Ce diaporama a bien été signalé.
Le téléchargement de votre SlideShare est en cours. ×

material selection.pptx

Publicité
Publicité
Publicité
Publicité
Publicité
Publicité
Publicité
Publicité
Publicité
Publicité
Publicité
Publicité
Prochain SlideShare
Material Selection
Material Selection
Chargement dans…3
×

Consultez-les par la suite

1 sur 50 Publicité

Plus De Contenu Connexe

Similaire à material selection.pptx (20)

Publicité

Plus récents (20)

material selection.pptx

  1. 1. Material Selection Contents •Introduction •Importance of Material Selection •IndustrialApplications •Material Properties Required •Available Materials •Fabrication Techniques •Selection Criteria •Selection Methodology klcenter@gmail.com
  2. 2. Sharing Experiences Material Selection Man & Materials Stone Age to Space Age •Meeting Needs •Incomplete Knowledge •Curiosity to Know More Koncept Learning Center klcenter@gmail.com
  3. 3. Sharing Experiences Material Selection Importance of Material Selection •Columbia Space Shuttle Failure •Safety Aspects Koncept Learning Center klcenter@gmail.com
  4. 4. Sharing Experiences Material Selection Importance of Material Selection •Erosion of Pump Impeller •Plant Life Aspects Koncept Learning Center klcenter@gmail.com
  5. 5. Sharing Experiences Material Selection Importance of Material Selection •Iron Pick Up by DM Water •Product Contamination Koncept Learning Center klcenter@gmail.com
  6. 6. Sharing Experiences Material Selection Importance of Material Selection •Bacterial Contamination in Food Industry •Process Contamination Koncept Learning Center klcenter@gmail.com
  7. 7. Sharing Experiences Material Selection Importance of Material Selection •Reactor Explosion due to Temperature Rise •Equipment Failure Koncept Learning Center klcenter@gmail.com
  8. 8. Sharing Experiences Material Selection Industrial Applications • Fluid Storage • Fluid Transportation • Fluid Heating/Cooling • Fluid Conversion • Fluid Separation In Chemical Plant • Equipment • Piping • Instrument • Electrical • Civil/ Structure Koncept Learning Center klcenter@gmail.com
  9. 9. Sharing Experiences Material Selection Industrial Applications Equipment for Fluid Storage Koncept Learning Center klcenter@gmail.com Fluid Water Grains Ethanol Sulfuric Acid Chlorine Milk Condition Atmosphere High Pressure Vacuum High Temperature Low Temperature Equipment Concrete Pits Riveted Silos CS Welded Tanks Epoxy Lined Tanks SS Welded Tanks Smooth Surface Finish Tanks
  10. 10. Sharing Experiences Material Selection Material Properties Required •Mechanical – Strength, Elastic Modulus •Electrical – Conductivity, Dielectric Constant •Thermal – Heat Capacity, Thermal Conductivity •Magnetic – Response of Material in Magnetic Field •Optical – High Radiation, Index of Reflection/ Refraction •Deteriorative – Chemical Reactivity of Materials Koncept Learning Center klcenter@gmail.com
  11. 11. Sharing Experiences Material Selection Available Materials Koncept Learning Center klcenter@gmail.com •Metals – Strong, Heat Transfer, Deformable •Ceramics – Hard but Brittle, Insulation •Polymers – Light, Flexible, Compressible •Composites – Strength of Fiber & Flexibility of Polymer
  12. 12. Sharing Experiences Material Selection Available Materials •Metallic • Pure - CS, Cu, Ni, Ti…. • Alloys – SS304, SS304L, SS316, SS316L… Koncept Learning Center klcenter@gmail.com
  13. 13. Sharing Experiences Material Selection Available Materials Metal Alloys Koncept Learning Center klcenter@gmail.com Ferrous Steel Low Alloys Low-C Plain High Strength Medium-C Plain Heat Treatable High-C Plain Tool High Alloys Tool Stainless Cast Iron Grey Iron Ductile Iron White Iron Malleable Iron Non- Ferrous
  14. 14. Sharing Experiences Material Selection Available Materials Metal Alloys Koncept Learning Center klcenter@gmail.com Ferrous Steel Low Alloys Low-C Plain High Strength Medium-C Plain Heat Treatable High-C Plain Tool High Alloys Tool Stainless Cast Iron Grey Iron Ductile Iron White Iron Malleable Iron Non- Ferrous Steels : C < 1.0 %wt Cast Iron : C > 2.14 %wt
  15. 15. Sharing Experiences Material Selection Available Materials Low Alloys Koncept Learning Center klcenter@gmail.com Low-C Plain High Strength Medium-C Plain Heat Treatable High-C Plain Tool High Alloys Tool Stainless Steel Cast Iron Grey Iron Ductile Iron White Iron Malleable Iron Metal Alloys Ferrous Non- Ferrous Low Carbon Steels (C < 0.25 %wt) •These alloys relatively soft and weak but have outstanding Ductility & Toughness. •They are Machinable, Weldable, Least Expensive •Applications: Automobile Body Parts, Structural Shapes (I-Beam, Channels)
  16. 16. Sharing Experiences Material Selection Available Materials Low Alloys Low-C Plain High Strength Medium-C Plain Heat Treatable High-C Plain Tool High Alloys Tool Stainless Grey Iron Ductile Iron White Iron Malleable Iron Koncept Learning Center klcenter@gmail.com Metal Alloys Ferrous Non- Ferrous Steel Cast Iron High Strength, Low Alloy •Contain alloying elements such as copper, vanadium, nickel and molybdenum •Higher strength than Plain Carbon Steel •Strengthen by heat treatment •Ductile, Formable and Machinable •More resistant to corrosion than plain Carbon Steel
  17. 17. Sharing Experiences Material Selection Available Materials Low-C Plain High Strength Medium-C Plain Heat Treatable High-C Plain Tool Tool Stainless ble Iron Metal Alloys Ferrous Non- Ferrous Steel Cast Iron Low Alloys High Grey Iron Ductile White Mallea Medium Carbon Steel (C: 0.25 – 0.60 %wt) •May be heat treated by austenitizing, quenching and then tempering to improve mechanical properties •Plain medium carbon steels – Low harden abilities, can be heat treated only in thin sections and with very rapid quenching rates •Heat treated alloys are stronger than low carbon steels but at sacrifice of ductility and toughness Alloys Iron Iron Koncept Learning Center klcenter@gmail.com
  18. 18. Sharing Experiences Material Selection Available Materials Low Alloys Low-C Plain High Strength Medium-C Plain Heat Treatable High-C Plain Tool High Alloys Tool Stainless Grey Iron Ductile Iron White Iron Malleable Iron Koncept Learning Center klcenter@gmail.com Metal Alloys Ferrous Non- Ferrous Steel Cast Iron High Carbon Steel (C: 0.60 – 1.40 %wt) •Hardest, Strongest, yet least ductile of carbon steel •Used in a hardened and tempered conditions especially wear resistant and capable of holding sharp cutting edge •Tools & Die steels •Knives, Razors, Hacksaw Blades
  19. 19. Sharing Experiences Material Selection Available Materials Low-C Plain High Strength Medium-C Plain Heat Treatable High-C Plain Tool Tool Stainless eable on Metal Alloys Ferrous Non- Ferrous Steel Cast Iron Low Alloys High Grey Iron Ductile White Mall Alloys Iron Iron Ir Stainless Steel •Highly resistant to Corrosion •3-Classes •Martensitic (AISI-410) – Used for Cutlery, Riffle Barrel, Jet Engine Parts •Ferritic (AISI-409) – Used for Automatic Exhaust Components •Austenitic •AISI-304 – Used for Chemical & Food Processing Equipment •AISI-316L – Used for Welding Construction Koncept Learning Center klcenter@gmail.com
  20. 20. Sharing Experiences Material Selection Available Materials •Typical Composition of SS Koncept Learning Center klcenter@gmail.com SS304 SS304L SS316 SS316L C (Max) 0.08% 0.03% 0.08% 0.03% N 0.10% 0.10% 0.10% 0.10% Cr 18-20% 18-20% 16-18% 16-18% Ni 8-10.5% 8-12% 10-14% 10-14% Mo - - 2-3% 2-3% Si (Max) 0.75% 0.75% 0.75% 0.75% P 0.045% 0.045% 0.045% 0.045% S 0.03% 0.03% 0.03% 0.03%
  21. 21. Sharing Experiences Material Selection SS304 SS304L SS316 SS316L C (Max) 0.08% 0.03% 0.08% 0.03% N 0.10% 0.10% 0.10% 0.10% Cr 18-20% 18-20% 16-18% 16-18% Ni 8-10.5% 8-12% 10-14% 10-14% Mo - - 2-3% 2-3% Si (Max) 0.75% 0.75% 0.75% 0.75% P 0.045% 0.045% 0.045% 0.045% S 0.03% 0.03% 0.03% 0.03% Available Materials •Typical Composition of SS Influence of Components on Material Properties Cr – for Oxide Film Formation Ni – for Toughness, Ductability and ease of Weldability improves, Improves Oxide Film Formation Mo – for improving Pitting & Crevice Corrosion Resistance, Elevated Temperature Mechanical Properties Improves C, N – to Increase Strength & Hardness S, Se, Pb – to Improve Machinability, Prolong Tool Life and Reduces Machining Power Requirement. Ti, Co, Ta – to prevent Sensitization and thereby eliminate susceptibility to inter-granular corrosion. Columbium – improves high temperature creep strength. Cu – improves resistance to sulfuric acid Mn – partial substitution for Nickel Si, Al – improves Oxidation Resistance Koncept Learning Center klcenter@gmail.com
  22. 22. Sharing Experiences Material Selection Available Materials Steel Koncept Learning Center klcenter@gmail.com Low Alloys Low-C Plain High Strength Medium-C Plain Heat Treatable High-C Plain Tool High Alloys Tool Stainless Cast Iron Grey Iron Ductile Iron White Iron Malleable Iron Metal Alloys Ferrous Non- Ferrous Cast Iron (C > 2.14 %wt) •Alloys within this composition remain liquid at temperature 1150-1300oC •Easily melted and amenable to casting
  23. 23. Sharing Experiences Material Selection Available Materials Low Alloys Low-C Plain High Strength Medium-C Plain Heat Treatable High-C Plain Tool High Alloys Tool Stainless Grey Iron Ductile Iron White Iron Malleable Iron Metal Alloys Ferrous Non- Ferrous Steel Cast Iron Grey Iron (C : 2.5-4 %wt, Si : 1-3 %wt) •Mechanically – comparatively weak & brittle in tension •Strength & Ductility – much higher under compressive loads •Effective in dampening vibrational energy (base structure of machines & heavy equipment exposed to vibrations) •Least Cost Koncept Learning Center klcenter@gmail.com
  24. 24. Sharing Experiences Material Selection Available Materials Low Alloys Low-C Plain High Strength Medium-C Plain Heat Treatable High-C Plain Tool High Alloys Tool Stainless Grey Iron Ductile Iron White Iron Malleable Iron Koncept Learning Center klcenter@gmail.com Metal Alloys Ferrous Non- Ferrous Steel Cast Iron Ductile Iron •Adding small amount of Mg & Cerium to Gray Iron before casting produces a distinctly different microstructure and set of mechanical properties •Graphite forms as nodules or sphere like particles instead of flakes •Casting are much more stronger and ductile than Gray Iron •Mechanical characteristics approaching those of steel •Application: Valves, Pump Bodies, Crank Shafts, Gears
  25. 25. Sharing Experiences Material Selection Available Materials Low Alloys Low-C Plain High Strength Medium-C Plain Heat Treatable High-C Plain Tool High Alloys Tool Stainless Grey Iron Ductile Iron White Iron Malleable Iron Metal Alloys Ferrous Non- Ferrous Steel Cast Iron White Iron & Malleable Iron •White iron – extremely hard due to cementite phase, but also brittle (unmachinable) •Used for very hard and wear resistant surface and without a high degree of ductility e.g. rollers in rolling mills •Connecting rods, transmission gears, flanges, pipe fittings Koncept Learning Center klcenter@gmail.com
  26. 26. Sharing Experiences Material Selection Fabrication Techniques Metal Fabrication Techniques Koncept Learning Center klcenter@gmail.com Forming Forging Rolling Extrusion drawing Casting Sand Die Investment Continuous Misc. Powder Metallurgy Welding
  27. 27. Sharing Experiences Material Selection Fabrication Techniques Metal Fabrication Techniques Forming Forging Rolling Extrusion drawing Casting Misc. Sand Powder Metallurgy Die Welding Investment Continuous Forming : Shape of metal piece is changed by plastic deformation •Forging – Hot metal put in Die •Rolling – Metal passed through rollers •Extrusion – Hot metal passed through Die •Drawing – Metal pulled like wire making Koncept Learning Center klcenter@gmail.com
  28. 28. Sharing Experiences Material Selection Fabrication Techniques Metal Fabrication Techniques Forming Forging Rolling Extrusion drawing Casting Sand Die Investment Continuous Misc. Powder Metallurgy Welding Casting: Molten metal is poured into a mould cavity having desired shape •Sand – Liquid metal in sand mold •Die – Liquid metal under pressure in mold •Investment – Wax casting •Continuous – Casting with Koncept Learning Center klcenter@gmail.com Forming
  29. 29. Sharing Experiences Material Selection Fabrication Techniques Metal Fabrication Techniques c. Forming Casting Mis Forging Sand Rolling Die Extrusion Investment drawing Continuous Powder Metallurgy Welding Welding: High te Koncept Learning Center klcenter@gmail.com mperatur e fusion. •Alteration of properties/ microstructures •If work piece material was previously cold worked, heat affected zone may have experienced re-crystallization and grain growth , thus diminishment of strength, hardness and toughness •Upon cooling, residual stresses may form in this region, which weakens the joint •For steels, material heated to form Austenite •Some stainless steels may be “sensitized” during welding which renders them susceptible to inter-granular corrosion.
  30. 30. Sharing Experiences Material Selection Selection Criteria Koncept Learning Center klcenter@gmail.com Basic Considerations • Fluid should not get contaminated • Material should not be affected
  31. 31. Sharing Experiences Material Selection Selection Criteria A.) Operating Conditions •Pressure – Plastic/ rubber will not be suitable for high pressure applications •Temperature – For high temperature applications like furnaces, even metals will not be suitable •Fluid Concentration – Low alloy materials may not be suitable for high concentration acids/ alkalies Koncept Learning Center klcenter@gmail.com
  32. 32. Sharing Experiences Material Selection Selection Criteria B.) Fabrication Requirement • Cutting • Welding • Molding • Forging • Casting • Grinding (Polishing) • Hardening Koncept Learning Center klcenter@gmail.com
  33. 33. Sharing Experiences Material Selection Selection Criteria Koncept Learning Center klcenter@gmail.com C.) Environmental Conditions • Salty wind in coastal area • High humidity air • Hot or cold environment
  34. 34. Sharing Experiences Material Selection Selection Criteria Koncept Learning Center klcenter@gmail.com D.) Scale of Operation • Small Scale – Glassware • Big Scale – Metal Equipment
  35. 35. Sharing Experiences Material Selection Selection Criteria E.) Other Requirements • Thermal Conductivity – Insulation, Heat Exchanger Tubes • Electrical Conductivity – Earthing • Compressibility – For sealing of fluids • Flexibility – hoses • Economics – Cheaper is better • Ease of Operation – Light material like rubber hose • Safe in Operation – Glass wool with Al cladding Koncept Learning Center klcenter@gmail.com
  36. 36. Sharing Experiences Material Selection Selection Criteria Matching What is Required and What is Available Keeping in mind Economics & Safety Koncept Learning Center klcenter@gmail.com
  37. 37. Sharing Experiences Material Selection Selection Criteria Commercial Gas Cylinder Available Options •Metal •Ceramics •Polymers •Semi-conductors •Composites High Strength but poor ductility Koncept Learning Center klcenter@gmail.com High Strength & Ductility but High Cost Requirements Strength Ductility Cost High Strength & Ductility with Low Cost (Selected)
  38. 38. Sharing Experiences Material Selection Selection Criteria Commercial Gas Cylinder Metal Alloys Ferrous Steel Low Alloys Low-C Plain High Strength Medium-C Plain Heat Treatable High-C Plain T Cast Iron High Grey Iron Ductile Alloys Iron Tool Stainless ool White Iron Malleable Iron Non- Ferrous ASTM A414-Grade G Iron + 0.31 wt% C (max) + 1.35 wt% Mn (max) + 0.035 wt% P (max) + 0.04 wt% S (max) Koncept Learning Center klcenter@gmail.com
  39. 39. Sharing Experiences Material Selection Selection Criteria Aero Space Pressure Vessel Available Options •Metal •Ceramics •Polymers •Semi-conductors •Composites Requirements Strength Ductility Cost Despite High Cost, Need of Light Material makes Composite as Suitable Material Koncept Learning Center klcenter@gmail.com
  40. 40. Sharing Experiences Material Selection Selection Criteria Liquid Bulk Storage Tank • Non-Corrosive Liquid : Carbon Steel Plates (IS2061) • Salt Solution (Brine) : Carbon Steel Rubber Lined (CSRL) • Corrosive Liquid : SS-304 Plates • Hygienic Liquids (Milk) : SS-316 Plates with high surface finish Koncept Learning Center klcenter@gmail.com
  41. 41. Sharing Experiences Material Selection Selection Criteria Reactor • Shell Plates • Undergoes Cutting, Rolling, Welding • Selected MOC Code: ASTM-A240 TP304 • Equivalent Steel Grades : BS-1501 Gr 304S15, IS-1570 Koncept Learning Center klcenter@gmail.com
  42. 42. Sharing Experiences Material Selection Selection Criteria Reactor • Nozzles • Pipe Material Specifications • Selected MOC Code : ASTM- A312 TP304 • Equivalent Steel Grade : BS-3605 Gr.304S18 Koncept Learning Center klcenter@gmail.com
  43. 43. Sharing Experiences Material Selection Selection Criteria Reactor • Flanges • Forged or Cast Ring • Selected MOC Code : ASTM-A182 Gr. F304 Koncept Learning Center klcenter@gmail.com
  44. 44. Sharing Experiences Material Selection Selection Criteria Reactor • Agitator Shaft • Steel Bar (Martensitic Stainless Steel) • Selected MOC Code : AISI410 • Equivalent Steel Grade : BS-410 S21 Koncept Learning Center klcenter@gmail.com
  45. 45. Sharing Experiences Material Selection Selection Criteria Reactor • Impeller • Casted • Selected MOC Code : A743 CF8 Koncept Learning Center klcenter@gmail.com
  46. 46. Sharing Experiences Material Selection Selection Criteria Reactor • Fastener • Bolt : ASTM – A193 Gr.B7 • Nut : ASTM – A194 Gr. 2H • Washer : ASTM – F436 Koncept Learning Center klcenter@gmail.com
  47. 47. Sharing Experiences Material Selection Selection Criteria Reactor Part Material Code (ASTM) Plate A240 TP304 Nozzle A312 TP304 Flange A182 Gr.F304 Shaft AISI 410 Impeller A743 CF8 Bolt A193 Gr.B7 Nut A194 Gr2H Washer F436 Koncept Learning Center klcenter@gmail.com
  48. 48. Sharing Experiences Material Selection Selection Criteria Centrifugal Pump (SS304) Part Material Code (ASTM) Casing A743 CF8 Impeller A743 CF8 Stuffing Box A743 CF8 Shaft AISI 410 Shaft Sleeve AISI 304 Casing Wear Ring AISI 304 Impeller Wear Ring AISI 304 Base Plate MS Fabricated Koncept Learning Center klcenter@gmail.com
  49. 49. Sharing Experiences Material Selection Selection Methodology • From Literature • By Lab Testing • Pilot Plant Trials • Past Experience Koncept Learning Center klcenter@gmail.com
  50. 50. Sharing Experiences Material Selection ? Koncept Learning Center klcenter@gmail.com

×