• Learning is not a one time activity or an annual, half
yearly, quarterly or monthly activity. Learning is a
continuous process. It begins right from when a child
is born and ends with his death.
• It is rightly said by Denis Waitley (American motivational speaker),
“All of the top achievers I know are life-long learners... Looking
for new skills, insights, and ideas. If they're not learning, they're
not growing... not moving toward excellence.”
There is no end to learning.
• Learning is a process that improves the
knowledge, skill and attitude (KSA) of individuals,
increases his/her willingness to adopt these KSAs
and implement them on the job.
• Learning can be defined as “any
relatively permanent change in behavior that
occurs as a result of experience”.
--- (Robbins, 2003)
• Learning is important to ensure that we keep up-to-date
with developments in our particular field.
It is also an important source of motivation, stimulation
and job satisfaction.
Learning is therefore important because it helps us to
keep in tune with trends and developments in our own
Learning has the power to change us. Specifically, we can
become more successful.
7. Theories of Learning
• It was proposed by Ivan Pavlov in1927.
• It evolved from the experiments conducted on dogs by
Russianpsychologist, Ivan Pavlov.
• In the process of classical conditioning, a neutral stimulus
when paired with an unconditioned stimulus, becomes a
conditioned stimulus that brings about a conditioned
• This theory was proposed by B.F.Skinner (1953, 1954).
• It believes that learning depends on change in overt
• Thebehavior of an individual changes due to his response to
• Theindividual responds, when aparticular Stimulus-Response
(S-R)pattern is rewarded.
• Reinforcement is an important part of Skinner’s S-Rtheory.
• Areinforcer improves the desired response.
• Operant conditioning is more applicable in humanlearning.
10. Principles of Operant Conditioning
• Behavior is learned.
• Positively rewarded behavior will occuragain.
• Information should be presented in smallamounts.
• Rewards are most effective when they are given immediately
after the desiredresponse.
• It was proposed by Bandura in1977.
• It gives importance to observing and shaping the behaviors,
attitudes, and emotional reactions ofothers.
• According to Bandura, most human behavior is learned by
12. Processesof Social Learning
• Attentionalprocesses–Peoplelearn from amodel only when they pay
attention to its importantcharacteristics.
• Retention processes – A model’s effect depends on how well an
individual remembersthemodel’s action afterthemodel isnot available.
• Motor reproduction processes–After apersonhasobservedthe model,
he/she must do what the modeldid.
• Reinforcement processes – Individuals are encouraged to follow the
behavior shown by themodel if they arepositively rewarded for it.
Thebest observational learning isachievedbypracticing the modeled behavior
Individuals mayimplement amodeledbehavior, if it producesresults that are
There is higher possibility that an individual will implement modeled
behavior, if the model issimilar to the individual andhasagoodstatus.
• Itis the processof changing the individual’s behavior
by guiding their learning in systematic steps.
• Thefour methods of shaping behavior are-
• 1.Positive reinforcement
• 2.Negative reinforcement
15. Meaning ofReinforcement:
Reinforce means to strengthen, and reinforcement refers to a stimulus
which strengthens the probability of a particular response being
Reinforcement is anythingthatincreases the intensityof aresponse.
It can be negativeorpositive.
Appreciatingthe good workofemployees
• It is the process of getting something nice after
showing a desired behavior. This is done to repeat
the same behavior.
• Exampleof Positive Reinforcement- When a manager
praises an employee for successfullycompleting a task on
schedule, this is positive reinforcement.
• This encourages the employee and increases the possibility
of completing his work on time.
• In this, a reward is taken away if an undesired
behavior is displayed.
Exampleof Negative reinforcement-
• Taking away scholarship from a student, if he does
notperform well in the examination.
• When a worker is asked to get back to work when he
is noticed talking to his colleagues, this is negative
1. Punishment is the practice of forcing something unpleasant
or on a person, usually in response to disobedient or morally
wrong behavior or undesiredbehavior.
2. Should be immediate.
3. Haseffect on others who arewatching
4. Punisher must provide anacceptable
alternative to offender
5. Canhave side effects of hate and revenge
It isremovalof anyreward(reinforcement) that is
If aperson putsin extraeffort but hiswork isnot
being recognizedor rewarded,hewill stopdoingit.
• Fixedinterval reinforcement schedule – Rewards are
given at fixed time intervals. E.g. honestypay
• Variable interval reinforcements – Rewards are given
at time intervals that are notfixed.
• Fixedratio schedule – Reward is given after afixed
number of responses. E.g. Piece rate
Generallyvariable schedulesleadto higher performance than fixed schedules.
Continuousreinforcers are appropriate for newly desired, low frequency or
Intermittentreinforcers are appropriate for stableor high frequency responses.
25. Specific Organizational Application
1) Using lotteriesto reduceabsenteeism
• In this method lotteries are used to reduce absenteeism in
This method was used by Continental Airlines to reward its
40,000 employees for attendance.
• Thecompany holds adraw two times ayear and gives eight
new sports utility vehicles.
• For this draw employees who have not taken asingle leave
during the last six months areeligible.
• This reduced the company’s absence rate to agreat extent
• Organizations that pay for sick leaves face two times more
absenteeism than organizations who do not pay for sick
• Oneorganization in USAimplemented awell payprogram.
• It paid bonus to employees who did not take any leave for a
four weak period.
• This program increased organization’s savings, reduced
absenteeism,increased productivity and improved employee
• Forbes magazine also used this approach to cut its health care
27. 3)Employee Discipline
• All managers have to deal with problem behaviors in the
• To counter this, managers may take disciplinary action like
oral warning, written warning and temporary suspension. But
it is ashort term solution and causesside effects.
• Disciplinary action tells the employees what not to do but
does not teach them what todo.
• Practically, it is used commonly because it can give fast
results in the shortrun.
• Most organizations have some kind of training program.
• Use of learning concepts allow individuals to manage their own
• Self-management requires an individual to carefully control the
stimuli, internal processes and responses to achieve personal