2. GLOBAL WARMING
• “Climate change” and “global warming” are often used
interchangeably but have distinct meanings. Similarly, the terms
"weather" and "climate" are sometimes confused, though they
refer to events with broadly different spatial- and timescales.
3. • Weather refers to atmospheric conditions that occur locally over
short periods of time—from minutes to hours or days. Familiar
examples include rain, snow, clouds, winds, floods or
• Climate, on the other hand, refers to the long-term regional or
even global average of temperature, humidity and rainfall
patterns over seasons, years or decades.
4. • Global warming” refers to the long-term warming of the planet.
Global temperature shows a well-documented rise since the
early 20th century and most notably since the late 1970s.
• Worldwide, since 1880 the average surface temperature has
risen about 1 °C (about 2 °F), relative to the mid-20th-century
baseline (of 1951-1980).
5. • “Climate change” encompasses global warming, but refers to
the broader range of changes that are happening to our planet.
These include rising sea levels; shrinking mountain glaciers;
accelerating ice melt in Greenland, Antarctica and the Arctic;
and shifts in flower/plant blooming times.
• These are all consequences of the warming, which is caused
mainly by people burning fossil fuels and putting out heat-
trapping gases into the air. The terms “global warming” and
“climate change” are sometimes used interchangeably, but
strictly they refer to slightly different things.
6. WHAT IS GLOBAL WARMING
• Global warming is the long-term heating of Earth’s climate
system observed since the pre-industrial period (between 1850
and 1900) due to human activities, primarily fossil fuel burning,
which increases heat-trapping greenhouse gas levels in Earth’s
• And scientists say that unless we curb global-warming
emissions, average U.S. temperatures could increase by up to
10 degrees Fahrenheit over the next century.
11. EFFECTS OF GLOBAL WARMING
• Melting glaciers, early snowmelt, and severe droughts will cause more dramatic
water shortages and increase the risk of wildfires.
• Rising sea levels will lead to coastal flooding on the Eastern Seaboard,
especially in Florida, and in other areas such as the Gulf of Mexico.
• Forests, farms, and cities will face troublesome new pests, heat waves, heavy
downpours, and increased flooding. All those factors will damage or destroy
agriculture and fisheries.
• Disruption of habitats such as coral reefs and Alpine meadows could drive many
plant and animal species to extinction.
• Allergies, asthma, and infectious disease outbreaks will become more common
due to increased growth of pollen-producing ragweed, higher levels of air
pollution, and the spread of conditions favorable to pathogens and mosquitoes.
15. What to do:
• Plant trees in tropical rainforests in Brazil, Indonesia, India,
Colombia, and Madagascar
• Protect what remains of our existing tropical forests through
nonprofits such as Cool Earth
16. • But not all forests are created equal – some remove carbon
from our atmosphere more effectively than others. According to
a paper published in Science Advances, tropical forests in
countries like Brazil, Indonesia, and India will most efficiently
pull carbon out of the atmosphere, since they’re home to a huge
amount of biodiversity and play a major role in the planet’s air
and water cycle.
18. What to do:
• Do at least one of these things:
• Instead of ordering a private ride, do a rideshare
• Avoid rapid acceleration and braking, and turn on cruise control
on longer trips
• Walk and bike to your destination whenever possible
• When buying a new car, choose a climate-friendly option
19. • Why it’s impactful:
• As aforementioned, cars are one of the biggest contributors to
climate change: 82% of emissions from transportation come
from cars. And while cutting automotive transportation out of
your life would make the most impact, this isn’t possible for
most people. So instead, tweak a few habits that will have a
bigger collective impact.
21. What to do:
• In the winter, take steps to lower your heating bill:
• Set your thermostat at 68 degrees F, and lower your home’s
temperature 7-10 degrees for 8 hours a day. (But don’t turn
down the heat more than 10 degrees if it’s only for a few hours-
it’ll take too much energy to heat back up.)
• Shore up your windows, seal up the doors, and plug up dafty
22. Why it’s impactful:
• Electricity is one of the biggest causes of greenhouse gas
emissions, and heating systems are the single biggest energy
expense in the home. So lowering your heating bills is the most
impactful way reduce your electricity consumption (and isn’t so
bad for your wallet, either).
• In addition to monitoring your thermostat, improving insulation
and airtightness through your walls, roof, and windows is a
great way to avoid heat from escaping your home, since the
biggest sources of heat loss are your walls (35%), roof (20%),
and windows (15%).
27. What to do:
• Support climate legislation by doing one or more of these
• Send a letter to party leaders and candidates telling them your
vote depends on their stance on global warming
• Volunteer for a candidate that supports efforts to stop global
• Talk to friends and family about the importance of voting for
• Write a letter to your elected leaders to support and implement
a set of climate solutions
28. Why it’s impactful:
• Reminder: 100 companies produce 71% of emissions worldwide.
What will compel big companies to act sustainably consistently, on a
large scale? Lawmakers.
• They can:
• Place limits on the amount of carbon companies are allowed to emit
• Provide resources to prevent emissions leaks from equipment
• Subsidize efficient industrial technology to make it more affordable
• They can also help individuals act more sustainably. Copenhagen’s
government is working to make it the world’s first carbon-neutral city
by 2025, by installing bike lanes across the city, restricting polluting
cars, and building new wind turbines.
• And how can we enact political change? It all starts with you.
30. • Energy efficiency is the lowest-cost way to reduce emissions,”.
• When shopping for refrigerators, washing machines, and other
appliances, look for the Energy Star label. It will tell you which
are the most efficient.
32. • Saving water reduces carbon pollution, too. That's because it
takes a lot of energy to pump, heat, and treat your water. So
take shorter showers, turn off the tap while brushing your teeth,
and switch to WaterSense -labeled fixtures and appliances
38. • Choosing to live in walkable smart-growth cities and towns with
quality public transportation leads to less driving, less money
spent on fuel, and less pollution in the air. Less frequent flying
can make a big difference, too. “Air transport is a major source
of climate pollution,” “If you can take a train instead, do that.”
42. • Landfills are the major contributor of methane and
other greenhouse gases. When the waste is burnt, it releases
toxic gases in the atmosphere, which results in global warming.
Reusing and recycling old items can significantly reduce your
carbon footprint as it takes far less energy to recycle old
items than to produce items from scratch
47. • If you can’t afford an electric car, buy the cleanest gasoline as
possible. When car shopping, look at the benefits of options that
provide renewable fuel. Although it may be a pretty penny now,
you’re on the ground level of forwarding thinking.