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Pricing for International
Markets
Factors Affecting International Price Determination
• Cost of production
• Trade cycle
• Marketing objectives
• Competitio...
Factors Affecting International Pricing Strategies
• Penetration Pricing.
• Economy Pricing.
• Price Skimming.
• Premium P...
• Psychological Pricing.
• Product Line Pricing.
• Optional Product Pricing.
• Captive Product Pricing
• Product Bundle Pr...
DEFINITION OF 'DUMPING'
In international trade, the export by a country or company of a product at a price that is
lower i...
The delivery and payment terms agreed between a buyer and a
seller.
In international trade, terms of sale also set out
the...
Managing International
Distribution
• Distribution
 Physically moving products and establishing intermediary relationships to
support such movement.
• Physic...
The Role of Distribution Activities in Marketing
• Functions of Intermediaries
 Perform the marketing function better.
 ...
Direct channel
Indirect channel
Dual distribution
Types of Distribution Channels
Alternative Channels of Distribution
Direct Marketing
Direct marketing is a channel-agnostic form of advertising which
allows businesses and nonprofit organiza...
Structuring a Distribution Channel
• Important Factors in Building a Distribution Channel
 Costs associated with establis...
International Supply Chain Management
Aspects of Supply Chain Management
Managing International
Promotion Mix
• International promotion is promoting the business
internationally or world wide or it is the marketing
carried out by co...
• Multi lingual advertisements.
• Wider platform for all the products and services.
• Wider brand awareness through differ...
Below the line promotion includes promotion methods which are more personal,
traditional and allow the company control. Th...
Above the line promotion includes promotion methods using "mass media", Such
techniques are usually seen as impersonal, de...
International promotion has many potential uses
in business:
Increase sales
Attract new customers
Encourage customer lo...
Push
and
Pull
PUSH STRATEGY
A push promotional strategy involves taking the product directly to the customer via
whatever means, ensurin...
• 2. PULL STRATEGY
• A pull strategy involves motivating customers to seek out your brand in an
active process.
• "Getting...
Manav Agarwal
manavs87@gmail.com
9823962733
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International Marketing

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International Marketing

  1. 1. Pricing for International Markets
  2. 2. Factors Affecting International Price Determination • Cost of production • Trade cycle • Marketing objectives • Competition • Product substitution • Brand image • Elasticity of demand • Stage of product life cycle • Capacity utilization ratio • Product differentiation • Consumer profile • Exchange rate Penetration Pricing. Economy Pricing. Price Skimming. Premium Pricing.
  3. 3. Factors Affecting International Pricing Strategies • Penetration Pricing. • Economy Pricing. • Price Skimming. • Premium Pricing. Penetration Pricing. Economy Pricing. Price Skimming. Premium Pricing.
  4. 4. • Psychological Pricing. • Product Line Pricing. • Optional Product Pricing. • Captive Product Pricing • Product Bundle Pricing. • Promotional Pricing. • Geographical Pricing. • Value Pricing. Types of Pricing
  5. 5. DEFINITION OF 'DUMPING' In international trade, the export by a country or company of a product at a price that is lower in the foreign market than the price charged in the domestic market. As dumping usually involves substantial export volumes of the product, it often has the effect of endangering the financial viability of manufacturers or producers of the product in the importing nation.
  6. 6. The delivery and payment terms agreed between a buyer and a seller. In international trade, terms of sale also set out the rights and obligations of buyers and sellers as applicable in the transportation of goods. Terms of Sale
  7. 7. Managing International Distribution
  8. 8. • Distribution  Physically moving products and establishing intermediary relationships to support such movement. • Physical Distribution (Logistics)  The activities of distribution involved in the physical relocation of products. • Channel of Distribution  The system of intermediaries (business relationships) established to guide the movement of a product. Distribution Terms
  9. 9. The Role of Distribution Activities in Marketing • Functions of Intermediaries  Perform the marketing function better.  Provide efficient distribution of the product.  Breaking bulk – sell to customers in smaller quantities.  Assorting – bringing together similar lines of goods.  Shifting risks.  Merchant middlemen - take title to the goods distributed.  Agents/brokers - distribute goods only.
  10. 10. Direct channel Indirect channel Dual distribution Types of Distribution Channels
  11. 11. Alternative Channels of Distribution
  12. 12. Direct Marketing Direct marketing is a channel-agnostic form of advertising which allows businesses and nonprofit organizations to communicate straight to the customer
  13. 13. Structuring a Distribution Channel • Important Factors in Building a Distribution Channel  Costs associated with establishing a direct channel distribution  Coverage is increased through the use of indirect channels of distribution.  Control is enhanced using a direct distribution channel.
  14. 14. International Supply Chain Management
  15. 15. Aspects of Supply Chain Management
  16. 16. Managing International Promotion Mix
  17. 17. • International promotion is promoting the business internationally or world wide or it is the marketing carried out by companies in overseas or across national borderlines. • Key function - developing and spreading credible communication about an offer (product / service). What is International Promotion?
  18. 18. • Multi lingual advertisements. • Wider platform for all the products and services. • Wider brand awareness through different medias (internet / magazines / tv/ radio). • Advertising campaigns on a large scale Features of international Promotion
  19. 19. Below the line promotion includes promotion methods which are more personal, traditional and allow the company control. They can include: •Public Relations- when a business communicates directly with it's public through press releases and speaking at conferences •Sales promotions - such as 50% extra free, buy one get one free or coupons. •Sponsorship - where a business will pay to be associated with another product, person or event. Sportspersons are often sponsored by sports companies. •Direct sales - when a representative of the business will visit potential customers Methods of international promotions
  20. 20. Above the line promotion includes promotion methods using "mass media", Such techniques are usually seen as impersonal, designed to reach as many people at as little cost as possible. They can include: •TV, Radio and Cinema - allows businesses to target a large group of people •Newspapers - allow advertisers to reach specific groups of people •The web (internet)- allows businesses to reach a large international audience at a very low cost. •Outdoor/transport - advertisements on the side of busses, outside shops and on billboards enable Methods of international promotions
  21. 21. International promotion has many potential uses in business: Increase sales Attract new customers Encourage customer loyalty Create awareness Remind potential customers Encourage new customers Encourage brand switching Position a product Uses of international promotion
  22. 22. Push and Pull
  23. 23. PUSH STRATEGY A push promotional strategy involves taking the product directly to the customer via whatever means, ensuring the customer is aware of your brand at the point of purchase. "Taking the product to the customer" EXAMPLES OF PUSH TACTICS Trade show promotions to encourage retailer demand Direct selling to customers in showrooms or face to face Negotiation with retailers to stock your product Efficient supply chain allowing retailers an efficient supply Packaging design to encourage purchase Point of sale displays
  24. 24. • 2. PULL STRATEGY • A pull strategy involves motivating customers to seek out your brand in an active process. • "Getting the customer to come to you" • EXAMPLES OF PULL TACTICS • Advertising and mass media promotion • Word of mouth referrals • Customer relationship management • Sales promotions and discounts
  25. 25. Manav Agarwal manavs87@gmail.com 9823962733

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