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01 Regional Planning Presentation ITPI_C2.2.pdf

  1. C.2.2: Regional Planning and Development Anjali Pancholy Associate Town & Country Planner, TCPO For Institute of Town Planners, India
  2. What is Regional Planning ▪ The meaning is closely linked to National Development Planning. ▪ In this context, it is sometimes referred to as Regional Development Planning. ▪ Regional Development Planning is undertaken to achieve the goals of national development. ▪ It is spatial planning unlike National Development Planning, which is economic planning. ▪ “Regional Planning should be viewed as a means to strengthen the national economy. It is a technique to evaluate the potential of sub-national areas and to develop them to the best advantage of the national as a whole”.
  3. Is regional planning the same as urban planning for a large area? Goals? Tools? Origin and theories
  4. Goals of Development Economic Growth Redistribution Structural Change Environmental Sustainability
  5. Goals of Regional Planning Economic Growth Income Employment Improved internal organization and administrative form Improving parameters of social development (literacy, health, etc.) Evolution of Improved Settlement Pattern Balanced Development Environmental objectives
  6. What is a Region An area delineated on the basis of a defined criteria Definitions of region vary from place to place and author to author and purpose to purpose – no set definition or typology Basics: ▪ It is a spatial unit ▪ There is some unifying criteria Conceptual issues ▪ Region as a mental construct ▪ Region as a physical entity
  7. Types of Regions Formal Region The criteria used to define or delineate is uniformly present all over the region ie – HOMOGENOUS REGION Normally the criteria is STATIC Functional Region The criteria used to define the region is in the form of a flow or relationship, linking all parts of the region to a centre or core Ie – NODAL REGION Normally flows are DYNAMIC Others Planning Regions Ad hoc regions
  8. Typology of Regions Regions Formal Single Feature Multiple Feature Compage Functional Metropolitan Axial Ad-hoc Transitional Zones Depressed Areas River Valleys, etc.
  9. Identifying the need for regional planning of a particular sub- national spatial unit (region) Demarcatio n of the region (Delineatio n exercise) Defining aim and objectives of the planning exercise Plan formulation Plan implement -ation within the framework of National and federal structure Monitoring and review What is involved in Regional Planning
  10. Region Delineation ▪ Regional delineation is an initial step in the preparation of any regional planning exercise ▪ Delineation of a definite physical boundary of the region through empirical/ theoretical exercises is a complicated exercise Delineation of formal regions involves the grouping together of spatial units which have similar characteristics according to the selected/ defined criteria, which differ significantly from the units outside the region on the basis of the chosen criteria. This can be done statistically using: ▪ Weighted index number methods ▪ Factor analysis Delineation of Functional Regions Two basic approaches: ▪ Flow analysis – based on actual observations of flows that actually take place ▪ Gravitational analysis – based on theoretical observations of what flows might happen.
  11. • Geographical-cultural regions • Cultural ethnocentricism • River basin planning • Community development ( ref: block planning) Theoretical Basis ▪ Although Regional Planning is a relatively new discipline, its roots go back to the nineteenth century. ▪ Multi-disciplinary theoretical basis ▪ 4 distinct sets of theories • Von Thunen • Christaller, Losch • Growth Pole Theory Location theories • Physical planning extended to the countryside Geographic theories • Spatial price theory • Transport cost and location • Location of firm • Regional business cycles Town Planning theories Economic theories
  12. Core-Periphery Concept ▪ The concept draws from several interlinked works ▪ John Friedmann (1966) developed the core-periphery model studying differences between regions and the development policy of Venezuela. ▪ He identified four stages of development in economic space. ▪ Similar views were expressed by other scholars ▪ Wallerstein's World Systems Theory, according to which the whole world is one system in which the (so-called) the developed industrialized nations comprise the core and the underdeveloped and developing world, consisting of most nations in Asia, Africa and South America comprise the periphery and semi- periphery. The core focuses on high skilled capital intensive jobs and industries, while the semi-periphery and periphery focus on more low skilled labour intensive industries and jobs, implying an exploitative relationship between the core and periphery. SEMI- PERIPHERY CORE PERIPHERY
  13. 1 The pre-industrial (agricultural) society with localised economies, in which settlement structure consisting of small units remains dispersed and whose economic subjects (population and merchandise) have low mobility 2Transitional The concentration of the economy from periphery to the core begins as a result of capital accumulation and industrial growth. The interregional mobility of labour and intensity of trade rises enormously. However, the labour force daily space remains local, as the personal mobility of people remains limited. The periphery is totally subordinated to the centre of political and economic dominance. The industri es producing the highest extra-value are located in the core. 3Industrial Economic growth spreads across the country and causes other growth centres to appear. The main reasons for deconcentration are the lack of labour force and rocketing prices in the core area. Furthermore, the deconcentration of economic units and population takes place within the metropolitan areas: intensity of people’s personal daily mobility and distances between workplace and home increase. However, the growth of the metropolitan region proceeds and the remote periphery continues to decline 4Post- Industrial The spatial integration of the economy and achievement of equilibrium. Friedmann believed that the allocation of economic activities should attain optimum balance and stability. As far as different areas specialise in certain functions, there will be division of labour between regions. An integrated model foresees a cyclical movement of the population caused mostly by age: the youth study in big cities, families settle in suburbs, elderly people look for cheap and peaceful rural environment.
  14. Adapted version of Friedmann’s 4 stages
  15. Characteristics of Core & Periphery Core Periphery ▪ High foreign direct investment (FDI) ▪ High employment and high wages ▪ High levels of communications and technology e.g. internet and mobile network ▪ High literacy and skills rates ▪ Net migration gain ▪ Larger secondary and tertiary economy ▪ Good electricity, water and gas supplies ▪ Good quality housing ▪ Wide variety of entertainment e.g. cinemas, museums, etc. ▪ Cultural diversity (sport, music, religion, language, food, dress, etc.) ▪ Large racial mix ▪ Disinvestment ▪ Net migration loss ▪ Unemployment ▪ Low levels of literacy and small skills base ▪ Large primary sector economy - maybe a large number of subsistence farmers ▪ Water and electricity shortages - possible reliance on fuelwood ▪ Poor levels of communications ▪ poor housing - often informal settlements ▪ Traditional lifestyle/culture (lack of cultural mix) ▪ Little international cultural or sporting facilities
  16. Growth Pole Theory ▪ The growth pole theory was developed by French regional economist, Francois Perroux, in 1955 ▪ Explains the phenomenon of economic development with the process of structural change. ▪ Boudeville gave a regional character and a specific geographic content to Perroux’s conception and defined a regional growth pole as a “set of expanding industries located in an urban area and including further development of economic activity throughout its zone of influence.” ▪ The place where these ‘expanding’ or ‘propulsive’ or ‘dominant’ industries are located in the region becomes the pole of the region and agglomeration tendencies are promoted. ▪ This theory was used in France and other regions including India where Governments attempted to achieve balanced regional development by promoting growth in backward regions. ▪ Success was limited due to factors like underestimation of the critical amount of initial investment to create new growth centers, insufficient analysis of growth center requirements and unavailability of all data trends.
  17. ▪ Perroux’s theory is based on inter-industry linkages and industrial interdependence. According to this theory, “Growth does not appear everywhere and all at once, it appears in points or development poles, with variable intensities, it spreads along diverse channels and with varying terminal effects to the whole of the economy”. It is related to Perroux’s idea of an economic space as a field of forces consisting of centres, “from which centrifugal forces emanate and to which centripetal forces are attracted. Each centre, being a centre of attraction and repulsion, has its proper field which is set in the field of other centres.” Boudeville gave a regional character and a specific geographic content to Perroux’s conception. Boudeville defined a regional growth pole as a “set of expanding industries located in an urban area and including further development of economic activity throughout its zone of influence.” The place where these ‘expanding’ or ‘propulsive’ or ‘dominant’ industries are located in the region becomes the pole of the region and agglomeration tendencies are promoted. ▪ A leading propulsive industry has highly advanced level of technology and managerial expertise, high income elasticity of demand for its products, marked local multiplier effects and strong inter-industry linkages with other sectors. There are two types of linkage— forward linkage and backward linkage. In backward linkage, an industry encourages investment in the earlier stages of production by expanding its demand for inputs. In case of a forward linkage, an industry encourages investment in the subsequent stages of production either by transmitting innovation or effects of innovations forward. As a result of innovations, costs of production in the industry decline. It results in a fall in the price of its output. In this
  18. ▪ Growth poles theory thus documents the contribution of polarization to the development of poles as well as peripheries and this theory identifies 4 basic types of polarization: ▪ Technological and technical: based on the concentration of new technology in the growth pole, ▪ Income: the growth pole contributes to the concentration and the growth of income due to expansion of services and dependence on demand and profit, ▪ Psychological: based on the optimistic anticipation of future demand in the propelled region, ▪ Geographical: based on the concentration of economic activity in a geographically determined space. This theory reached the height of its popularity in the 1950s and 1960s as it was used in regional politics of many countries (e.g. France and Italy). The propulsive industries included automotive industry, steel and chemistry with the location of new manufacturing facilities being directed to the developing regions (e.g. the south of Italy) to start the development of these problematic regions.
  19. ▪ The results, however, fell behind expectations with the reasons for this failure being: ▪ Failing to differentiate between natural and artificial growth pole or between a spontaneously created center and an attempt to affect the center from the outside, ▪ Implementation of the concept in very different contexts - these being (a) neglected regions, (b) cities to moderate the process of suburbanization as well as (c) achieving the modification of urban structure, ▪ Underestimation of the critical amount of initial investment to create new growth center, ▪ An insufficient analysis of the newly founded facility of the propulsive industry ▪ There have been instances of economic growth where the presence of growth poles has not been essential. Switzerland is a country where tourism is not concentrated in poles but spread all over the country and Denmark is a place whose prosperity was not initiated and maintained due to a large propulsive company. These observations do not object to the theory as a whole but mean to show the possibility of exceptions.
  20. ▪ In spite of certain drawbacks the theory of growth poles makes several contributions: ▪ Uncovers inequalities in the economy of a country (region) and focuses attention to the propulsive and propelled units, ▪ Offers a dynamic image of the economy in the country (region) which is based on a general tendency of spatial focus of manufacturing facilities at an interregional level, ▪ Basis for careful decentralization by supporting the creation of new development poles (focused decentralization or decentralized focus). ▪ Regional implications of the growth poles theory was proposed by a French economist Jacques Boudeville who called his modified theory the theory of growth centers and growth axis. Boudeville´s concept of principal cities system was utilized in practice, for instance, in the spatial planning of France with the following result : ▪ 3 homogeneous regions (Paris, East and West), ▪ 8 polarized regions with centers (poles) with each being called "compensatory metropolis", ▪ 21 planning counties for which plans were prepared to locate investments. ▪ The primary purpose of this principal cities system was to focus investments in the 8 regional (compensatory) metropolis with the main objective of decreasing regional inequalities between fast-growing Paris and other, slower-growing regions. ▪
  21. Related Terms ▪ Dependency Theory ▪ Dominance ▪ Hinterland ▪ Spread and backwash ▪ Vicious cycle
  22. Christaller’s Central Place Theory ▪ Walther Christaller in his work “Central Places in Southern Germany” 1933 ▪ It is a normative economic theory, uses concepts of demand and supply to explain the emergence of a settlement pattern, its numbers, size and spacing ▪ Christaller made a number of assumptions: – an isotropic surface (an unbounded uniform plain) – an evenly distributed population – evenly distributed resources – similar purchasing power of all consumers and consumers will patronize nearest market – rational economic behavior – the supplier is a profit maximiser and the consumer is a distance minimiser – transportation costs equal in all directions and proportional to distance – no excess profits (perfect competition)
  23. Threshold and Range ▪ Threshold of a good is the minimum demand which is required to support the producer ▪ Range of a good is the maximum distance that a consumer is willing to travel to obtain a good or service ▪ Using these two concepts, it emerges that a good or service will be offered at a central place where the threshold is offset by the range of the good, which is surrounded by its circular catchment area or sphere of influence or hinterland ▪ Christaller hypothesized that goods and services have different thresholds and ranges, based on which he categorized them as lower order, middle order and higher order Threshold Range
  24. Hexagonal Shape ▪ As transport is equally easy in all direction, each central place will have a circular market area. ▪ However, circular shape of the market areas results in either un- served areas or over-served areas. ▪ To solve this problem, Christaller suggested the hexagonal shape of the markets. ▪ Within a given area there will be fewer high order cities and towns in relation to the lower order villages and hamlets. For any given order, theoretically the settlements will be equidistant from each other. The higher order settlements will be further apart than the lower order ones. ▪ The different orders of settlements arrange themselves in a hierarchy. Generally speaking lower is the order, larger is the number of settlements and higher the order, greater is the area served (sphere of influence) as per the three principles proposed:
  25. Basic Concepts of CPT ▪ Given the above, he postulated that a spatial system of central places emerges. The higher order central places offer all the lower order goods (and services) also. ▪ Centrality measures the number and orders of goods and services offered by a central place. ▪ Each central place serves a circular hinterland, however, since circles either overlap or leave out intervening areas, therefore postulated Christaller hexagonal market areas.
  26. Marketing Principle ▪ This particular of centres is the minimum number of service points that can be packed onto the isotropic plain ▪ Yet it ensures that the marketing/ supply of all orders of goods and services is as near as possible to the dependant demand ▪ Hence Christaller claimed that this system was organised by the marketing principle ▪ The marketing principle K = 3 ▪ The market of a higher-order place (node) serves 1/3 of the market area of each of the consecutive lower order centre ▪ The lower order centres (6 in numbers) are located at the corners of hexagon around the high-order centres.
  27. Traffic Principle ▪ Christaller argued that factors other than the marketing principle may also be important in determining the distribution of the service centres ▪ Two of these are the traffic principle and the administrative principle ▪ The traffic principle creates a landscape which contains the maximum number of central places on linear traffic routes between two major towns ▪ According to the traffic principle, the maximum number of central places would be lined up on straight traffic routes which fan out from the central point. ▪ When Central places are arranged according to the traffic principle, the lower order centres are located at the midpoint of each side of the hexagon rather than at the corner. ▪ The traffic principle produces a hierarchy organized in a k=4 arrangement in which central places are nested according to the rule of four.
  28. Administrative Principle ▪ The administrative principle creates a landscape in which each higher order centre dominates six lower order centres ▪ If we include the higher order centre itself, each centre can be said to dominate 7 centres of the next lower order. ▪ Thus the transport principle produces a hierarchy organized in a k=7 arrangement in which central places are nested according to the rule of seven.
  29. Review of Central Place Theory MODELS ARE NOT REAL, BUT THEY HELP US UNDERSTAND REALITY… ▪ The pattern of cities predicted by Central Place Theory may not hold ▪ Isotropic surfaces do not exist in reality and failure to meet initial assumptions ▪ Large areas of flat land rarely exist ▪ Production costs may vary not only because of economies of scale but also by natural resource endowments. ▪ Transportation costs are not equal in all directions ▪ Rural markets (initially households) are not evenly distributed ▪ Non economic factors (culture, politics, leadership) may be important but not evenly distributed ▪ Competitive practices may lead to distortion of the perfectly shaped market areas ▪ There are many forms of transportation- cost cannot be proportional to distance ▪ People and wealth are not evenly distributed ▪ People do not always to the nearest place and purchasing power differs ▪ Perfect competition is unreal-some make more money than others ▪ Shopping habits have changed ▪ The Theory gives a static picture of central place, orders of goods and market areas ▪ The theory does a reasonably good job of describing the spatial pattern of urbanization ▪ It explains why there is a hierarchy of urban centres ▪ Central place theory does a good job of describing principles affecting the location of trade and service activity, consumer market oriented manufacturing
  30. 73rd/ 74th CAA ▪ 73rd Amendment – Panchayati Raj Act ▪ 74th Amendment – Nagarpalika Act ▪ Enacted in 1992, a third tier was added to the country’s federal polity thus bringing democratic decentralisation (devolution) ▪ The provisions contained in Article 243 and its sections and two new schedules – 11 and 12 Schedules inserted into the Constitution. ▪ Statutory (constitutional) status to urban and rural local level elected bodies ▪ Transfer of functions to local level – urban planning including town planning and economic and social planning is amongst the list of functions to be discharged at local level by elected representatives ▪ For urban areas – urban local bodies ▪ For rural areas – gram panchayats ▪ Introduced provision for financial devolution – a State Finance Commission for sharing funds between State level and local self-governments to bring in financial autonomy
  31. ▪ The Constitutional 74th Amendment Act, envisaged a systematic change in the pattern of municipal government in the country with a view to enabling cities and towns to play a critical role in economic and social development and signified the beginning of a historic reform to decentralize power to the people. ▪ The Act prescribes a common legal institutional framework for local self- government comprising of the following mandatory institutions: ▪ State Election Commission (Article 243k) ▪ Elected Municipalities: Municipal Corporations (for larger urban areas), Municipal Councils (smaller urban areas); and Nagar Panchayats (for transitional areas) (Article 243Q). ▪ Ward committees and other committees (Article 243R) ▪ State Finance Commission (Article 243I), ▪ District Planning Committee (Article 243ZE) ▪ Metropolitan Planning Committee (Article 243ZE) 74th CAA – Institutional Framework
  32. DPC & MPC ▪ A District Planning Committee (DPC) at District level to prepare the Draft Development Plan, integrating matters of common interest between the Panchayats and the Municipalities including spatial planning, sharing of water and other physical and natural resources, the integrated development of infrastructure and environmental conservation and the extent and type of available resources, both financial or otherwise. ▪ A Metropolitan Planning Committee (MPC) for urban areas with a population of 10 lakhs and above, spread over one or more districts, comprising one or more contiguous municipal areas, gram panchayats, etc. to prepare a Draft Development Plan have regard to matters of common interest between the Municipalities and the Panchayats, including co-ordinated spatial planning of the area, sharing of water and other physical and natural resources, the integrated development of infrastructure and environmental conservation
  33. Status of DPCs/ MPCs ▪ The story so far is that of a slow paced, hesitant kind of devolution of powers to the urban local bodies. ▪ Incomplete implementation of provisions of 74th CAA ▪ Several States like Bihar does not have DPC or an MPC. Gujarat, Himachal Pradesh and Haryana follow the suit. Bihar and Pondicherry had not even called for municipal elections until 2001. ▪ Only West Bengal constituted MPC. Kerala, Madhya Pradesh and West Bengal have constituted DPC. In all other states, metropolitan planning committees are non-existent. ▪ Although, the provisions have been made by the states, they have not actualized into functioning bodies as developers or planners. ▪ Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Punjab, Rajasthan, have provided for the constitution of MPC in their respective acts, but not constituted it, even though it is a constitutional requirement. Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, Haryana have not provided for any provisions for the constitution of MPCs in their respective acts.
  34. ▪ The reasons are mainly the lack of adequate finances, states not devolving powers fully to the urban local bodies and the free hand that most of the states have been given in deciding the fate of these bodies. ▪ The crux of the matter is that most of the states have created institutions that have been made mandatory in the 74th CAA. However, the ambiguity in the Act pertaining to the creation of these ULBs has been made use fully. ▪ The act for example does not make it mandatory for the state governments to devolve all the functions to the local bodies, does not define the sources of finance for them. Consequently, these institutions have just remained superficial in most of the states ▪ Under JNNURM, one of the prescribed State-level reforms was implementation of the provisions of 74th CAA ▪ Whatever District Plans that have been prepared are simply compilations of Central and State funded schemes and programmes, they are not really spatial plans Status of DPCs/ MPCs
  35. Regional Inequalities in India ▪ The major causes of regional economic underdevelopment in classical theory were: – Lack of natural resources (cultivable land being the main resource) – Lack of capital (without which no programme of modernisation/ technology is feasible) – Socio-economic factors - cultural resistance to change – Vicious circle generated by circular and cumulative causation (Myrdal and Nurkse) ▪ In India, following factors come into play: – Vast area with significant variations – Climatic and soil differences – From economic view-point, factors of production like labour, capital and enterprise are not equally distributed – Glaring differences in social welfare (education, health, etc) due to unevenness of economic development – It is the explicit recognition of above factors that led Planning Commission to aim for balanced regional development ▪ Inter-State and Intra-State disparities, rural-urban disparities
  36. Regional Income ▪ Inequality across the States, measured through variation in the per capita SDP, has gone up in the country over the period since 1993-94 to 2003-04 ▪ There is no evidence to suggest that measures of globalization have brought down regional imbalance. ▪ The trend of growing regional inequity has continued, possibly at a slightly higher pace after 2003-04 when the overall growth in GDP for the country shot up to 8 per cent per annum and many of the backward states, including those in North East, exhibited even higher growth rates. ▪ During 2007-09 the interstate disparity in the growth rate of SDP records a stability or decline. ▪ Unfortunately, this growth process has not been sustained in many of the backward states which has led to income inequality increasing again in recent years.
  37. Low Income Regions ▪ Studies show that the low income states like Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, Orissa, and Uttar Pradesh and Uttarakhand and Madhya Pradesh had reported low economic growth during eighties and nineties ▪ The less developed states have the disadvantage not only of a low growth rate but also high fluctuation in the rate from year to year ▪ What compounds their problems is that there is only a marginal decline in their population growth that have stayed much above the national average. ▪ Variations in per capita consumption expenditure and poverty data obtained from the National Sample Surveys also shows a clear increasing trend as in case of income.
  38. Inter-Urban Inequality ▪ The inter-state inequality in case of metro cities initially works out to be low but exhibits a sharp rise. It goes up from 12.2 per cent in 1993-94 to 21.9 per cent in 2009-10. ▪ One would infer that the cities were similar in terms of their average expenditure levels in early nineties but have become more disparate over time. ▪ This is because many of them subsequently have got linked to global market and experienced high income growth. ▪ The non-metropolitan urban centres, on the other hand, exhibited interstate inequality similar to that of rural areas and this has not gone up over the two decades. ▪ This is largely because of stagnation of their economies and absence of sectoral diversification.
  39. Rural-Urban Inequality ▪ There has been a much steeper rise in per capita consumption expenditure in urban than rural areas in real terms in the nineties and subsequent years compared to the preceding years ▪ Poverty has shown a declining trend in rural and urban areas
  40. Other parameters of Inequality ▪ The high inequality in IMR across the states and its increasing trend over time should be a matter of serious policy concern. ▪ The inequalities in the provision of water and toilets across the states too have gone up in recent years. ▪ Unless there are specific policies and interventions to address the issue of delivery of basic amenities and tackling the problem of health in backward regions and for the poor and vulnerable social groups, it would be impossible to achieve the concerned MDG targets even at the national levels. ▪ Gender based inequalities have been noted to be very high although there has been decline in recent years due to increase in literacy and employment rate among women, exposure to global media, modernization and resultant changes in social norms.
  41. Regional Planning in India ▪ Regional Planning in India was taken up after Independence, as a part of the policy of planned national development, which is aggregative and sectoral in nature ▪ Necessitated by striking regional contrasts in distribution and levels of economic development ▪ Main thrust for regional planning in India came as part of the Third Five Year Plan (1961-66) , which talked about “Balanced Regional Development”. It provided for preparation of regional development plans for five resource regions – Damodar Valley, Dandakaranya, Rihand, Bhakra Nangal and Rajasthan Canal. ▪ Fourth Five Year Plan (1969-74) referred at length to the need for addressing inter-state and intra-state imbalances in development including the rural problem; highlighted the necessity of the regional approach to the problems of unrestricted and chaotic metropolitan growth. ▪ The Fifth Plan (1974-79) introduced the notion of urban development for small and medium towns for regulating growth of the metro cities. The idea of multi-level planning was used for the first time in the Fifth Plan.
  42. Regional Planning in India ▪ The Sixth FYP (1980-85) strove to achieve balanced national growth through development of backward regions, progressive reduction in regional inequalities and diffusion of technological benefits. Emphasis was laid on district and block level planning. The mechanism of area-planning was adopted to deal with regional inequalities – the Special Component Plan for tribal areas, Hill Area Plans and specific programmes for the North East Regional were evolved from these approaches. IDSMT Scheme introduced. National Commission on Urbanisation appointed. ▪ The Seventh Plan (1985-90) stressed the need for industrial location policy and suggested that private industrial investment should be channelised in the vicinity of small and medium towns to check migration to metropolitan cities. Agro-Climatic Regional Planning initiated. ▪ The Eighth Plan (1992-97) emphasised on more effective implementation of strategies adopted during Seventh Plan. ▪ Ninth Plan (1997-2002) – no reference to regional planning ▪ Tenth Plan (2002-07) includes a scheme on Research in Urban and Regional Planning. JNNURM – flagship scheme launched.
  43. Eleventh & Twelfth Plans ▪ Objective “Faster Sustainable and More Inclusive Growth” ▪ The Eleventh Plan gave a special impetus to several programmes aimed at building rural and urban infrastructure and providing basic services with the objective of increasing inclusiveness and reducing poverty. ▪ Issues mentioned for focused attention during the Twelfth Plan are: – Securing ecology of watershed and catchments, – Cumulative Environmental Impact Assessments (CEIAs) for vulnerable regions – Carrying capacity studies in selected river-basins ▪ Twelfth Plan to give adequate emphasis to long term strategic urban planning to ensure that India’s urban management agenda is not limited to ‘renewal’ of cities. It must also anticipate and plan for emergence and growth of new cities along with expansion of economic activities. The urban planning exercise, therefore, has to be situated not only in the specific context of municipal limits but also encompass the overall regional planning perspective. ▪ To deal with the legitimate aspirations of the people of these neglected regions the overall growth strategy must have a component of regional development. This will require inter-state cooperation and strengthening the pace of development of inter-state and intra-state connectivity of tribal and other isolated communities through forests and difficult terrain. It will need better governance and deeper involvement of local people in the development processes.
  44. Thank you ▪ Questions? Comments?