Definitions of Teaching
The concept of Effective Teaching
Role of Teacher for Conducive Learning Environment
Characteristics of an Effective Teacher
The Concepts of Teaching Methodologies, Strategies and Techniques
3. Concept of Teaching
Teaching is a process in which one individual teaches or
instruct another individual.
Teaching is considered as the act of imparting instructions
to the learners in the classroom situation.
The set of activities carried out to provide education to
others is called Teaching.
H C Morrison:- Teaching is an intimate contact between the more
mature personality and a less mature one.
Jackson:- Teaching is a face to face encounters between two or more
persons, one of whom (teacher) intends to effect certain changes in
the other participants (students).
N. L. Gage ( Democratic point of view ): Teaching is interpersonal
influence aimed at changing the behavior potential of another person.
Clerk:- Teaching refers to activities that are designed and performed
to produce in students behavior.
5. Phases of Teaching
Teaching is a complex task. We need systematic planning to
perform this task. Teaching has to be done in steps. The different
steps constituting the process are called the phases of teaching.
Each phase has some operations of teaching which create the
situation for learning.
Teaching process can be divided into three phases/stages.
Pre-active phase – refers to planning
Interactive phase – refers to the conduct and management
Post-active phase – refers to the follow-up and consolidation
6. Nature and Characteristic of Teaching:-
Teaching is a social and cultural process, which is planned in order to
enable an individual to learn something in his life. We can describe the
nature and characteristics of teaching in following way:-
Teaching is a complete social process: Teaching is undertaken for
the society and by the society. With ever changing social ideas, it is
not possible to describe exact and permanent nature of teaching.
Teaching is giving information:-Teaching tells students about the
things they have to know and students cannot find out themselves.
Communication of knowledge is an essential part of teaching.
Teaching is an interactive process
Teaching is an interactive process between the student and the teaching
sources, which is essential for the guidance, progress, and development of
Teaching is a process of development and learning.
Teaching causes a change in behavior.
Teaching is art as well as science.
Teaching is face to face encounter.
Teaching is observable, measurable and modifiable.
Teaching is skilled occupation:- Every successful teacher is
expected to know the general methods of teaching-learning
Teaching facilitates learning
Teaching is both conscious and an unconscious process.
Teaching is from memory level to reflective level.
Teaching is a continuum of training, conditioning, instruction, and
9. Good Teaching
Good Teaching is about listening, questioning, being
responsive and remembering that each student and class is
It's about eliciting (drawing) responses and developing the
oral communication skills of the quiet students.
10. Maxims/Rules/Principals of Teaching
From simple to complex
From known to unknown
From seen to unseen
From part to whole
From whole to part
From concrete to abstract
From direct to indirect
From particular to general
From analysis to synthesis
From empirical to rationale
From physiological to logical
11. Features of Good Teaching
Good teaching is stimulating
No a matter of pouring in but of drawing out
Not a passive act but an active process
Good teaching is well planned
A means of adjustment
Organization of learning
Good teaching is kindly and sympathetic
Good teaching is democratic
Good teaching is suggestive and cooperative
Good teaching liberates the learner
12. Characteristics of the Best Teachers
1. Have a sense of humor
2. Make the class interesting
3. Have knowledge of their subjects
4. Explain things clearly
5. Spend time to help students
6. Are fair to their students
7. Treat students like adults
8. Relate well to students
9. Are considerate of students’ feelings
10. Don't show favoritism toward students
13. Characteristics of the Worst Teachers
1. Are dull/have a boring class
2. Don't explain things clearly
3. Show favoritism toward students
4. Have a poor attitude
5. Expect too much from students
6. Don't relate to students
7. Give too much homework
8. Are too strict
9. Don't give help/individual attention
10. Lack control
14. What is the role of a teacher?
The primary role of a teacher is to deliver classroom
instruction that helps students learn. To accomplish
this, teachers must prepare effective lessons, grade student
work and offer feedback, manage classroom materials,
productively navigate the curriculum, and collaborate with
15. Concept of Effective Teaching
Effective teaching is a continual learning process, and each school year
brings changes to which competent teachers must adapt.
Changes can happen in terms of students, curriculum, building issues,
colleagues, administrators, finances, health and safety concerns,
families, communities, and a host of other influences on the daily lives
The foundation upon which teachers base their ability to adapt to
changes and successfully navigate the complexities of the classroom
comes largely from their personal abilities and experiences.
These personal abilities and experiences can be classified as
prerequisites to teaching—that is, competencies that are acquired
and demonstrated before the teacher ever walks through the
Prerequisites of effective teaching are often considered in relation
to novice teachers, but in fact they reflect the accumulated
competencies and experiences that any teacher brings to the
17. Definition of Effective Teaching
Effective teaching can be defined as teaching that
successfully achieves the objectives of teaching learning
18. Aspects of Effective Teaching
There are various aspects of effective teaching, such as;
1) Effectively Managing A Classroom,
2) Starting Each Class With A Clear Objective,
3) Engaging Students With Questioning Strategies,
4) Consolidating The Lesson At The End Of A Period, And
5) Diagnosing Common Student Errors And Correcting Them That Can
Be Systematically Measured By Observing Classrooms And By
20. Effective Teachers
The effective teacher is the one who enables the students to reach to
the desired learning outcomes.
In order to be an effective teacher, one that inspires and motivates
students, it is essential to have a well developed pedagogy. It is
important to have vibrant classroom activities and have a positive
demeanor when teaching, as this will encourage students to be
present at school everyday and to engage in their learning activities.
Research suggests that the following prerequisites are linked to
21. Roles Of An Effective Teacher
An effective teacher is one who contributes to the learning environment by
increasing keen interest of the students. For the purpose of teaching, the
teacher has to play five major roles. These roles are:
As a Subject matter expert
As a Pedagogical expert
As an Excellent communicator
As a Student-centred mentor
As a Systematic and continual assesser
22. As a Subject matter expert
Teachers possess thorough knowledge of subject matter and
go beyond the standard textbook materials.
Teachers develop important and original thoughts on the
They tackle issues related to the discipline on the basis of
23. As a Pedagogical expert
Teachers set appropriate learning goals and objectives and
communicates them clearly.
They show a positive attitude towards the subject, work to overcome
difficulties that might hindrance in learning.
They evaluate and mark students’ work fairly.
They guide students through critical thinking, and problem solving
processes and help them to develop their own understanding.
Teachers provide feedback to students about their progress in learning.
24. As an Excellent communicator.
A Teacher demonstrates effective oral and written communication,
good organizational abilities and planning skills.
He/she helps students learn to use effective communication skills;
utilizes teaching tools appropriately and effectively.
25. As a Student-centred mentor
A Teacher tries to encourage each student to learn through a
variety of methods and encourages student participation.
Take his/her students to higher intellectual levels.
26. As a Systematic and continual assesser
A Teacher makes an appropriate procedure for student outcome
assessments in order to improve student learning experiences.
He/she systematically assess his/her own teaching, keeps the
class material fresh and new.
He/she uses new teaching style to achieve the objectives of
successful student learning by identifying his/her own
weaknesses and shortcomings in the teaching process.
28. Verbal Ability
Verbal Ability has a positive effect on student achievement. Teachers
make connections with their students, colleagues, and students' families
through words and actions. Effective teachers know their students and
how to communicate with them, both individually and collectively. Some
students prefer “just the facts” while others want to hear a narrative, and
then there are others with completely different learning styles and
communication needs. Effective teachers carefully consider their audience
when delivering a message. They observe reactions and decide how best
to get their point across to different individuals.
29. Content Knowledge
Content Knowledge as measured by majoring or minoring in the
subject area or participating in professional development in the
content contributes to increased student learning.
Teachers cannot teach what they don't know. The research clearly
shows that teachers (particularly in the areas of mathematics and
science) who have majored or minored in the subject area they
teach attain better achievement results with their students than
teachers without background in their subject areas
The relationship between teacher knowledge and student acquisition of
knowledge makes sense. Successful teachers know the content and can
determine the essential knowledge and skills that are necessary for
mastery of the subject in order to integrate them into effective instruction.
Effective teachers organize and present content knowledge and skills to
students in a manner that helps the students access, interact with, and
learn the material. Additionally, students value teachers who effectively
convey their knowledge of the subject area through strong communication
31. Educational Coursework
Educational Coursework is a stronger predictor of teaching
effectiveness than grade point average or test scores. For teachers
who embrace the concept of life-long learning, continued professional
development in their field results in increased student achievement.
The research addressing educational coursework typically refers to
the courses teachers took as part of their preparation program for
teaching or as a part of postgraduate work to earn their teacher
certification, but educational coursework does not stop with the
signing of a teaching contract. Teachers must continue to develop
their professional knowledge in order to renew their licenses and,
perhaps more importantly, to renew themselves.
For many teachers, this renewal entails taking graduate classes in
education, attending conferences, and participating in a myriad of
other professional development opportunities. What teachers do in
terms of acquiring knowledge and skills, both before and after they
begin teaching, influences the learning that occurs in their classrooms.
Teachers continue to develop throughout their careers as they learn the
science and art of teaching. When educators participate in professional
development offerings that relate to the content area or population of
students they teach, it enhances their effectiveness, resulting in higher
levels of student academic success.
Professional development should focus on what teachers need to do
and accomplish in the school and with their students. For example,
professional development in instructional differentiation makes a
difference in student achievement as teachers are better able to meet
diverse students' needs.
Teacher Certification, regardless of the type of certification held, results
in teachers being more effective than their uncertified counterparts.
Teacher certification is determined by individual states and is issued to
individuals whom the state deems qualified to teach based on its criteria.
In most states, proper certification or licensure is the operational
definition of a “highly qualified teacher” as required in No Child Left
Behind. Although being certified does not necessarily guarantee
effectiveness, students of certified teachers typically do have higher levels
of achievement than do students of uncertified teachers
There are multiple routes to earning teacher certification, ranging from
traditional preparation programs to abbreviated alternative ones like
Teach for America, with a host of intermediate options. Most states have
some form of alternative certification that allows individuals who have a
bachelor's degree to earn their certification without getting an advanced
degree in education or taking additional undergraduate courses.
For certification to be considered as a quality indicator, teachers should be
assigned to teach in their field of study.
Teaching Experience, up to a point, is influential in teacher effectiveness,
particularly in the areas of planning, classroom management, questioning,
Experience does make a difference in teacher effectiveness, as it offers
teachers the opportunity to grow professionally by learning from practice.
This growth is a part of the learning curve that novice teachers experience as
they begin their transformation into competent teachers. Consequently,
students of experienced teachers tend to have higher levels of achievement.
Negative effects on student achievement have been associated with the
proportion of beginning teachers to whom students are assigned.
37. Challenges in Teacher Effectiveness
As a teacher, it can sometimes be difficult to engage the
community, as parents may feel they know what is best for their
child in terms of education. Students can be difficult to motivate
and it could be a challenge to understand cultural diversity. It is
essential to be able to see through ‘multiple lenses’. Some of these
are described as under:
38. 1. Thinking Skills
Effective teachers model and communicate good thinking skills,
especially critical thinking, which involves thinking reflectively
and productively and evaluating the evidence. Getting students to
think critically is not easy; many students develop a habit of
passively learning material and rotely memorizing concepts rather
than thinking deeply and reflectively. Thinking critically also
means being open-minded and curious on the one hand, yet being
careful to avoid key mistakes in interpretation on the other.
39. 2. Classroom Management Skills
An important aspect of being an effective teacher is keeping the
class as a whole working together and oriented toward classroom
Effective teachers establish and maintain an environment in which
learning can occur. To create this optimal learning environment,
teachers need a repertoire of strategies for establishing rules and
procedures, organizing groups, monitoring and pacing classroom
activities, and handling misbehavior.
40. 3. Motivational Skills
Effective teachers have good strategies for helping students become
self-motivated and take responsibility for their learning.
Educational psychologists increasingly stress that this is best
accomplished by providing real-world learning opportunities of
optimal difficulty and novelty for each student. Students are
motivated when they can make choices in line with their personal
interests. Effective teachers give them the opportunity to think
creatively and deeply about projects.
41. Factors of Effective Teaching
Teacher Knowledge, Enthusiasm and Responsibility for
Learning:- Good classroom is one in which knowledge is shared
among teacher and students. Teacher not only gives instructions but
takes ideas of students during the teaching learning process and carry
out discussions. In such an environment the knowledge is shared;
students and teachers all become learners and discover the world of the
subject. In such an environment, a teacher takes responsibility for the
sharing and enjoyment of the knowledge.
Classroom Activities That Encourage Learning:- In a
classroom of opportunity and experience, the learners explore
and do experiment. In such a climate the process of learning
become a measure of success and the students feel that they
are the masters of their own learning. Attitudes of the teacher
in such a classroom can influence the outcome. A teacher
needs to be prepared to test what is going on in the class.
Assessment Activities That Encourage Learning Through
Experience:- The assessment contributes towards the creation of an
effective learning process. If the students know the value of assessment in
the ongoing learning process, not at the end, then they can work well and
take part in the process and use it to gain better results. The effective
learning environment involves the processes of peer tutoring, co-operative
learning, questioning, clarifying and summarizing. All of these processes
are used to empower the learners. For example if teacher asks the question:
‘What do you do in the classroom?’ If assessment activities are part of the
‘doing’ then they become a central part of the learning process.
Effective Feedback That Establishes the Learning
Processes In the Classroom:- Appropriate learning related feedback
is one of the important factors in effective teaching. Different methods of
feedback enable the teacher to engage the students with learning. All
explanations, questioning methods, instructions are part of feedback and student
input. In an effective classroom the students actively seek the feedback of their
performance. The feedback that a teacher gets from the students is also essential
to the creation of a learning environment. The more feedback that a teacher can
obtain from students, and the more the teacher can act on that feedback, the
better the learning environment will be that is created.
Effective Interaction between the Teacher and the Students,
Creating an Environment That Respects, Encourages and Stimulates
Learning through Experience:- Learning is an emotional exercise.
Students like those things or actions that appeals to them
emotionally. The teacher who brings a sense of personal involvement
to the classroom, and who wants to share the knowledge with the
class, who shows that he/she is also a part of the learning cycle, is
setting up a relationship with the learners. The working environment
generated by the interaction can remove the stigma of ‘working’ and
turn the learning process into rewarding.
46. ROLE OF TEACHER FOR CONDUCIVE
The teachers have to perform many roles other than the process of
teaching and imparting information to the students. They take up
vital places in the lives of the students in their classrooms. Mainly
they set the tone of their classrooms, build a warm environment, and
take care of students by looking for any sign of trouble. They become
role models for the students.
The best classroom environment is one that results in efficient learning
(Callahan 1996). The classroom atmosphere becomes conducive
(favorable) to learning when teacher before planning teaching analyzes
the behavior of each student of the class. In such environment students
become self directive when encouraged through proper guidance and
teaching techniques of the teacher.
48. Principles for Conducive Classroom Environment
In order to create conducive classroom environment, the teachers
must establish and maintain it through following teaching principles
and managing practices. Following are the means to make the class
room more effective:
Keep students motivated by keeping the students motivated in learning.
Meet basic needs.
Exercise moderate degree of control.
Empower the students.
Keep instruction at the student level
Develop healthy and professionally sound relationship with all the students
by being friendly with them.
Communicate interest in all the students and show concern for each of
While instructing, ensure physical closeness with all the students by
roaming around the class.
Avoid labeling the students with negative adjectives, which are likely to
lower their self-esteem.
Develop a set of few general classroom rules applicable to variety of
situations. These rules should be displayed in the class.
Be assertive, rather than passive or aggressive, in enforcing
discipline. Apply the rule forcefully fairly, consistently and calmly.
Create business like climate in the classroom, where students
understand that they and the teacher have a commonly shared goal of
accomplishing such activities that promote learning.
51. Unique Characteristics of Effective Teachers
Clarity of the teacher’s explanations and directions
Establishing a task-oriented classroom climate
Making use of a variety of learning activities
Establishing and maintaining momentum and pace for the lesson
Encouraging pupil participation and getting all pupils involved.
Monitoring pupils’ progress and attending quickly to pupils’ needs.
Delivering a well-structured and well-organized lesson.
Providing pupils with positive and constructive feedback.
Ensuring coverage of the educational objectives
Making good use of questioning techniques
52. The Concepts of Teaching Methodologies,
Strategies and Techniques
Teaching Approach - set of principles, belief or ideas about
nature of learning which is translated into the classroom.
Teaching Strategy - long term plan of action designed to
achieve a particular goal.
Teaching Method-a systematic way of doing something.
Teaching Technique - well-defined procedure used to
accomplish a specific task; teacher’s particular/ personal style.
54. Teaching Method
The term teaching method refers to the general principles,
pedagogy and management strategies used for classroom
Teaching method is a style of the presentation of content in
A teaching method comprises the principles and methods
used by teachers to enable student learning.
55. Classification of Teaching Methods
Telling Methods:- Lecture, Questioning, and Discussion, etc.
Showing Methods:- Demonstration and Excursion, etc.
Doing Methods:- Project, Activity, Role Playing, and
Practical Method, etc.
56. Classification of Teaching Methods
There are different types of teaching methods which can be
categorized into the following broad types. These are :
Content-focused methods and
59. Student-centered Teaching Methods
Student-centered teaching methods
include: active learning, in which
students solve problems, answer
questions, formulate questions of
their own, discuss, explain,
debate, brainstorm during class
and cooperative learning.
60. Lecture Method
A lecture is an oral presentation of information by the instructor.
A formal or semi-formal discourse in which the instructor presents a
series of events, facts, or principles, explores a problem or explains
61. Qualities of a Good Lecture
A good lecture should not be too long as to exceed the trainees attention span
(up to 25 minutes).
A good lecture should address a single theme.
In a good lecture technical terms are carefully explained.
Familiar examples and analogies are given.
A good lecture establishes fluency in technical content.
A good lecture uses illustrations and examples.
A good lecture builds on existing knowledge.
A good lecture employs a variety of approaches.
62. Uses Of Lecture Method
To orient students.
To introduce a subject.
To give directions on procedures.
To present basic material.
To introduce a demonstration, discussion, or performance.
To illustrate application of rules, principles, or concepts.
To review, clarify, emphasize or summarize.
Requires less rigid space requirement.
Permits better centre over contact and sequence.
Involves one way communication
Poses problems in skill teaching.
Encourages student passiveness.
Poses difficulty in gauging student reaction.
Require highly skilled instructors.
65. Discussion Method
A method in which group discussion techniques are used to
reach instructional objectives.
66. Uses of Discussion Method
To develop imaginative solutions to problems.
To stimulate thinking and interest and to secure student participation.
To emphasize main teaching points.
To supplement lectures, reading, or laboratory exercises.
To determine how well student understands concepts and principles.
To prepare students for application of theory of procedure.
To summarize, clarify points or review.
1. Increase students interest
2. Increases students acceptance and commitments.
3. Utilizes student knowledge and experience.
4. Results in more permanent learning because of high degree of
70. Deductive Method
Deductive Teaching is a process of teaching that starts with a rule or
general statement that is applied to specific cases/examples
Expository or Deductive Method: a telling method where facts,
concepts, principles and generalizations, are stated presented,
defined, interpreted by the teacher and followed by the application of
testing of three concepts, principles, generalizations in new examples
generated by the student.
71. Experiential Methodologies; Exploratory
1. Inductive Method
An exploratory method of logic where one arrives at a fact, principle,
truth or generalization.
Formulating conclusion, a definition, a rule, a principle or a formula
based on knowledge of examples and details
Studying: observing, comparing many instances or cases in several
instances to discover the common element and form generalization.
2. Discovery Method
A method in which thoughts are synthesized to perceive something
that the individual has not known before.
The learner gets directly involved in learning
learning is a result of the learners own internalized, insights,
reflection and experiences
73. Problem Solving Method
Any purposeful activity that will remove a recognized
difficulty or perplexity in situation through the process of
74. Project Method
A significant practical units of an activity of a problematic nature
carried on by students in a lifelike manner and in natural setting. It
maybe a construction, an enjoyment, a problem or a learning
75. Laboratory Method
A set of first hand learning activities wherein the individual
investigates a problem, conducts experiments, observes, process or
applies theories and principles in simulated setting.
77. Reflective Teaching Method
An on-going process that enables individuals to continually learn
from their own experiences by considering alternative
interpretations of situations, generating and evaluating goals and
examining experiences in the light of alternative goals and