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Motivation and Workplace

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  2. TABLE OF CONTENT  Introduction  Motivational Tools at Workplace  Motivation By Job Design  Employee Involvement  Using Rewards to motivate  Goal Setting  Management By Objective  Global Implication  Conclusion  References 2
  3. INTRODUCTION  Motivation can be defined as the reason or intention for doing something or behaving in a certain manner. It becomes the source of willingness of performing a task.  Workplace Motivation Workplace Motivation are the factors or the reasons which motivates or inspire employees to work. It help them to be more productive. 3
  4. MOTIVATIONAL TOOLS AT WORKPLACE  Various factors which motivates employees - Job Design - Employee Involvement - Using Extrinsic and Intrinsic Rewards - Goal Setting - Management By Objectives 4
  5. Job Characteristics Model  Developed by J. Richard Hackman and Greg Oldham  A/C to this model any job can be described on the basis five core job dimensions. - Skill Variety - Task Identity - Task Significance - Autonomy - Feedback 5
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  7. Motivating Potential Score  A predicting index combining core Dimensions 𝑀𝑃𝑆 = 𝑆𝑘𝑖𝑙𝑙 𝑉𝑎𝑟𝑖𝑒𝑡𝑦 + 𝑇𝑎𝑠𝑘 𝐼𝑑𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑖𝑡𝑦 + 𝑇𝑎𝑠𝑘 𝑆𝑖𝑔𝑛𝑖𝑓𝑖𝑐𝑎𝑛𝑐𝑒 3 ∗ 𝐴𝑢𝑡𝑜𝑛𝑜𝑚𝑦 ∗ 𝐹𝑒𝑒𝑑𝑏𝑎𝑐𝑘 7
  8. JOB REDESIGNING • It can define as a grouping task as prescribed unit or units of work • Approaches or strategies: 1. Job Rotation 2. Job Enlargement 3. Job Enrichment 4. Job Simplification 5. Quality of Work life 6. Goal setting
  9. Definition 1. Job Rotation: It is the periodic shifting of an employee from one task to another. 2. Job Enlargement: It is focus on the enlarging job by increasing task and responsibility. 3. Job Enrichment: The vertical expansion of jobs are increase the degree of worker control the planning execution and evaluation of work. 4. Job Simplification: Job are broken down into very small part of a fragment task is repeatedly.
  10. 5. Quality of Work Life: It refer to the favorableness or unfavourableness of a total environment for people. It includes various things. a: Job Involvement b: Job Satisfaction c: Sense of competence d: Job Performance and productivity
  11. Alternative Work Arrangement Alternative Work Arrangement refer to work arrangement that are variations from the standard workday, workweek, and work location. 1) Flextime 2) Job sharing 3) Telecommuting
  12. Flextime  FLEXTIME? Flextime is a scheme where an organization gives its employees the opportunity of a flexible working hours arrangement Under flexi time, there is normally a core period of the day when employees must be at work. (e.g. between 10 am and 4pm), while the rest of the working day is "flexible work time", in which staff can choose when they work, subject to achieving total daily, weekly or monthly hours. An employee must work between the basic core hours and has the flexibility to clock in / out between the other hours
  13. Job Sharing  Job sharing is where one full time job is split between two people; each partner covers every aspect of the job. They share the pay and benefits. They either work split days, split weeks, or alternate weeks. Although the majority of job sharers are women with childcare responsibilities, it is something that everyone can embrace irrespective of age or gender.
  14. Telecommuting  Telecommuting: Moving the work to the workers instead of moving the workers to work  Periodic work out of the central office  Working one day a week or more at home or in a telework center  Teleworking : ANY form of substitution of information technologies for work related travel By Jack Nilles
  15. The Social and Physical Context of Work  The job characteristics model shows most employees are more motivated and satisfied when their intrinsic work tasks are engaging.  Having the most interesting workplace characteristics in the world may not always lead to satisfaction if you feel isolated from your coworkers, and having good social relationships can make even the most boring and onerous tasks more fulfilling.  Research demonstrates that social aspects and work context are as important as other job design features.
  16. EMPLOYEE INVOLVEMENT • It refers to work structures and processes that allow employees to systematically give their input into decisions that effect their own work.  As Examples:  Continuous improvement teams  Formal quality of work life programs  Quality control circles  Flatter organizational structures  Employee problem solving task forces and teams  Outcomes & benefits  Increased employee productivity  Improved organizational decision making capability  Improved attitude regarding work  Leads to employee empowerment, job satisfaction ,creativity, commitment, and motivation, as well as intent to stay 16
  17. Levels of Employee Involvement High involvement – Employees have complete decision making power Full consultation – Employees offer recommendations Selective consultation – Employees give information, but don’t know the problem High Medium Low
  18. How Involvement Improves Decisions Employee Involvement Identify and define problems better Usually identify more and better solutions More likely to select the best option
  20. Major Forms Of Employee Involvement 1. Participative Management 2. Representative Participation 3. Quality Circles 23
  21. Participative Management  A process in which subordinates share a significant degree of decision- making power with their immediate superior.  In which , participation typically has only a modest influence on variables such as employee productivity, motivation , job satisfaction .
  22. Representative Participation  A system in which workers participation in organizational decision-making through a small group of representative employee.  Power is redistributed putting labour on equal foot with the interest of management and stockholder.  Two major forms:  Work councils.  Board representatives.
  23. Quality Circle  It is a work group of employees who meet regularly to discuss their quality problem, investigate causes, recommend solutions and take corrective actions.  In which , employees operate on the principle that employee participation in decision- making and problem-solving improves the quality of work
  24. Employee Participation Techniques 5 proactive employee involvement techniques  Engage employees with creativity and Team – Building Workshops.  Create a company Mission statement that lets Employees Be proud of their  Survey Employees and listen to their Feedback.  Bring on the perks.  Create a creative, Welcoming Environment.
  25. Linking Employee Involvement Programs and Motivation Theories  Theory X with the more traditional autocratic style of managing people.  Theory Y is consistent with participative management.  Theory Z Employee involvement programs could provide intrinsic motivation by increasing opportunists for growth, responsibility, and involvement in the work itself.
  26. USING REWARDS FOR MOTIVATION  In this we will discuss - what should be the pay structure - how to pay or reward the employees - what benefits to offer them - intrinsic rewards 29
  27. What to Pay: Establishing a pay structure  It consists of two things : internal equity and external equity.  Internal equity means worth of the job to organization (Job evaluation).  External equity means paying relative to external competition in market industry.  Both should be balanced for effective retention and productivity of employees. 30
  28. Rewarding through variable pay programs  Variable pay -> on basis of individual and organizational measure of performance - Piece-Rate Pay - Merit-Based Pay - Bonuses - Skill-Based Pay - Profit-Sharing Plans - Gainsharing - ESOP 31
  29. Piece-Rate Pay  Advantages i) It is mainly used for low level employees. ii) It is a measure of hard work.  Limitations i) Can’t feasible to many jobs ii) It can lead to negative consequences such as cheating. 32
  30. Merit-Based Pay  Advantages i) high performers can be given bigger raises. ii) Important means to achieve goals set by company’s top management.  Limitations i) typically based on annual performance appraisal. ii) pay raise pool fluctuates own economic and other conditions not related to individual performance. 33
  31. Bonuses  Advantages i) it can be more than the base pay. ii) incentive effect of bonuses are more than merit based pay iii)reward recent performance  Limitations i) When firms are at loss bonuses are cut to reduce compensation costs. ii) Create problem when bonuses are a large percentage of total pay. 34
  32. Skill-Based Pay  Advantages i) Employees will learn and up to date with new technology. ii) Increase flexibility of workforce. iii) Facilitates better communication  Limitations i) People can top out. ii) It can frustrate employees iii) Don’t address level of performance. 35
  33. Profit Sharing Plans  A profit sharing plan is a type of defined contribution plan that lets companies help employees save for retirement. With a profit sharing plan, contributions from the employer are discretionary.
  34. Gainsharing  Gainsharing is a system of management used by a business to increase profitability by motivating employees to improve their performance through involvement and participation. As their performance improves, employees share financially in the gain(improvement).
  35. Employee Stock Ownership Plan  An employee stock ownership plan (ESOP) is an employee-owner program that provides a company's workforce with an ownership interest in the company. In an ESOP, companies provide their employees with stock ownership, often at no upfront cost to the employees. ESOP shares, however, are part of employees' remuneration for work performed. Shares are allocated to employees and may be held in an ESOP trust until the employee retires or leaves the company.
  36. Evaluation of Variable Pay  An employee's performance rating is then used to determine how much the employee receives according to the variable pay plan. Recency error refers to supervisors who base performance ratings on an employee's most recent job performance instead of job performance for the entire evaluation period.
  37. Flexible Benefit  Benefits that allow individual employees to choose the benefits that are best suited for their particular needs As like Flexible benefit plans may include health insurance, retirement benefits such as 401(k) plans, and reimbursement accounts that employees can use to pay for out-of-pocket health or dependent care expenses.
  38. Intrinsic Reward  It includes things such as : personal achievement, professional growth, sense of pleasure and accomplishment.  Example:- intrinsic rewards are celebrating a holiday with one’s family, going on a walk with a friend, or love.  When an employee is being appreciated for his performance i.e. employee is being recognized through employee of the month reward etc.
  39. GOAL SETTING • Goal Setting: Goal is a target an objective for future performance. It’s refer to setting of attainable goal for an organization as well as for an employee. • It consist of Four Things a: Goal acceptance b: Specific goals c: Challenging goals d: Performance monitoring/Feedback 42
  40. MANAGEMENT BY OBJECTIVES  This term was given By Peter F. Drucker in 1954 in his book “The Practice of Management”.  Management By Objectives is the process of defining specific objectives within an organization that management can convey to the organization members, then deciding on how to achieve each objective in sequence.  This process allows managers to take work that need to be done one step at a time to allow for a calm, yet positive work environment.
  41. Process of MBO Setting of objectives at the top Identifying key result areas Clarifying organizational roles Setting subordinates objectives Holding Pericxlical meetings Assess strengths and weakness of key resources Evaluation of results or performance appraisal
  42. Benefits of MBO  It provides clarity in organization action.  It provides greatest opportunity for personnel satisfaction by adoption participatory approach.  It establishes good interpersonal relationship between management and employees.  It sharpens accountability.
  43. Limitations of MBO  Difficulty in objective setting.  It is a time consuming process especially in the initial stages.  Lack of cooperation between superiors and subordinates can be there due to differences in their opinions during setting objectives.  It represents the danger of inflexibility in the organization.
  44. IMPLICATION FOR MANAGERS  Recognize individual differences.  Use Goals and feedback.  Allow employees to participate in decision making that affect them.  Link rewards to performance.  Check the system for equity. 47
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  46. CONCLUSION  After going through various books and articles we concluded that a positive and motivated work environment cab be created in an organization if 1. Think of autonomy not control 2. There should be mastery i.e. competition with self and focusing on excellence. 3. There should be a purpose or a goal. 49
  47. REFERENCES  Khanka, S. S. Organizational Behaviour: Sultan Chand & Sons.  PRASAD, L M. (2016). Organizational Behaviour Fifth Edition: Sultan Chand & Sons.  ROBBINS, P., JUDGE, A., and VOHRA,N. Organizational Behaviour 14th edition: Pearson. 50

Notes de l'éditeur

  1. Sense of pleasure