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TABLE OF CONTENT
Motivational Tools at Workplace
Motivation By Job Design
Using Rewards to motivate
Management By Objective
Motivation can be defined as the reason or intention
for doing something or behaving in a certain manner.
It becomes the source of willingness of performing a
Workplace Motivation are the factors or the
reasons which motivates or inspire employees to work.
It help them to be more productive.
MOTIVATIONAL TOOLS AT
Various factors which motivates employees
- Job Design
- Employee Involvement
- Using Extrinsic and Intrinsic Rewards
- Goal Setting
- Management By Objectives
Job Characteristics Model
Developed by J. Richard Hackman and Greg Oldham
A/C to this model any job can be described on the
basis five core job dimensions.
- Skill Variety
- Task Identity
- Task Significance
• It can define as a grouping task as prescribed unit or
units of work
• Approaches or strategies:
1. Job Rotation
2. Job Enlargement
3. Job Enrichment
4. Job Simplification
5. Quality of Work life
6. Goal setting
1. Job Rotation: It is the periodic shifting of an
employee from one task to another.
2. Job Enlargement: It is focus on the enlarging job by
increasing task and responsibility.
3. Job Enrichment: The vertical expansion of jobs are
increase the degree of worker control the planning
execution and evaluation of work.
4. Job Simplification: Job are broken down into very
small part of a fragment task is repeatedly.
5. Quality of Work Life: It refer to the favorableness
or unfavourableness of a total environment for
It includes various things.
a: Job Involvement
b: Job Satisfaction
c: Sense of competence
d: Job Performance and productivity
Alternative Work Arrangement
Alternative Work Arrangement refer to work
arrangement that are variations from the standard
workday, workweek, and work location.
2) Job sharing
FLEXTIME? Flextime is a scheme where an organization
gives its employees the opportunity of a flexible working
hours arrangement Under flexi time, there is normally a
core period of the day when employees must be at work.
(e.g. between 10 am and 4pm), while the rest of the working
day is "flexible work time", in which staff can choose when
they work, subject to achieving total daily, weekly or
monthly hours. An employee must work between the basic
core hours and has the flexibility to clock in / out between
the other hours
Job sharing is where one full time job is split between
two people; each partner covers every aspect of the job.
They share the pay and benefits. They either work split
days, split weeks, or alternate weeks. Although the
majority of job sharers are women with childcare
responsibilities, it is something that everyone can
embrace irrespective of age or gender.
Telecommuting: Moving the work to the workers
instead of moving the workers to work
Periodic work out of the central office
Working one day a week or more at home or in a
Teleworking : ANY form of substitution of
information technologies for work related travel
By Jack Nilles
The Social and Physical Context of
The job characteristics model shows most employees
are more motivated and satisfied when their intrinsic
work tasks are engaging.
Having the most interesting workplace characteristics
in the world may not always lead to satisfaction if you
feel isolated from your coworkers, and having good
social relationships can make even the most boring
and onerous tasks more fulfilling.
Research demonstrates that social aspects and work
context are as important as other job design features.
• It refers to work structures and processes that allow employees to
systematically give their input into decisions that effect their own work.
Continuous improvement teams
Formal quality of work life programs
Quality control circles
Flatter organizational structures
Employee problem solving task forces and teams
Outcomes & benefits
Increased employee productivity
Improved organizational decision making capability
Improved attitude regarding work
Leads to employee empowerment, job satisfaction ,creativity,
commitment, and motivation, as well as intent to stay
Levels of Employee Involvement
High involvement – Employees have complete decision
Full consultation – Employees offer recommendations
Selective consultation – Employees give information,
but don’t know the problem
How Involvement Improves Decisions
Identify and define
Usually identify more
and better solutions
More likely to select
the best option
Major Forms Of Employee
1. Participative Management
2. Representative Participation
3. Quality Circles
A process in which subordinates share a significant
degree of decision- making power with their
In which , participation typically has only a modest
influence on variables such as employee productivity,
motivation , job satisfaction .
A system in which workers participation in
organizational decision-making through a small group
of representative employee.
Power is redistributed putting labour on equal foot
with the interest of management and stockholder.
Two major forms:
It is a work group of employees who meet regularly to
discuss their quality problem, investigate causes,
recommend solutions and take corrective actions.
In which , employees operate on the principle that
employee participation in decision- making and
problem-solving improves the quality of work
Employee Participation Techniques
5 proactive employee involvement techniques
Engage employees with creativity and Team – Building
Create a company Mission statement that lets Employees Be
proud of their
Survey Employees and listen to their Feedback.
Bring on the perks.
Create a creative, Welcoming Environment.
Linking Employee Involvement
Programs and Motivation Theories
Theory X with the more traditional autocratic style of
Theory Y is consistent with participative management.
Theory Z Employee involvement programs could
provide intrinsic motivation by increasing
opportunists for growth, responsibility, and
involvement in the work itself.
USING REWARDS FOR
In this we will discuss
- what should be the pay structure
- how to pay or reward the employees
- what benefits to offer them
- intrinsic rewards
What to Pay: Establishing a pay
It consists of two things : internal equity and external
Internal equity means worth of the job to organization
External equity means paying relative to external
competition in market industry.
Both should be balanced for effective retention and
productivity of employees.
Rewarding through variable pay
Variable pay -> on basis of individual and
organizational measure of performance
- Piece-Rate Pay
- Merit-Based Pay
- Skill-Based Pay
- Profit-Sharing Plans
i) It is mainly used for low level employees.
ii) It is a measure of hard work.
i) Can’t feasible to many jobs
ii) It can lead to negative consequences such as
i) high performers can be given bigger raises.
ii) Important means to achieve goals set by
company’s top management.
i) typically based on annual performance appraisal.
ii) pay raise pool fluctuates own economic and other
conditions not related to individual performance.
i) it can be more than the base pay.
ii) incentive effect of bonuses are more than merit based
iii)reward recent performance
i) When firms are at loss bonuses are cut to reduce
ii) Create problem when bonuses are a large percentage
of total pay.
i) Employees will learn and up to date with new
ii) Increase flexibility of workforce.
iii) Facilitates better communication
i) People can top out.
ii) It can frustrate employees
iii) Don’t address level of performance.
Profit Sharing Plans
A profit sharing plan is a type of defined
contribution plan that lets companies help employees
save for retirement. With a profit sharing plan,
contributions from the employer are discretionary.
Gainsharing is a system of management used by a
business to increase profitability by motivating
employees to improve their performance through
involvement and participation. As their performance
improves, employees share financially in
Employee Stock Ownership Plan
An employee stock ownership plan (ESOP) is an
employee-owner program that provides a company's
workforce with an ownership interest in the company.
In an ESOP, companies provide
their employees with stock ownership, often at no
upfront cost to the employees. ESOP shares, however,
are part of employees' remuneration for work
performed. Shares are allocated to employees and may
be held in an ESOP trust until the employee retires or
leaves the company.
Evaluation of Variable Pay
An employee's performance rating is then used to
determine how much the employee receives according
to the variable pay plan. Recency error refers to
supervisors who base performance ratings on an
employee's most recent job performance instead of job
performance for the entire evaluation period.
Benefits that allow individual employees to choose the
benefits that are best suited for their particular needs
As like Flexible benefit plans may include health
insurance, retirement benefits such as 401(k) plans,
and reimbursement accounts that employees can use
to pay for out-of-pocket health or dependent care
It includes things such as : personal achievement,
professional growth, sense of pleasure and
Example:- intrinsic rewards are celebrating a holiday
with one’s family, going on a walk with a friend, or
When an employee is being appreciated for his
performance i.e. employee is being recognized
through employee of the month reward etc.
• Goal Setting: Goal is a target an objective for future
It’s refer to setting of attainable goal for an
organization as well as for an employee.
• It consist of Four Things
a: Goal acceptance
b: Specific goals
c: Challenging goals
d: Performance monitoring/Feedback
MANAGEMENT BY OBJECTIVES
This term was given By Peter F. Drucker in 1954 in his
book “The Practice of Management”.
Management By Objectives is the process of defining
specific objectives within an organization that
management can convey to the organization members,
then deciding on how to achieve each objective in
This process allows managers to take work that need to
be done one step at a time to allow for a calm, yet
positive work environment.
Process of MBO
objectives at the
and weakness of
Evaluation of results
Benefits of MBO
It provides clarity in organization action.
It provides greatest opportunity for personnel
satisfaction by adoption participatory approach.
It establishes good interpersonal relationship between
management and employees.
It sharpens accountability.
Limitations of MBO
Difficulty in objective setting.
It is a time consuming process especially in the initial
Lack of cooperation between superiors and
subordinates can be there due to differences in their
opinions during setting objectives.
It represents the danger of inflexibility in the
IMPLICATION FOR MANAGERS
Recognize individual differences.
Use Goals and feedback.
Allow employees to participate in decision making
that affect them.
Link rewards to performance.
Check the system for equity.
After going through various books and articles we
concluded that a positive and motivated work
environment cab be created in an organization if
1. Think of autonomy not control
2. There should be mastery i.e. competition with self
and focusing on excellence.
3. There should be a purpose or a goal.
Khanka, S. S. Organizational Behaviour: Sultan Chand
PRASAD, L M. (2016). Organizational Behaviour Fifth
Edition: Sultan Chand & Sons.
ROBBINS, P., JUDGE, A., and VOHRA,N.
Organizational Behaviour 14th edition: Pearson.