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Research A way of thinking...Mahmoud Al-Dali.......pptx

  1. Research: A Way of Thinking
  2. In this chapter, we will learn about: • Research: an integral part of your practice • Research: a way to gather evidence for your practice • Applications of research • Research: what does it mean? • The research process: characteristics and requirements • Types of research • Paradigms of research  Types of research: application perspective  Types of research: objectives perspective  Types of research: mode of enquiry perspective
  3. How can research be an integral part of our practices?
  4.  Research is undertaken within most professions.  More than a set of skills, research is a way of thinking:  examining critically the various aspects of our day-to- day professional work.  understanding and formulating guiding principles that govern a particular procedure.  developing and testing new theories for the enhancement of our professions.  It is a habit of questioning about what you do, and empirical examination to find answers, with a view to instituting appropriate changes for a more effective delivery of professional service, more efficient operations, better understanding of a phenomenon, etc.
  5. • Research: a way to gather evidence for our practices:  (EBP) Evidence-based practice is the delivery of services based upon research evidence about their effectiveness; the service provider’s clinical judgment as to the suitability and appropriateness of the service for a client; and the client’s own preference as to the acceptance of the service. EBP is fast becoming a service delivery norm among many professions.
  6. • Research: what does it mean? • Can we call every method that we follow to answer our questions a research?
  7.  There are several ways of obtaining answers to our professional questions.  Research is one of these ways. (1) is being undertaken within a framework of a set of philosophies, (2) uses procedures, methods and techniques that have been tested for their validity and reliability, and (3) is designed to be unbiased and objective.  Adherence to the following three criteria enables the process to be called ‘research’.
  8. What are the characteristics and requirements of a research process?
  9.  So, research is a process for collecting, analyzing, and interpreting information to answer questions. But to qualify as research, the process must have certain characteristics: it must, as far as possible be:  Rigorous:  Systematic:  Controlled :  Valid and verifiable:  Empirical:  Critical: The concept of control implies that, in exploring causality in relation to two variables, you set up your study in a way that eliminates or minimizes the effects of other factors affecting the relationship. You must be scrupulous in ensuring that the procedures followed to find answers to questions are relevant, appropriate, and justified. Systematic implies that the procedures adopted to undertake an investigation follow a certain logical sequence. This means that any conclusions drawn are based upon hard evidence gathered from information collected from real life experiences or observations. These concepts imply that whatever you conclude on the basis of your findings is correct and can be verified by you and others. Critical in research refers to the state of the method, finding, and conclusion of the research. The process of research undertaking and its finding should have full proof of critical reviews so that result will be justice worthy. If the research is containing any drawbacks it would not be called good research.
  10. Types of research from the point of view of  Application there are two broad categories:  applied research:  Pure research:  the research techniques, procedures, and methods that form the body of research methodology are applied to the collection of information about various aspects of a situation, issue, problem or phenomenon so that information gathered can be used in other ways — such as for policy formulation, administration, and the enhancement of understanding of a phenomenon.  Pure research involves developing and testing theories and hypotheses that are intellectually challenging to the researcher.  Basic (pure) research is also concerned with the development, examination, verification, and refinement of research methods, procedures, techniques and tools that form the body of research methodology.
  11. Types of research from the point of view of  Objectives From this perspective, a research endeavor can be classified as:  descriptive  correlational  explanatory  exploratory  attempts to describe systematically a situation, problem, phenomenon, service, or program, or provides information about, say, the living conditions of a community, or describes attitudes towards an issue.  to discover or establish the existence of a relationship/association/i nterdependence between two or more aspects of a situation.  attempts to clarify why and how there is a relationship between two aspects of a situation or phenomenon.  It is usually carried out when a researcher wants to explore areas about which s/he has little or no knowledge
  12. Types of research from the point of view of  Type of Information Sought through research activity.  From this perspective, research can be classified as: qualitative or quantitative.  The quantitative—qualitative classification is dependent on three criteria: (1) the purpose of the study, (2) how the variables are measured, and (3) how the information is analyzed.
  13.  The study is classified as qualitative if:  the purpose of the study is primarily to describe a situation, phenomenon, problem or event.  the information is gathered through the use of variables measured on nominal scales or ordinal (sometimes) scales (qualitative measurement scales); and  if the analysis is done to establish the variation in the situation, phenomenon, or problem without quantifying it. o The description of an observed situation  On the other hand, if you want to quantify the variation in a phenomenon, situation, problem, or issue, if the information is gathered using predominantly quantitative variables, and if the analysis is geared to ascertain(check) the magnitude of the variation, the study is classified as a quantitative study.
  14. NOTE: These three classifications are not mutually exclusive — that is, a research study classified from the viewpoint of “application” can also be classified from the perspectives of “objectives” and “type of information sought.”
  15. Paradigms of research  There are two main paradigms that form the basis of research  The paradigm that is rooted in the physical sciences is called the systematic, scientific or positivist approach. The opposite paradigm has come to be known as the qualitative, ethnographic, ecological or naturalistic approach.  However, there is a distinction between qualitative research on the one hand and naturalistic and ethnographic research on the other as they follow different value systems and to some extent different methodologies