & others - e.g. Japan,
Australia, South Africa
Allowed up to ma...
19
 Cocoa butter ~ mainly POP, POS, SOS-type triglycerides
 Palm Oil ~ high in POP
 Palm oil fraction ~ Palm Mid Fracti...
20
Triglyceride Composition of CB & CBE
Component Fats
Cocoa
Butter
Palm
Mid
Fraction
Illipe
Fat
Shea
Stearin
Sal
Stearin
...
21
Cocoa Butter
Replacers (CBRs)
Partial Tolerance to cocoa butter
Up to 20% cocoa butter in formulation (fat phase)
Quick...
22
Product Characteristics
• A high quality lauric coating fat based on
hydrogenated and fully refined vegetable
oils and ...
23
Cocoa Butter Replacers (CBRs)
in Biscuit Coatings
Fatty Acid %
C14:0 0.8
C16:0 26.9
C18:0 5.6
C18:1 66.5
Temperature %
...
24
Cocoa Butter Substitutes (CBSs)
Highly from palm kernel oil
High saturates, C12:0
Zero trans content
Produced by fracti...
25
Cocoa Butter Substitutes (CBSs)
Different triglyceride composition to cocoa butter
Incompatible with cocoa butter
Can a...
26
Solids Profile of CBSs
Primarily for molded
products since its gloss
& snapping
Ideal for making
compound chocolate
Can...
27
Cocoa Butter Substitute
Product Characteristics
• A superior quality cocoa butter substitute
made from hydrogenated and...
CBE CBR CBS
Advantages
• Fully compatible
with CB
• Good hardness
snap & mouth feel
• Good heat
stability (CBIs)
• non
hyd...
Palm Confectionery Fats - Uses
• Coatings
• Fillings
• Toffees and Caramels
• Ice Cream
Palm Filling Fats
Lauric Hydrogenated
Palm kernel Fractions
Non-Lauric
hydrogenated
Palm Fractions/
Blends
Non-Lauric
Non-...
Palm Confectionery Fats
Why is Palm Oil and Palm Kernel Oil good for
confectionery fats?
- Unique fatty acid and triglycer...
Applications and Advantages of Palm Specialty Fats
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Applications and Advantages of Palm Specialty Fats

Presented by:
Teah Yau Kun

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Applications and Advantages of Palm Specialty Fats

  1. 1. Applications and Advantages of Palm Specialty Fats By Teah Yau Kun MPOC
  2. 2. PALM OIL
  3. 3. Anatomy of an Oil Palm Fruit Mesocarp: Palm Oil (PO) Shell Kernel: Palm Kernel Oil (PKO) Basic Facts •Kernel per fruit: 5-8% •Mesocarp per Fruit: 85-92% •Oil per mesocarp: 20-50% •Oil per bunch: 23-25%
  4. 4. PALM OIL IS VERY VERSATILE
  5. 5. Characteristics of Different Palm Products For Food Parameters PO HPO Int. PO POo (x 1) POo (x 2) HPOo Int. POo POs (soft) POs (med) POs (hard) PMF (A) PMF (B) IV 54.3 44.6 - 58.4 61.4 43.8 61.0 47.6 43.7 32.9 40.1 42.5 M.pt. () 36.9 41.5 46.3 22.2 - 42.5 40.6 44.2 48.4 53.0 - - Trans value - 11.3 - - - 15.8 - - - - - - Solid Fat Content (%) 5 74.8 82.1 62.8 54.0 - 85.9 55.0 - 70.5 - - - 10 52.0 76.2 52.3 39.7 16.7 81.8 45.1 63.9 65.9 82.7 82.4 76.1 15 38.7 66.5 41.8 21.6 5.0 76.9 33.1 52.3 58.2 78.0 71.8 66.2 20 25.2 53.6 29.5 5.9 3.1 67.3 23.8 39.9 47.6 72.2 61.3 52.1 25 16.2 39.3 25.9 2.7 - 52.1 15.8 29.7 36.1 64.8 31.6 31.9 30 9.7 26.9 22.8 0 - 36.2 11.0 21.4 26.5 55.9 8.6 18.3 35 7.4 16.5 15.0 0 - 23.9 8.3 16.5 21.8 49.2 4.0 13.4 40 5.5 8.4 10.0 0 - 11.9 5.3 12.5 18.6 42.2 - 7.9
  6. 6. Solid Fat Profile of Palm Oil Products 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 Palm oil Hyd.palm oil IE palm oil Palm olein 1 Palm olein 2 Hyd.palm olein IE palm olein Palm stearin (soft) Palm stearin (M) Palm stearin (Hard) PMF (A) PMF (B)
  7. 7. Basic Facts on Oil Palm Average Oil Yield (t/ha/year) Oil Palm vs. Other Oilseed Crops Soybean 0.45 Sunflower 0.50 Rapeseed Oil 0.66 Oil Palm 3.82 Oil Crop Oil Production (mil tonne) % of Total Oil Production Average Oil Yield (t/ha/year) Harvested Area (mil ha) % of Toal Harvested Area Soybean 37.16 30.13 0.45 91.73 41.46 Sunflower 10.69 8.67 0.50 23.37 10.56 Rapeseed 19.85 16.10 0.66 29.502 13.33 Oil Palm 43.01* 34.88 3.82 11.26 5.09 TOTAL** 123.32 221.26 Note: * Refinded palm oil from oil palm ** for 7 major oils (groundnut, coconut, cottonseed and above oils) Source:Oil World(Dec,2007)
  8. 8. PROBLEMS Limited supply of vegetable oils Insufficient physical properties • Soyabean oil • Canola oil • Sunflower oil • Cottonseed oil • Corn oil • Peanut oil • Sesame oil • Olive oil
  9. 9. • Problem : Each food commodity needs variable melting points and characteristics. • Solutions : Hydrogenation to a specific saturate and transcontent. • Problem : Trans fatty acids are hazardous to health. • Solution : Palm oil to the rescue. Fractionation and interesterification.
  10. 10. MERITS OF MALAYSIAN PALM OIL - Stable and sustainable supply - Competitive pricing - UNIQUE Composition - Versatile functionality
  11. 11. MALAYSIAN PALM OIL UNIQUE Composition, NATURALLY BALANCED Technically Superior in Food Applications: Frying Baking Confectionery
  12. 12. THE UNIQUE COMPOSITION OF MALAYSIAN PALM OIL Fatty Acids (%): C16:0 Palmitic 44.6 C18:0 Stearic 4.1 C18:1 Oleic 39.1 C18:2 Linoleic 9.7 No TRANS! Trisaturates (%): Type Major Group Trisaturates PPP 9.0 Monounsaturates POP 36.7 Diunsaturates POO 34.2 Triunsaturates PLO 15.6 OOO High stability
  13. 13. 14 Controlled Crystallization Liquid Fraction (PK Olein) Dry Fractionation Palm Kernel Oil Fraction Separation by Filtration Solid Fraction (PK Stearin)
  14. 14. Palm Oil Versatility from Fractionation
  15. 15. 16 Palm Olein Soft Palm Mid-fraction Double fractionated palm olein The Use of Palm Oil in Confectionery Fats Hard Palm Mid- fraction Mid-Olein CBE POP 65-70% CBR High trans fat Filling fat POP 40-50%
  16. 16. Palm Confectionery Fats - Uses • Coatings • Fillings • Toffees and Caramels • Ice Cream
  17. 17. 18 Cocoa Butter Equivalents (CBEs) Permitted for use in EU & others - e.g. Japan, Australia, South Africa Allowed up to maximum 5% of the chocolate In EU, permitted processes are fractionation and refining In some other countries, enzyme process modified CBE’s allowed - e.g. Japan
  18. 18. 19  Cocoa butter ~ mainly POP, POS, SOS-type triglycerides  Palm Oil ~ high in POP  Palm oil fraction ~ Palm Mid Fraction (PMF) has enriched POP content  Used as CBE to blend with other exotic fats (illipe, shea fats)  Palm kernel oil ~ Used as lauric-type CBS  Also can be blended with other lauric oils Confectionery Fats (CBE, CBS, CBX)
  19. 19. 20 Triglyceride Composition of CB & CBE Component Fats Cocoa Butter Palm Mid Fraction Illipe Fat Shea Stearin Sal Stearin Kokum Fat Mango Kernel Stearin POP 16 66 7 1 Trace Trace 1 POSt 37 12 34 7 10 6 16 StOSt 26 3 45 74 60 72 59 Palm, Mango Kernel : commercially cultivated. Others : wild crops Source: Talbot, OFI Egypt 2007
  20. 20. 21 Cocoa Butter Replacers (CBRs) Partial Tolerance to cocoa butter Up to 20% cocoa butter in formulation (fat phase) Quick crystallization, non-tempering Good gloss Good shelf life For molding and coatings High trans fatty acids
  21. 21. 22 Product Characteristics • A high quality lauric coating fat based on hydrogenated and fully refined vegetable oils and fractions • It has an excellent heat resistance and it’s specially formulated for warmer climates • It also has excellent microbiological properties, shows good stability against oxidation and it's free from lipases Functionality •Non tempering fat •Glossy and good mouthfeel •Non tempering and excellent heat resistance Application • As total replacer of cocoa butter in compound chocolate coating for biscuits, wafers, nougats, nuts and raisin • Suitable for manufacture of glazes, icing, caramels, toffees, fillings and cream • Milk fat replacer for nondairy creamer, caramel and toffee 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 temperature(°C) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 SFC(%) CF35 CF38 CF40 CB Typical solid fat content profile
  22. 22. 23 Cocoa Butter Replacers (CBRs) in Biscuit Coatings Fatty Acid % C14:0 0.8 C16:0 26.9 C18:0 5.6 C18:1 66.5 Temperature % 10 °C 92.3 20 °C 77.1 25 °C 61.7 30 °C 41.1 35 °C 19.7 CBR (Palm, Soya) Solid Fat Content CBR Example: Chocolate Pie
  23. 23. 24 Cocoa Butter Substitutes (CBSs) Highly from palm kernel oil High saturates, C12:0 Zero trans content Produced by fractionation and/or hydrogenation
  24. 24. 25 Cocoa Butter Substitutes (CBSs) Different triglyceride composition to cocoa butter Incompatible with cocoa butter Can add only up to 5% cocoa butter in fat phase Softening effect from milk fat full cream milk powder 10% max. Rapid crystallization, high gloss Non-tempering
  25. 25. 26 Solids Profile of CBSs Primarily for molded products since its gloss & snapping Ideal for making compound chocolate Can be used for enrobing & panning of hard centres0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 10 20 30 40 50 Temperature °C %Solids HPKS (%) HPKO (%) Temp (°C) HPKS (%) HPKO (%) 10 96.2 94.2 20 94.9 81.1 25 89.2 67.1 30 50.4 18.8 35 4.1 2.4 40 - -
  26. 26. 27 Cocoa Butter Substitute Product Characteristics • A superior quality cocoa butter substitute made from hydrogenated and fully refined vegetable oils and fractions. It has excellent sharp melting profile • It is a hydrogenated lauric fat, and trans free Application • As total replacer of cocoa butter in compound, for solid and hollow moulding, enrobing and couverture Functionality •Having brittle texture •Have good glossiness and have excellent mouthfeel profile •Good demoulding properties to the end product
  27. 27. CBE CBR CBS Advantages • Fully compatible with CB • Good hardness snap & mouth feel • Good heat stability (CBIs) • non hydrogenated • non temper • Good taste stability • Can incorporate chocolate or cocoa mass • non temper • Good melting and texture Disadvantages •Tempering required • Hydrogenated • Hardness and snap unlike CB • Recipe, free of CB • Risk of soapy off- taste and bloom • Hydrogenated Advantages & Disadvantages of Confectionery Fats
  28. 28. Palm Confectionery Fats - Uses • Coatings • Fillings • Toffees and Caramels • Ice Cream
  29. 29. Palm Filling Fats Lauric Hydrogenated Palm kernel Fractions Non-Lauric hydrogenated Palm Fractions/ Blends Non-Lauric Non-hydrogenated Palm Fractions/ Blends
  30. 30. Palm Confectionery Fats Why is Palm Oil and Palm Kernel Oil good for confectionery fats? - Unique fatty acid and triglyceride composition - Fractionation provides fractions with good functional properties - Cost effective

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