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Av aids

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Av aids

  1. 1. Presented by: Mr. Manjunath. beth associate Professor & hod of Msn dePartMent
  2. 2. audio-VisuaL aids
  3. 3. introduction • Audio visual Aids, audio visual materials, audio visual media, communication technology, educational or instructional media; and learning resources- all these terms, broadly speaking, mean the same thing. • Earlier the term used was audio visual aid in education. • With the advancement in the means of communication and that of technology, educators coined new terms.
  4. 4. definitions 1. “Audio visual aids are any device which can be used to make the teaching experience more concrete, more realistic and more dynamic.” -Kinder S. James 2. “Audio visual aids are those sensory objects or images which initiate or stimulate and reinforce learning”. – Burton 3. “Audio Visual aids are anything by means of which learning process may be encouraged or carried on through the sense of hearing or sense of sight.” – Good’s dictionary of education
  5. 5. Meaning of a.V. aids: • The sensory objects or images which initiate or stimulate and reinforce learning. • It helps the process of learning i.e., motivation, classification and stimulation. • It makes dynamic learning experience more concrete, realistic and clarity, establish, co-relate and co-ordinate accurate concepts, interpretations and appreciation enables him to make learning effective, interesting, inspirational, meaningful and vivid.
  6. 6. Concept of A.V. aids: Audio visual aids are sensitive tools used in teaching and as avenues for learning. These are planned educational materials that appeal to the senses of the people and quicken learning, facilitates for clear understanding. A Chinese Proverb: “If I here, I forget; If I see, I remember; If I do, I know” says the importance of perception in teaching, learning situation. Seeing – 87% Hearing – 07% Odor - 03% Touch - 02% Taste - 01% Audio visual aids enhance clarity in communication. Provides diversity in method. Increases the forcefulness of the subject being learned or taught. Serves in the instructional role in order to supplement and enrich the teacher’s own learning.
  7. 7. Purposes of A.V. aids: 1. To provide a basis for more effective perceptual and conceptual learning. 2. To initiate and sustain attention, concentration and personal involvement of the students in learning 3. To provide concreteness, realism and life likeness in the teaching- learning situation. 4. To bring the remote events of either space or time into the classroom. 5. To increase the meaningfulness of abstract concepts. 6. To gain practical skill. 7. To introduce opportunity for situational or field types of learning.
  8. 8. Need/ Importance of A.V. aids: Improve and make teaching effective. Enable the audience to look, listen and learn. Making learning interesting and profitable Quicken the phase of learning. Economies teacher’s effort. Foster/ develop the knowledge. Add variety and newness to the lesson. Provide vicarious experience. Overcome possible hurdles during the act of teaching. Bring expected behavioral changes among the learners. Stimulate curiosity. Provide concrete experience or direct contact with reality or serves as a source of information and life likeness in the teaching- learning situation.
  9. 9. Contd……… • The student acquires clear, accurate and vivid image during the process of learning. • Increase and sustain attention and concentration. • Make personal involvement of the student in active learning and meet individual needs of the learners. • Increase the meaningfulness of abstract concepts by stimulating correct thinking. • It can serve as an open window through which the student can view the world and its phenomena by bringing remote events into the classroom. • Provide an opportunity for situational type of learning, e.g. Field trips.
  10. 10. Contd……. • Provision of active participation of the student and vicarious experiences encourage healthy interaction for the effective realization of teaching- learning objective. • Facilitate and advance the process of applying what is learned to realistic performance and to the life situation. • They direct, dramatize the experience. • Add interest and vitality to any training situation. • Positive transfer of learning and training and positive environment for creative discipline.
  11. 11. Contd…… Stimulate thinking and motivate action. Save time and energy. Change attitude or point of view of learners. Develop continuity of thought. Promotes scientific temper as students observe demonstrations and scientific phenomena. Visualize and make teaching more real; acts as an antidote to the disease of verbal instruction.
  12. 12. Drawbacks in using Audio Visual aids: 1. These are not essential for all instructional programmes. 2. These are helpful in teaching, but they will not substitute teachers and books. 3. Possible risks of ‘Spectatorism’ instead of attitude of thoughtful enquiry. 4. It requires more time for planning and preparing. 5. Tempts the teachers to narrow down the subject. 6. Audio Visual aids are not ends, but means. 7. Some AV aids needs current power supply.
  13. 13. Problems in using Teaching Aids: Apathy of the teachers: Teaching with words alone is very tedious, wasteful and ineffective. Ineffectiveness of the aids: Preparation, presentation, application and discussion are necessary whenever teacher is using aids for teaching; but a)Absence proper planning. b)Lethargy of the teacher. c)Without proper preparation. d)Without correct presentation and appropriate application and discussion. e)No proper follow up work, etc.
  14. 14. Classification of Audio Visual Aids: Instructional media encompasses all the material and physical means of an instructor might use to implement instruction and facilitate student’s achievement of instructional objectives. The Audio Visual aids can be broadly classified as two types, they are;  Projected aids and  Non projected aids The materials coming under projected aids are; o Films o Filmstrips o Opaque projector o Overhead projector o Slides The non projected aids are of different types: Graphic aids Display aids 3 Dimensional aids Audio aids Activity aids
  15. 15. A) Graphic aids: 1. Cartoons 2. Charts 3. Comics 4. Diagrams 5. Flash cards 6. Graphs 7. Maps 8. Photographs 9. Pictures 10. Posters
  16. 16. B) Display aids: Blackboards Bulletin Flannel boards Magnetic board Ped board
  17. 17. C)3 Dimensional aids: 1) Diagrams 2) Models 3) Mockups 4) Objects 5) Puppets 6) Specimens
  18. 18. D) Audio aids: Radio Recordings Television
  19. 19. E) Activity aids: Computer assisted instruction Demonstrations Dramatics Experimentation Field trips Programmed instruction Teaching machines
  20. 20. Sources of Audio Visual aids: Government Educational institutions Professional organization Non-governmental organization National and international voluntary organization Commercial producers of educational material.
  21. 21. Types of Instructional Media:  Real objects and models  Printed text (books, handouts, worksheets)  Printed visuals (pictures, photos, drawings, charts, graphs)  Display boards (chalk, bulletin, multipurpose)  Interactive whiteboards  Overhead transparencies  Slides and filmstrips  Audio (tape, disc, voice)  Video and film (tape, disc)  Television (live)  Computer software, and  The Web
  22. 22. Characteristics of Good Audio Visual /Teaching aids: A good Audio visual aid should be: 1.adapted to the intellectual maturity of the pupils and to the nature and extent of their previous experience. 2.meaningful and purposeful 3.improvised, i.e., locally available materials should be used in the preparation 4.accurate in every aspect 5.simple 6.cost effective as well as cheap 7.large enough to be properly seen by the whole students in the class 8.up to date 9.easily portable 10.motivate the learners.
  23. 23. Uses of Instructional media: “A good aid is like a window, it should not call attention to itself, it just let in the light.” Among the implicit goals that media can help achieve are the following: Attracting attention Developing interest Adjusting the learning climate Promoting acceptance (of an idea)
  24. 24. Principles in the use of Audio Visual aids: I. Principle of selection II. Principle of preparation III. Principle of physical control IV. Principle of proper presentation V. Principle of Response VI. Principle of Evaluation
  25. 25. Steps in the Implementation of Instructional Media: 1. Review instructional goals, objectives, audience and instructional strategy 2. Determine the best medium for your lesson components 3. Search for and review existing media/materials 4. Adapt existing media/materials if necessary 5. If new media/materials need to be developed: a) Determine format, script, visuals, etc. b) Draft materials and media c) Check for clarity and flow of ideas 6. Conduct formative evaluation 7. Implement/apply 8. Evaluate/revise
  26. 26. Factors in Media Selection • Practicality: Is the intended media practical in that the media is available, cost efficient, time efficient, and understood by the instructor? • Student Appropriateness: Is the intended media appropriate for the developmental and experiental levels of the students? • Instructional Appropriateness: Is the intended media appropriate for the planned instructional strategy? Will the media allow for the presentation of the proposed lesson in an efficient and effective manner?
  27. 27. THANK YOU
  29. 29. INTRODUCTION: • There are certain learning situations in which the student’s participation through direct experiences can be easily incorporated and these are called as activity aids. • The activity teaching aids really are of great value as they put students in a role of active seekers of knowledge. • The important activity teaching aids are: 1) Computer assisted instruction 2) Demonstrations 3) Dramatics 4) Experimentation 5) Field trips 6) Programmed instruction 7) Teaching machines
  31. 31. INTRODUCTION • Computers and computer-mediated devices are finding more and more classroom applications. • Computers can teach at any level of learning, from knowledge and comprehension up through application, analysis and synthesis. • In many advanced countries computers are being used widely for classroom instruction and a beginning has been made in our country too. • For classroom instruction the computer can be used as a substitute as well as aid to the teacher. • The classroom uses of computers include individualization of instruction, display of information, evaluation of students and illustration of abstract idea by computer graphics and diagrams.
  32. 32. Construction and working of computer:  A computer, primarily consists of five sections, viz., input, storage or memory, control unit, logic unit and output.  All these sections consist of electronic circuits made up of silicon chips and integrated circuits.  The actual parts of a computer circuits and its structure are called hardware.  On the other hand, the programme and commands are called software and information that is meant to be processed is called data.  Specific data is generally stored in the form of punched cards, magnetic tapes, magnetic discs (floppies) and magnetic drums; while some essential data is stored permanently in the main storage or in the memory of the computer.
  33. 33.  Also, the data storing sections of the computer acts as the input and output units.  These units transfer the data to from the central processing unit (CPU).  The CPU, in fact, consists of the control unit, main storage unit, and logic unit.  The main storage unit of the CPU contains all the instructions and commands of the programme while the data is processed to the CPU via the devices with the magnetic core storage.  The control unit of the CPU issues commands to other parts of the computer for carrying out the instructions fed to the input devices.
  34. 34. DEFINITIONS i. Computer-assisted instruction (CAI) is a narrower term and most often refers to drill-and-practice, tutorial, or simulation activities offered either by themselves or as supplements to traditional, teacher directed instruction. ii. Computer-based education (CBE) and computer-based instruction (CBI) are the broadest terms and can refer to virtually any kind of computer use in educational settings, including drill and practice, tutorials, simulations, instructional management, supplementary exercises, programming, database development, writing using word processors, and other applications. These terms may refer either to stand-alone computer learning activities or to computer activities which reinforce material introduced and taught by teachers.
  35. 35. iii. Computer-enriched instruction (CEI) is defined as learning activities in which computers (1) generate data at the students' request to illustrate relationships in models of social or physical reality, (2) execute programs developed by the students, or (3) provide general enrichment in relatively unstructured exercises designed to stimulate and motivate students. iv. Computer-managed instruction (CMI) can refer either to the use of computers by school staff to organize student data and make instructional decisions or to activities in which the computer evaluates students' test performance, guides them to appropriate instructional resources, and keeps records of their progress.
  36. 36. How CAI works in teaching: 1. When the computer is used as an aid to teaching, method of instruction is called Computer aided instruction or CAI. 2. In implementing the CAI, the principles of programmed learning are used with an added advantage that the responses of the student are instantly and permanently recorded by the computer. 3. For CAI, the intended subject matter is broken in to small segments and fed in the memory of the computer. 4. The students interact with computer for learning, testing, immediate feedback and reinforcement.
  37. 37. 5. The instructional spectrum with CAI can range from simple drill to problem solving. 6. In order to interact with a computer the student sit at an electronic keyboard hooked to a computer. 7. He introduces himself to the computer by a code number by punching the keys of the keyboard. 8. After this, the computer displays information which is followed by a question. 9. The student types out the answer or responds by punching key to get the feedback from the computer.
  38. 38. Computer-assisted instruction (CAI)
  39. 39. TYPES OF COMPUTER AIDED INSTRUCTION: Types Description 1 Logo It is the instructional procedure for learning the programme language through simple tasks. The simple programs in logo system are concerned with generating designs on the screen which students do by following instructions like that of preparation of a recipe in cooking class. 2 Simulation This CAI program is learning the computer language through gaming and simulation. Certain simulation are concerned with science experiments in which outcomes can be got using the computer. (By this method, the computer in programs which enable the student to mount an experiment in symbolic form) 3 Controlled Learning This CAI program is concerned with drill and practice activities supplementary to the prescribed curriculum in any subject area. A controlled learning program provides a course of study in an instructional sequence on the pattern of branching program.
  40. 40. ROLE OF TEACHER IN CAI: A powerful tool for the teacher in the instructional process. The teacher will be liberated from his routine duty. The computer aided instruction can complete accurately and rapidly huge data.
  41. 41. EXPERTS NEEDED IN CAI: • Computer engineer. • Lesson writer. • System operator.
  42. 42. ADVANTAGES OF CAI: • The CAI can be used for handling a large body of students using computer terminals and as many as 4.00 students can be instructed simultaneously with this instructional procedure and by the time-sharing technique. • The CAI provides a highly flexible branching in instruction for looking after the pace, entry cognition and level of knowledge suitable for a particular student. Thus, the CAI can individualize classroom instruction. • The CAI, the simultaneous testing of each individual can be done by the computer thus relieving the teacher from dull chores of correction and record keeping. Also a student cannot cheat during testing by a computer.
  43. 43. • CAI provides the multi dimensional learning through words, graphics and problem- solving students. • A computer can also work as an aid in the independent study schemes based upon reference work. • The information about the location of study material relevant to a specific topic can be stored in the computer memory and retrieved by the student for ready reference. • The high storage capacity of a computer allows many programs or many complete courses at a time for students.
  44. 44. LIMITATIONS OF CAI 1) Though computer is powerful medium for individualizing classroom instructions but has got certain serious limitations enumerated as follows: 2) CAI lacks the human and emotional factors which are available in the normal classroom lessons in which teacher is present to interact with his students for their non-scholastic needs. 3) Computers are very costly pieces of equipment and beyond the reach of most schools in our country where even blackboards are not available in many schools. 4) With excessive use of CAI, artistic competence of students takes a backseat.
  45. 45. 5) Some studies have proved that CAI produces more mental and physical fatigue as compared to other methods of instructions. 6) CAI does not help in developing language proficiency which depends more on direct experiences with the reality. 7) As the student cannot interact with a computer in the human language, the mechanical responses by punching keys can become dull and frustrating. 8) At its simplest, the testing by computer is done by multiple choice questions, the problems concerning value judgment cannot be tested by the computer.
  47. 47. INTRODUCTION 1. The demonstration method is of utmost importance in the teaching of Nursing. 2. The demonstration method teaches by exhibition and explanation. 3. It is an explanation of a process. 4. It trains, explains the student in the art of careful observation, which is essential to a good Nurse. 5. A demonstration is an activity to show ‘how’ and providing proofs for process or happening.
  48. 48. 6. In short, it is a performance to show a process or activity to others. 7. When a teacher demonstrates, students observe and imitate to learn. 8. This is a natural way of learning. 9. Even in primary classes, demonstrations are very useful. 10.If the teacher has to tell the meaning of a word ‘jump’, he must make it clear by actually jumping by himself- a demonstration of jumping activity to clarify the meaning of jump.
  49. 49. STAGES OF DEMONSTRATION: 1. Pre-planning: • For a demonstration, all the requisites and pieces of equipment should be gathered. • It is advisable to prepare a checklist of all the things required for the demonstration. • Also the teacher must plan the sequence in which he will inject in his commentary and verbal information.
  50. 50. 2. Rehearsal: – after having gathered all the material and pieces of equipment for demonstration, the teacher must try out the demonstration for his own sake. – An untried demonstration may fail in front of the class, which can be embarrassing for the teacher. – The rehearsal of demonstration may give the teacher an idea about clarity and duration of it.
  51. 51. 3. Performance : • during the classroom instruction the teacher shows the demonstration at the appropriate point of the lesson. • The demonstration should be slick, to the point and with proper explanation of key concept during demonstration. • Be friendly and warm in order to establish a rapport with your students. 4. Follow up: • after the demonstration is over; the teacher must ask questions and discuss what has been observed by students. • Even students may be asked to perform what has been demonstrated to them.
  52. 52. USES OF DEMONSTRATION Science is subject which is replete with opportunities where demonstration can be used as an effective tool of teaching. The correct use of various devices and instruments are to be demonstrated to the students for proper handling by them. Generally, science demonstrations are done to explain ‘how’ and ‘why’ processes and objects. Some typical examples of demonstrations in science subjects are as follows: 1.To show working of an electrical motor. 2.To show how to use a microscope. 3.To show why objects expand on heating. 4.To show how to throw a shot put.
  53. 53. Contd…….. The main use of Demonstration can be described as bellow: 5. To demonstrate experiments or procedures and the use of experimental equipment in the laboratory, classroom, and the ward. 6. To review or revise procedures to meet a special situation or to introduce a new procedure. 7. To teach the patient a procedure or treatment which he must carry out in the home. 8. To demonstrate a procedure at the bedside or in the ward conference room.
  54. 54. 9. Demonstration of procedure in its natural setting has more meaning (e.g. in ward on patients) than when carried out in an artificial environment (e.g. classroom). 10.To demonstrate different approaches in establishing rapport with patients, so that the most effective Nurse- patient relationship can be maintained.
  55. 55. DO’S OF DEMONSTRATION: 1. Before the demonstration keep everything ready and be well organized. 2. Place the pieces of equipment for demonstration high enough for everybody to observe. 3. Present the information sequentially stressing the main ideas. 4. Let the demonstrator proceed smoothly without interruptions. Do not drag a demonstration unnecessarily as students are likely to loose interest then. 5. Ask questions from the students regarding what they have observed. 6. If student have not understood certain ideas during the demonstration, do it again.
  56. 56. Contd….. 7. Use other teaching aids to supplement your demonstration. 8. Check continually that your demonstration is going on the right track and students are getting the intended ideas. 9. Summarize the main points after the demonstration. 10.Have a friendly and warm behavior during your demonstration. 11.Allow students to perform after the demonstration is over. 12.Give a handout or written material on the demonstration along with key concepts emerging out of it. 13.Perform the demonstration from a place where from everyone in the class can see it.
  57. 57. ADVANTAGES OF DEMONSTRATION: 1. Demonstrations are good for acquiring and perfecting operational skills. 2. Demonstrations engage student’s attention and operation. 3. Demonstration encourages student’s participation in learning through questions and answers as the teacher performs. 4. It provides an opportunity for observational learning. 5. It commands interest by use of concrete illustration. The student not only can hear the explanation, but also can see the procedure or process.
  58. 58. Contd…. 6. The demonstration method has universal appeal because it is understandable to all. 7. The demonstration method is adaptable to both group and individual teaching. 8. It activates several senses, it increases learning, because the more senses used, the better the opportunity for the learning. 9. It clarifies the underlying principles by demonstrating the ‘why’ of a procedure. 10. It correlates theory with practice. 11. It has particular reference to student demonstration of procedures already learned.
  59. 59. Contd…. 12. It gives the teachers an opportunity to evaluate the student’s knowledge of a procedure, and to determine whether re-teaching is necessary. 13. It points out that the student must have knowledge and must be able to apply it immediately. 14. It serves as a strong motivational force for the student. 15. Return demonstration by the student under supervision of the teacher provides an opportunity fir well-directed practice before the student must use the procedure on the wad.
  60. 60. ESSENTIAL CHARACTERISTICS OF A GOOD DEMONSTRATION: 1. Every steps of a well- conducted demonstration should be understandable and exemplary (Value of limitation) of the best possible procedure, which might be used under the same circumstances. 2. It should allow sufficient time for reflective and critical thought as the demonstration proceeds. 3. Applied principles in demonstration method performed by both the teacher and the student: 4. The demonstration should understand the entire procedure before attempting to perform for others. This sometimes necessitates review before performance.
  61. 61. 5. All equipment should be assembled and pretested before the demonstration takes place. This saves the time and ensures that the apparatus will be in good state. 6. Advance knowledge: The group as well as the demonstrator should have advance knowledge of the general procedure to be followed in the demonstration, its relation to the unit and its purpose. 7. A positive approach should be used; emphasis should be placed on what to do, rather than what not to do. 8. Everybody should have a good view of demonstration; precautions should be taken to ensure all-round comfort.
  62. 62. 9. Running comments: The person in charge of the demonstration should accompany it with running comments relative to materials used, amounts necessary processes taking place, and anticipated results. However the commentary should be limited to essential facts. 10.The setting for the demonstration should be true to life as possible. Demonstration of a nursing procedure should be done on a live model wherever possible. 11.A discussion period should always follow the demonstration. This affords an opportunity for reemphasis, questioning, recall, evaluation, and summary while the procedure is still fresh.
  63. 63. 12. Mimeographed directions should be distributed before demonstrating a Nursing procedure. This saves continuous dictation on the part of the teacher and writing on the part of the student. 13. Prompt practice: if the purpose of a demonstration is to teach form for skills, the student should be given an opportunity to practice the procedure as soon as possible after the demonstration.
  64. 64. Lecture-Demonstration: 1. Lecture demonstration is a combination of the lecture and the demonstration. 2. Its purpose is to point out relationships as they occur during a demonstration. 3. These may be in the nature of properties of matter, explanation of structure or steps of a procedure. 4. This method is used extensively in teaching sciences and nursing subjects. 5. It measured factual knowledge only.
  65. 65. The television Lecture-Demonstration: 1. The lecture- demonstration is the method used most frequently in T.V. teaching. 2. Because of the nature of the medium in which photography and audio-tape are combined, and because of the time limitations, the preparations of T.V. lecture is more exacting than the regular classrooms.
  66. 66. DRAMATICS
  67. 67. INTRODUCTION: 1. Dramatization is a very potent method of keeping the class room instruction lively and interesting. 2. When a teacher dramatizes a lesson, the students become both the spectators and participants. 3. This makes learning easy and permanent. 4. Sociodrama is the unrehearsed acting out of a problem or situation confronting a group. 5. Spontaneous drama and discussion are natural outlets for tension, natural methods for disseminating views and of informing oneself. 6. Teachers can use sociodrama at all levels. 7. Several members of the group enact a scene in the presence of the whole group.
  68. 68. PROCESS OF SOCIODRAMA/DRAMA: a)Demonstrating a sociodrama for a New Group: • Select a simple, illustrative situation that will be fun and meaningful. • Select a volunteer cast. • Arrange the scene, using a few simple props if necessary. • Inform the castes about the scene and what to be done. • Develop and enact the scene. As it progress the director may secretly suggest to one of the cast a problem which will encourage argument or discussion.
  69. 69. Contd… • Encourage audience participation by stopping the scene from time to time to get new ideas. • Try out new ideas. The actors may be asked to try out suggested ideas of members of the audience and asked to replace members of the cast for that purpose. • Reverse roles, to increases the opportunity and variety of participation. • Discuss the scene after it is concluded. The director asks questions regarding the subject of the scene, the problems presented and the solutions suggested. • Limit the drama for 10-15 minutes.
  70. 70. Contd… b) Performing in a Real Life Situation: • Select a scene, which is related more directly to the kinds of problem, situation this group has encountered. • Decide roles. The director may ask the audience to help in selecting the roles and indicating how they should be played.
  71. 71. ADVANTAGES OFF DRAMA: • The Following are the main advantages of dramatization as teaching aid: • Dramatization gives an added advantage of students working as both observers (spectators) and doers (participants) unlike in experiment where they are just observers. • Dramatization makes learning a pleasure as children love to act and show off. • Dramatization involves students totally and they appreciate the lessons and remember it better.
  72. 72. Contd… • Dramatization develops the social skills required for them such as cooperation, coordination, punctuality, human relations etc. • Dramatization makes students creative, sensitive and alert. • Dramatizations afford the teacher an insight into the personality of students and know them better. • Dramatization is very helpful in nursing education in selected situation.
  73. 73. CONCLUSION: Technology results in new designs and devices as also new ideas and process. Educational technology is the application of the scientific knowledge in a systematic way to improve the efficiency of the process of learning and instruction. It is considered as the technology of education more than technology in education. Audio visual aids are apart of the subject of educational technology. Audio- visual resources consist of hardware and software components.
  74. 74. THANK YOU