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• Audio visual Aids, audio visual materials,
audio visual media, communication
technology, educational or instructional media;
and learning resources- all these terms,
broadly speaking, mean the same thing.
• Earlier the term used was audio visual aid in
• With the advancement in the means of
communication and that of technology,
educators coined new terms.
1. “Audio visual aids are any device which can be used to
make the teaching experience more concrete, more
realistic and more dynamic.” -Kinder S. James
2. “Audio visual aids are those sensory objects or images
which initiate or stimulate and reinforce learning”.
3. “Audio Visual aids are anything by means of which
learning process may be encouraged or carried on through
the sense of hearing or sense of sight.”
– Good’s dictionary of education
Meaning of a.V. aids:
• The sensory objects or images which initiate or
stimulate and reinforce learning.
• It helps the process of learning i.e., motivation,
classification and stimulation.
• It makes dynamic learning experience more
concrete, realistic and clarity, establish, co-relate
and co-ordinate accurate concepts, interpretations
and appreciation enables him to make learning
effective, interesting, inspirational, meaningful
Concept of A.V. aids:
Audio visual aids are sensitive tools used in teaching and as
avenues for learning. These are planned educational materials that
appeal to the senses of the people and quicken learning, facilitates
for clear understanding.
A Chinese Proverb: “If I here, I forget; If I see, I remember; If
I do, I know” says the importance of perception in teaching,
Seeing – 87%
Hearing – 07%
Odor - 03%
Touch - 02%
Taste - 01%
Audio visual aids enhance clarity in communication.
Provides diversity in method.
Increases the forcefulness of the subject being learned or taught.
Serves in the instructional role in order to supplement and enrich
the teacher’s own learning.
Purposes of A.V. aids:
1. To provide a basis for more effective perceptual and
2. To initiate and sustain attention, concentration and
personal involvement of the students in learning
3. To provide concreteness, realism and life likeness in
the teaching- learning situation.
4. To bring the remote events of either space or time into
5. To increase the meaningfulness of abstract concepts.
6. To gain practical skill.
7. To introduce opportunity for situational or field types
Need/ Importance of A.V. aids:
Improve and make teaching effective.
Enable the audience to look, listen and learn.
Making learning interesting and profitable
Quicken the phase of learning.
Economies teacher’s effort.
Foster/ develop the knowledge.
Add variety and newness to the lesson. Provide vicarious
Overcome possible hurdles during the act of teaching.
Bring expected behavioral changes among the learners.
Provide concrete experience or direct contact with reality or
serves as a source of information and life likeness in the
teaching- learning situation.
• The student acquires clear, accurate and vivid
image during the process of learning.
• Increase and sustain attention and concentration.
• Make personal involvement of the student in
active learning and meet individual needs of the
• Increase the meaningfulness of abstract concepts
by stimulating correct thinking.
• It can serve as an open window through which the
student can view the world and its phenomena by
bringing remote events into the classroom.
• Provide an opportunity for situational type of
learning, e.g. Field trips.
• Provision of active participation of the student
and vicarious experiences encourage healthy
interaction for the effective realization of
teaching- learning objective.
• Facilitate and advance the process of applying
what is learned to realistic performance and to
the life situation.
• They direct, dramatize the experience.
• Add interest and vitality to any training situation.
• Positive transfer of learning and training and positive
environment for creative discipline.
Stimulate thinking and motivate action.
Save time and energy.
Change attitude or point of view of learners.
Develop continuity of thought.
Promotes scientific temper as students
observe demonstrations and scientific
Visualize and make teaching more real; acts
as an antidote to the disease of verbal
Drawbacks in using Audio Visual aids:
1. These are not essential for all instructional
2. These are helpful in teaching, but they will not
substitute teachers and books.
3. Possible risks of ‘Spectatorism’ instead of attitude of
4. It requires more time for planning and preparing.
5. Tempts the teachers to narrow down the subject.
6. Audio Visual aids are not ends, but means.
7. Some AV aids needs current power supply.
Problems in using Teaching Aids:
Apathy of the teachers: Teaching with words alone
is very tedious, wasteful and ineffective.
Ineffectiveness of the aids: Preparation,
presentation, application and discussion are
necessary whenever teacher is using aids for
a)Absence proper planning.
b)Lethargy of the teacher.
c)Without proper preparation.
d)Without correct presentation and appropriate
application and discussion.
e)No proper follow up work, etc.
Classification of Audio Visual Aids:
Instructional media encompasses all the material and physical means of an
instructor might use to implement instruction and facilitate student’s achievement of
The Audio Visual aids can be broadly classified as two types, they are;
Projected aids and
Non projected aids
The materials coming under projected aids are;
o Opaque projector
o Overhead projector
The non projected aids are of different types: Graphic aids
3 Dimensional aids
Sources of Audio Visual aids:
National and international voluntary
Commercial producers of educational
Types of Instructional Media:
Real objects and models
Printed text (books, handouts, worksheets)
Printed visuals (pictures, photos, drawings, charts,
Display boards (chalk, bulletin, multipurpose)
Slides and filmstrips
Audio (tape, disc, voice)
Video and film (tape, disc)
Computer software, and
Characteristics of Good Audio Visual /Teaching aids:
A good Audio visual aid should be:
1.adapted to the intellectual maturity of the pupils and to the nature and
extent of their previous experience.
2.meaningful and purposeful
3.improvised, i.e., locally available materials should be used in the
4.accurate in every aspect
6.cost effective as well as cheap
7.large enough to be properly seen by the whole students in the class
8.up to date
10.motivate the learners.
Uses of Instructional media:
“A good aid is like a window, it should not
call attention to itself, it just let in the light.”
Among the implicit goals that media can help
achieve are the following:
Adjusting the learning climate
Promoting acceptance (of an idea)
Principles in the use of Audio Visual
I. Principle of selection
II. Principle of preparation
III. Principle of physical control
IV. Principle of proper presentation
V. Principle of Response
VI. Principle of Evaluation
Steps in the Implementation of
1. Review instructional goals, objectives, audience and
2. Determine the best medium for your lesson components
3. Search for and review existing media/materials
4. Adapt existing media/materials if necessary
5. If new media/materials need to be developed:
a) Determine format, script, visuals, etc.
b) Draft materials and media
c) Check for clarity and flow of ideas
6. Conduct formative evaluation
Factors in Media Selection
• Practicality: Is the intended media practical in
that the media is available, cost efficient, time
efficient, and understood by the instructor?
• Student Appropriateness: Is the intended media
appropriate for the developmental and
experiental levels of the students?
• Instructional Appropriateness: Is the intended
media appropriate for the planned instructional
strategy? Will the media allow for the
presentation of the proposed lesson in an
efficient and effective manner?
• There are certain learning situations in which the
student’s participation through direct experiences can be
easily incorporated and these are called as activity aids.
• The activity teaching aids really are of great value as
they put students in a role of active seekers of
• The important activity teaching aids are:
1) Computer assisted instruction
5) Field trips
6) Programmed instruction
7) Teaching machines
• Computers and computer-mediated devices are finding
more and more classroom applications.
• Computers can teach at any level of learning, from
knowledge and comprehension up through application,
analysis and synthesis.
• In many advanced countries computers are being used
widely for classroom instruction and a beginning has
been made in our country too.
• For classroom instruction the computer can be used as a
substitute as well as aid to the teacher.
• The classroom uses of computers include
individualization of instruction, display of information,
evaluation of students and illustration of abstract idea by
computer graphics and diagrams.
Construction and working of computer:
A computer, primarily consists of five sections, viz., input,
storage or memory, control unit, logic unit and output.
All these sections consist of electronic circuits made up of
silicon chips and integrated circuits.
The actual parts of a computer circuits and its structure are
On the other hand, the programme and commands are
called software and information that is meant to be
processed is called data.
Specific data is generally stored in the form of punched
cards, magnetic tapes, magnetic discs (floppies) and
magnetic drums; while some essential data is stored
permanently in the main storage or in the memory of the
Also, the data storing sections of the computer acts as the
input and output units.
These units transfer the data to from the central
processing unit (CPU).
The CPU, in fact, consists of the control unit, main
storage unit, and logic unit.
The main storage unit of the CPU contains all the
instructions and commands of the programme while the
data is processed to the CPU via the devices with the
magnetic core storage.
The control unit of the CPU issues commands to other
parts of the computer for carrying out the instructions fed
to the input devices.
i. Computer-assisted instruction (CAI) is a narrower term and
most often refers to drill-and-practice, tutorial, or simulation
activities offered either by themselves or as supplements to
traditional, teacher directed instruction.
ii. Computer-based education (CBE) and computer-based
instruction (CBI) are the broadest terms and can refer to
virtually any kind of computer use in educational settings,
including drill and practice, tutorials, simulations,
instructional management, supplementary exercises,
programming, database development, writing using word
processors, and other applications. These terms may refer
either to stand-alone computer learning activities or to
computer activities which reinforce material introduced and
taught by teachers.
iii. Computer-enriched instruction (CEI) is defined as learning
activities in which computers (1) generate data at the
students' request to illustrate relationships in models of
social or physical reality, (2) execute programs developed
by the students, or (3) provide general enrichment in
relatively unstructured exercises designed to stimulate
and motivate students.
iv. Computer-managed instruction (CMI) can refer either to
the use of computers by school staff to organize student
data and make instructional decisions or to activities in
which the computer evaluates students' test
performance, guides them to appropriate instructional
resources, and keeps records of their progress.
How CAI works in teaching:
1. When the computer is used as an aid to teaching,
method of instruction is called Computer aided
instruction or CAI.
2. In implementing the CAI, the principles of
programmed learning are used with an added
advantage that the responses of the student are
instantly and permanently recorded by the
3. For CAI, the intended subject matter is broken in
to small segments and fed in the memory of the
4. The students interact with computer for learning,
testing, immediate feedback and reinforcement.
5. The instructional spectrum with CAI can range
from simple drill to problem solving.
6. In order to interact with a computer the student sit
at an electronic keyboard hooked to a computer.
7. He introduces himself to the computer by a code
number by punching the keys of the keyboard.
8. After this, the computer displays information
which is followed by a question.
9. The student types out the answer or responds by
punching key to get the feedback from the
TYPES OF COMPUTER AIDED
It is the instructional procedure for learning the programme
language through simple tasks. The simple programs in logo
system are concerned with generating designs on the screen which
students do by following instructions like that of preparation of a
recipe in cooking class.
This CAI program is learning the computer language through
gaming and simulation. Certain simulation are concerned with
science experiments in which outcomes can be got using the
computer. (By this method, the computer in programs which
enable the student to mount an experiment in symbolic form)
This CAI program is concerned with drill and practice activities
supplementary to the prescribed curriculum in any subject area. A
controlled learning program provides a course of study in an
instructional sequence on the pattern of branching program.
ROLE OF TEACHER IN CAI:
A powerful tool for the teacher in the
The teacher will be liberated from his routine
The computer aided instruction can complete
accurately and rapidly huge data.
EXPERTS NEEDED IN CAI:
• Computer engineer.
• Lesson writer.
• System operator.
ADVANTAGES OF CAI:
• The CAI can be used for handling a large body of
students using computer terminals and as many as 4.00
students can be instructed simultaneously with this
instructional procedure and by the time-sharing
• The CAI provides a highly flexible branching in
instruction for looking after the pace, entry cognition and
level of knowledge suitable for a particular student. Thus,
the CAI can individualize classroom instruction.
• The CAI, the simultaneous testing of each individual can
be done by the computer thus relieving the teacher from
dull chores of correction and record keeping. Also a
student cannot cheat during testing by a computer.
• CAI provides the multi dimensional learning through
words, graphics and problem- solving students.
• A computer can also work as an aid in the
independent study schemes based upon reference
• The information about the location of study material
relevant to a specific topic can be stored in the
computer memory and retrieved by the student for
• The high storage capacity of a computer allows many
programs or many complete courses at a time for
LIMITATIONS OF CAI
1) Though computer is powerful medium for
individualizing classroom instructions but has got
certain serious limitations enumerated as follows:
2) CAI lacks the human and emotional factors which
are available in the normal classroom lessons in
which teacher is present to interact with his students
for their non-scholastic needs.
3) Computers are very costly pieces of equipment and
beyond the reach of most schools in our country
where even blackboards are not available in many
4) With excessive use of CAI, artistic competence of
students takes a backseat.
5) Some studies have proved that CAI produces more
mental and physical fatigue as compared to other
methods of instructions.
6) CAI does not help in developing language proficiency
which depends more on direct experiences with the
7) As the student cannot interact with a computer in the
human language, the mechanical responses by punching
keys can become dull and frustrating.
8) At its simplest, the testing by computer is done by
multiple choice questions, the problems concerning
value judgment cannot be tested by the computer.
1. The demonstration method is of utmost importance
in the teaching of Nursing.
2. The demonstration method teaches by exhibition
3. It is an explanation of a process.
4. It trains, explains the student in the art of careful
observation, which is essential to a good Nurse.
5. A demonstration is an activity to show ‘how’ and
providing proofs for process or happening.
6. In short, it is a performance to show a process or
activity to others.
7. When a teacher demonstrates, students observe and
imitate to learn.
8. This is a natural way of learning.
9. Even in primary classes, demonstrations are very
10.If the teacher has to tell the meaning of a word
‘jump’, he must make it clear by actually jumping by
himself- a demonstration of jumping activity to
clarify the meaning of jump.
STAGES OF DEMONSTRATION:
• For a demonstration, all the requisites and pieces of
equipment should be gathered.
• It is advisable to prepare a checklist of all the things
required for the demonstration.
• Also the teacher must plan the sequence in which
he will inject in his commentary and verbal
– after having gathered all the material and pieces of
equipment for demonstration, the teacher must try out
the demonstration for his own sake.
– An untried demonstration may fail in front of the
class, which can be embarrassing for the teacher.
– The rehearsal of demonstration may give the teacher
an idea about clarity and duration of it.
3. Performance :
• during the classroom instruction the teacher shows the
demonstration at the appropriate point of the lesson.
• The demonstration should be slick, to the point and with
proper explanation of key concept during demonstration.
• Be friendly and warm in order to establish a rapport with
4. Follow up:
• after the demonstration is over; the teacher must ask
questions and discuss what has been observed by
• Even students may be asked to perform what has been
demonstrated to them.
USES OF DEMONSTRATION
Science is subject which is replete with opportunities
where demonstration can be used as an effective tool of
The correct use of various devices and instruments are
to be demonstrated to the students for proper handling by
them. Generally, science demonstrations are done to explain
‘how’ and ‘why’ processes and objects. Some typical
examples of demonstrations in science subjects are as
1.To show working of an electrical motor.
2.To show how to use a microscope.
3.To show why objects expand on heating.
4.To show how to throw a shot put.
The main use of Demonstration can be described as
5. To demonstrate experiments or procedures and the
use of experimental equipment in the laboratory,
classroom, and the ward.
6. To review or revise procedures to meet a special
situation or to introduce a new procedure.
7. To teach the patient a procedure or treatment which
he must carry out in the home.
8. To demonstrate a procedure at the bedside or in the
ward conference room.
9. Demonstration of procedure in its natural
setting has more meaning (e.g. in ward on
patients) than when carried out in an artificial
environment (e.g. classroom).
10.To demonstrate different approaches in
establishing rapport with patients, so that the
most effective Nurse- patient relationship can
DO’S OF DEMONSTRATION:
1. Before the demonstration keep everything ready and be
2. Place the pieces of equipment for demonstration high
enough for everybody to observe.
3. Present the information sequentially stressing the main
4. Let the demonstrator proceed smoothly without
interruptions. Do not drag a demonstration unnecessarily
as students are likely to loose interest then.
5. Ask questions from the students regarding what they
6. If student have not understood certain ideas during the
demonstration, do it again.
7. Use other teaching aids to supplement your demonstration.
8. Check continually that your demonstration is going on the
right track and students are getting the intended ideas.
9. Summarize the main points after the demonstration.
10.Have a friendly and warm behavior during your
11.Allow students to perform after the demonstration is over.
12.Give a handout or written material on the demonstration
along with key concepts emerging out of it.
13.Perform the demonstration from a place where from
everyone in the class can see it.
ADVANTAGES OF DEMONSTRATION:
1. Demonstrations are good for acquiring and perfecting
2. Demonstrations engage student’s attention and
3. Demonstration encourages student’s participation in
learning through questions and answers as the teacher
4. It provides an opportunity for observational learning.
5. It commands interest by use of concrete illustration.
The student not only can hear the explanation, but also
can see the procedure or process.
6. The demonstration method has universal appeal because it
is understandable to all.
7. The demonstration method is adaptable to both group and
8. It activates several senses, it increases learning, because
the more senses used, the better the opportunity for the
9. It clarifies the underlying principles by demonstrating the
‘why’ of a procedure.
10. It correlates theory with practice.
11. It has particular reference to student demonstration of
procedures already learned.
12. It gives the teachers an opportunity to evaluate the
student’s knowledge of a procedure, and to determine
whether re-teaching is necessary.
13. It points out that the student must have knowledge and
must be able to apply it immediately.
14. It serves as a strong motivational force for the student.
15. Return demonstration by the student under supervision
of the teacher provides an opportunity fir well-directed
practice before the student must use the procedure on
ESSENTIAL CHARACTERISTICS OF A
1. Every steps of a well- conducted demonstration should be
understandable and exemplary (Value of limitation) of
the best possible procedure, which might be used under
the same circumstances.
2. It should allow sufficient time for reflective and critical
thought as the demonstration proceeds.
3. Applied principles in demonstration method performed
by both the teacher and the student:
4. The demonstration should understand the entire
procedure before attempting to perform for others. This
sometimes necessitates review before performance.
5. All equipment should be assembled and pretested
before the demonstration takes place. This saves the
time and ensures that the apparatus will be in good
6. Advance knowledge: The group as well as the
demonstrator should have advance knowledge of the
general procedure to be followed in the demonstration,
its relation to the unit and its purpose.
7. A positive approach should be used; emphasis should
be placed on what to do, rather than what not to do.
8. Everybody should have a good view of demonstration;
precautions should be taken to ensure all-round
9. Running comments: The person in charge of the
demonstration should accompany it with running
comments relative to materials used, amounts
necessary processes taking place, and anticipated
results. However the commentary should be limited to
10.The setting for the demonstration should be true to life
as possible. Demonstration of a nursing procedure
should be done on a live model wherever possible.
11.A discussion period should always follow the
demonstration. This affords an opportunity for
reemphasis, questioning, recall, evaluation, and
summary while the procedure is still fresh.
12. Mimeographed directions should be distributed
before demonstrating a Nursing procedure. This
saves continuous dictation on the part of the teacher
and writing on the part of the student.
13. Prompt practice: if the purpose of a demonstration is
to teach form for skills, the student should be given
an opportunity to practice the procedure as soon as
possible after the demonstration.
1. Lecture demonstration is a combination of
the lecture and the demonstration.
2. Its purpose is to point out relationships as
they occur during a demonstration.
3. These may be in the nature of properties of
matter, explanation of structure or steps of a
4. This method is used extensively in teaching
sciences and nursing subjects.
5. It measured factual knowledge only.
The television Lecture-Demonstration:
1. The lecture- demonstration is the method
used most frequently in T.V. teaching.
2. Because of the nature of the medium in which
photography and audio-tape are combined,
and because of the time limitations, the
preparations of T.V. lecture is more exacting
than the regular classrooms.
1. Dramatization is a very potent method of keeping the class room
instruction lively and interesting.
2. When a teacher dramatizes a lesson, the students become both the
spectators and participants.
3. This makes learning easy and permanent.
4. Sociodrama is the unrehearsed acting out of a problem or situation
confronting a group.
5. Spontaneous drama and discussion are natural outlets for tension,
natural methods for disseminating views and of informing oneself.
6. Teachers can use sociodrama at all levels.
7. Several members of the group enact a scene in the presence of the
PROCESS OF SOCIODRAMA/DRAMA:
a)Demonstrating a sociodrama for a New Group:
• Select a simple, illustrative situation that will be fun
• Select a volunteer cast.
• Arrange the scene, using a few simple props if
• Inform the castes about the scene and what to be
• Develop and enact the scene. As it progress the
director may secretly suggest to one of the cast a
problem which will encourage argument or
• Encourage audience participation by stopping the
scene from time to time to get new ideas.
• Try out new ideas. The actors may be asked to try
out suggested ideas of members of the audience and
asked to replace members of the cast for that
• Reverse roles, to increases the opportunity and
variety of participation.
• Discuss the scene after it is concluded. The director
asks questions regarding the subject of the scene,
the problems presented and the solutions suggested.
• Limit the drama for 10-15 minutes.
b) Performing in a Real Life Situation:
• Select a scene, which is related more directly
to the kinds of problem, situation this group
• Decide roles. The director may ask the
audience to help in selecting the roles and
indicating how they should be played.
ADVANTAGES OFF DRAMA:
• The Following are the main advantages of
dramatization as teaching aid:
• Dramatization gives an added advantage of
students working as both observers
(spectators) and doers (participants) unlike in
experiment where they are just observers.
• Dramatization makes learning a pleasure as
children love to act and show off.
• Dramatization involves students totally and
they appreciate the lessons and remember it
• Dramatization develops the social skills required for
them such as cooperation, coordination, punctuality,
human relations etc.
• Dramatization makes students creative, sensitive and
• Dramatizations afford the teacher an insight into the
personality of students and know them better.
• Dramatization is very helpful in nursing education in
Technology results in new designs and devices as
also new ideas and process. Educational technology
is the application of the scientific knowledge in a
systematic way to improve the efficiency of the
process of learning and instruction. It is considered
as the technology of education more than
technology in education. Audio visual aids are apart
of the subject of educational technology. Audio-
visual resources consist of hardware and software