1. Introduction To 3D Printing Technologies.
Dept of Mechanical Engineering
Cambridge Institute of Technology
2. What is 3D printing technology?
Why should you learn about 3D printing technology ?
What is the need ?
What will be the out come of these section?
4. History of 3D Printers
Developed in the 1980’s by a Japanese engineer and
researcher named Hideo Kodama.
Unlike conventional printers, that produce 2D images on a paper, these are
printers which create 3D objects by process called Additive Manufacturing
(AM), a process used to create an object layer by layer.
Later in 1984, Chuck Hull of “3D Systems Corporation” developed ‘Stereo
lithography’ in which layers are added by curing photopolymers with UV
light lasers to make 3D objects.
5. Road Map
• History of 3D printers
• 3D Printing Technology
• Types of 3D Printing Technology
• Materials used for 3D printing
• Purpose & Applications
• Design of a model
• 3D Printing in International Institutions
• Future for Diploma & Engineering Students in 3DP
6. Since then, almost all the industries were developing and using 3D printing
technologies simultaneously researching on it .
These technologies had opened the gateway to a new realm of scientific venture were
conventional fabrication process could be replaced with much more efficient, reliable
and economically favorable way of manufacturing
Stereo Lithography(STL) is a file format on which 3D printers work.
Within 1980s to 1990s, a lot a 3D printing machines came into existence with various
configurations and methodologies.
In the beginning of 2000, only polymers were used for 3D printing, which are plastics
that could be molded into any shapes.
By the early 2010, Printers were developed that could work on metals and other
variety of materials which revolutionized 3D printing technology.
7. What is 3D Printing Technology
3D printing (or additive manufacturing, AM) is any of various processes used
to make a three dimensional object that comes under the method of Rapid
In 3D printing technology, successive layers of material are laid down one
after the other under computer control until the entire designed object is made
from the raw material used.
3D design are created using CAD software's like CATIA, Pro e, Solid works
8. What is 3D Printing
3D Design File Preparation 3D Print
9. What is 3D Printing?Let us know about how the software works
• It is a form of Additive Manufacturing Process of joining materials to make an object
from 3D model Data; layer-by-layer process
11. The design should be then converted into an Stl file format ie; StereoLithography format, based on
which the 3D printer(s) works.
This format slices the designed object or part into spatial orientations like x,y,z-axis and each
orientations confirms the machine on how to proceed with the process of manufacturing.
3D CAD designs can be of any complex dimensions and shapes and wholly could be produced in a 3D
printer within less time compared to the conventional methods.
Thermoplastics are the raw materials commonly used globally were PLA is the prime material used.
Other materials like ABS, NYLON, PLA etc.
3D printing could be also done using digital files from scanners that scans the object and produce the
The advantage of using a 3D printer is that there will be no wastage of materials used, since its
controlled via a computer.
There is no requirement of any moulding or casting for the production of designed prototype which
saves money and time!
14. • Traditional method of teaching can be converted in practical oriented
approach through 3D Printing Technology in the institution where pupils
and scholars gets a better understanding of the basics and concepts of
• It enhances hands-on learning and learning by doing. Using this
prototyping technology, students will be able to produce realistic 3
dimensional mini-models ( great for engineering, architecture, and multi-
media arts students).
• Empowers the students to convert their designs into products: Text book
oriented concepts could be utilized to create models in the class rooms.
16. • Technological innovations: 3D printing have made it possible to venture into
the scientific realm which were more complicated before by then made it
possible through this technique.
• It provides more room for interactive class activities. In Engineering, biology,
for instance, teachers can create a 3D model of the, Gears ,Robots, human
heart, head. Skeleten ..etc to teach students about the human body.
• Simplifies experimentations: 3D printing has made it possible to create
prototypes of any complex specifications with ease that anything could be
made into reality repeatedly with varying dimensions on contrary to the
conventional methods of prototyping.
17. 3D Printed unit of a Micro Air Vehicles
(Quadrotor) by the Students of IIT
3D Printed bio model of pelvic girdle
by a student of MSR Institute of
18. • Opens up inspiring possibilities and opportunities: Its like the ability to
produce a fully functional “machine” in one print that meets the
requirements and constraints.
• 3D printers enables you to Hold, Evaluate, Test and use your own ideas!
19. • India is in her initial stages of prototyping using 3D printing technologies
even though there are exploding experimentations and researches going
on in this field.
• Many Indian companies are coming up with this 3D printing technologies
to upgrade themselves in the market.
• Many educational institutions like IITs and NIT’S Institute of Technology
have come up with a new level of implementing this technology in India.
21. • The 3D printing technologies include :
• FUSED DEPOSITION MODELING,
• SELECTIVE LASER SINTERING,
• STEREO LITHOGRAPHY,
• Defense systems also depend upon this technology in their research and development sectors.
• Major players active in India 3D printing market (including manufacturers and distributors) space
are Altem Technologies, Imaginarium, Brahma 3, Kcbots…
• In a technological breakthrough, a 31-year-old amputee will probably be the first Indian to get a
prosthetic limb through 3D printing.
22. Types of 3d Printing Technologies
Visible layer lines
Material: PLA, ABS
Selective Laser Sintering
Type: Powder melted with LASER,
Requires post processing
Material: Nylon, metal
Type: Binder jetting
Full color fragile
Material: Talcum powder
Type: LASER cured resin
High resolution, Fragile
Type: UV cured photopolymer
High resolution, Multi material
Material: UV cured
Laminated Object Manufacturing
Type: UV cured photopolymer
Material: Plastic, paper and metal
23. Fused deposition modeling
• Stl file of the design is fed into the printer.
• Raw material is heated up to its melting point in the extrusion head.
• Model or part is produced by extruding thermoplastic used.
• The part is created layer by layer – Additive Manufacturing.
• Material layers hardens immediately after extrusion from the nozzle.
• The finished product is removed easily.
24. Selective Laser Sintering (SLS)
• The technique that uses a laser as the power source to sinter powdered
• Laser automatically points in space defined by a 3D model and binds the
material together to create a solid structure.
• A recoater blade is used to move new powder over the build platform.
• The technology fuses metal powder into a solid part by melting it locally
using the focused laser beam.
25. PolyJet printing
It works by jetting photopolymer materials in ultra-thin layers onto a build
platform. Each photopolymer layer is cured by UV light immediately after it is jetted,
producing fully cured models that can be handled and used immediately, without post-
curing. The gel-like support material, designed to support complicated geometries, is
subsequently removed by water jetting.
26. Materials used
• PLA (Polylactic Acid):
It is a biodegradable thermoplastic aliphatic polyester derived
from renewable resources, such as corn starch, tapioca roots, chips or
starch, or sugarcane. In 2010, PLA had the second highest consumption
volume of any bioplastic of the world.
27. • ABS (Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene):
It combines the strength and rigidity of acrylonitrile and styrene
polymers with the toughness of polybutadiene rubber. It is considered
superior for its hardness, gloss, toughness, and electrical insulation
28. • LAYWOOD:
Laywood is a wood based filament that can be used in most desktop
3D printers. The wood filament prints easily, similar to PLA, and has a
wood smell when printing. This filament comes in a 0.25kg coil and has a
cherry wood color.
29. Other materials…
• PRO series PLA: They are commercially used PLA material which are a higher
grade of the same.
• PRO series ABS: These are commercially available ABS material.
• LAYBRICK: These are materials with grey contrast which resembles as a brick.
• PVA (Polyvinyl Acetate)
• Poly Carbonate (PC), etc.
• Design Visualization of Engineering Components: Engineering parts
could be designed and produced- a practical approach.
• Fabrication of Teaching Aids: Teachers could produce prototypes for
the students in the class rooms making it more interactive and
• Medical Models: Bio-medical students could produce Prosthetic arms,
bio-print a human ear, replace a human skull et. With the help of a 3D
31. • Electronic Modules: Electronic gadgets like speakers, television,
components of satellites, computers, scanners etc. could be produced.
• Fashion Technology: New and creative designs which are tricky to
manufacture on conventional machines could be developed using 3D
printing technology. These includes jewelery, foot wears, furnitures etc.
• Archeology: Replications of artifacts could be done through 3D prinitng
technology which were not possible earlier like reconstruction of
sculptures, monuments etc.
32. • Automobile industry: Conceptual design of cars and motor cycles could
be done with ease relaxing the need for fabrication of a casting or
moulding such as mirror sheilds, tail-lamps, dash boards etc.
• Aerospace industry: Almost all the parts of an aero engine are being
replaced with a 3D printed metal alloys which enhances the performance
of the aircraft. Mechanisms for light weight Ornithopters could be
produced which reduces the over all weight considerably.
• Industrial designs: Testing of newly designed parts or structures could be
carried out effectively and economically with the help of a 3D printer.
33. • Packaging industry: These are the industries which depend upon this 3D
printing technologies to the max. where use of biodegradable materials
can be used for the packaging of their products making it eco-friendly
since most of the 3D printer materials are totally recyclable and
• Communication: Mobile companies all around the globe had started
using 3D printed parts for the manufacturing of their gadgets which
ensures durability and performance of their products. Computer parts
are also giving way to 3D printing technology.
53. • Step 7: Input the G-code into the printer., via an SD card.
54. VAPOUR SMOOTHENING MACHINE
These machine is used for the post-processing for the ABS material by the use of
acetone in the chamber where the designed part has to be smoothen.
55. Vapour smoothening process
These test is carried for the ABS material by the students of mechanical engineering Dept
Cambridge institute of technology banglore-36.
56. Mechnaical properties of ABS &PLA Materilas
degradable No Yes
Rockwell Hardness R105 to R110 R70 to R90
Good Good Good
Approx. 3%-5% Approx. 3%-5% Minor
Density 1.04 g/cm3 1.23 to 1.25