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MODELS OF CURRICULUM
Mrs. ManoramaKashyap
Lecturer
GCON
What is a curriculum model?
•The term curriculum model
refers to an educational
system that combines theory
with practice.
Why is it Essential?
• Curriculum models are essential in
determining programme content & in training
& supervising staff ...
BASIC CURRICULUM MODEL
MODEL
AIMS OR
OBJECTIVES
CONTENT
METHODS
OF
TEACHING &
LEARNING
EVALUATION
OF
OUTCOMES
CURRICULUM MODELS ARE:-
•Targeted to the needs &
characteristics of a particular group
of learners.
•Based on a body of th...
PRODUCT MODEL OR BEHAVIOURAL-
OBJECTIVES MODEL
One of the best known curriculum
models is ‘The Tyler Model’,
introduced in...
He Identifies four fundamental questions
to be answered in developing a curriculum
1.What educational
purposes should the
...
The emphasis on this model is on the achievement of
objectives by the student.
It is an output model.
Tyler stressed the i...
Implementing a behavioral objective
model
• EDUCATION OUTCOME:- This is the end result
of an educational program.
• EDUCAT...
Specific behavioral objectives
Also termed
instructional objectives
or terminal objectives ,
these are highly specific
sta...
Learner’s observable behavior
Unless the learner’s
behavior is observable it
is impossible to assess
whether or not an
obj...
Levels of objective
The behavior
components arise from
knowledge, attitude &
skills component. This
is otherwise known as
...
The PROCESS MODEL of Curriculum
Lawrence Stenhouse proposed the model known as
“PROCESS MODEL”.
According to him the
minim...
The PROCESS MODEL of Curriculum
IN EMPIRICAL STUDY:-
* Principles on which to study & evaluate the progress of
students.
*...
EXPRESSIVE MODEL
CURRICULUM CONTENT:- Content is usually selected
on the basis of providing the student with some
worthwhi...
EXPRESSIVE MODEL
LEARNING ACTIVITIES:- In Expressive objective student
motivation is the fundamental criterion used by
tea...
PROBLEMCENTERED MODEL
CURRICULUM CONTENT:- The starting point for
learning is a problem, a query, a puzzle that the learne...
PROBLEM CENTERED MODEL
LEARNING ACTIVITIES:-Training in ‘learning how to
learn’ & group learning skills often form part of...
CULTURAL ANALYSIS MODEL
•This model has been developed by Denis
Lawton.
•This model proposes a curriculum planned on
the t...
CULTURAL ANALYSIS MODEL
Lawton suggests cultural analysis will ask:-
•What kind of society already exist?
•In what ways is...
CULTURAL ANALYSIS MODEL
Lawton offers a five stage model for this analysis:
CULTURAL INVARIANTS: This examines all the asp...
CULTURAL ANALYSIS MODEL
PSYCHOLOGICAL QUESTIONS & THEORIES: it is an
important consideration for any curriculum
developmen...
OTHER MODELS & APPROACHES TO THE
CURRICULUM
Beattie’s four fold model of the curriculum suggests
that there are four funda...
OTHER MODELS & APPROACHES TO THE
CURRICULUM
PORTFOLIO
OF
MEANINGFUL
PERSONAL
EXPERIENCE
AGENDA OF
IMPORTANT
CULTURAL
ISSUE...
GREAVES CURRICULUMMODEL
This model of nursing is based upon the behavioral
objectives model & consists of a 4* 4 matrix.
O...
Models of curriculum 1
Models of curriculum 1
Models of curriculum 1
Models of curriculum 1
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Models of curriculum 1

Curriculum models are essential in determining programme content & in training & supervising staff to implement "high quality programmes."

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Models of curriculum 1

  1. 1. MODELS OF CURRICULUM Mrs. ManoramaKashyap Lecturer GCON
  2. 2. What is a curriculum model? •The term curriculum model refers to an educational system that combines theory with practice.
  3. 3. Why is it Essential? • Curriculum models are essential in determining programme content & in training & supervising staff to implement “high quality” programs.
  4. 4. BASIC CURRICULUM MODEL MODEL AIMS OR OBJECTIVES CONTENT METHODS OF TEACHING & LEARNING EVALUATION OF OUTCOMES
  5. 5. CURRICULUM MODELS ARE:- •Targeted to the needs & characteristics of a particular group of learners. •Based on a body of theory about teaching & learning •Used to outline approaches, methods & procedures for implementation & evaluation
  6. 6. PRODUCT MODEL OR BEHAVIOURAL- OBJECTIVES MODEL One of the best known curriculum models is ‘The Tyler Model’, introduced in 1949 by Ralph Tyler. He viewed education as “ a process of changing the behavior patterns of people, using behavior in the broad sense to include thinking & feeling as well as over action.”
  7. 7. He Identifies four fundamental questions to be answered in developing a curriculum 1.What educational purposes should the school seek to attain? 2.How can learning experiences be selected that are likely to be useful in attaining these objectives? 3.How can learning experiences be organized for effective instruction? 4.How can the effectiveness of learning experiences be evaluated?
  8. 8. The emphasis on this model is on the achievement of objectives by the student. It is an output model. Tyler stressed the importance of stating objectives in terms of students behavior. Any statement of the objectives of the school should be a statement of changes to take place in students.
  9. 9. Implementing a behavioral objective model • EDUCATION OUTCOME:- This is the end result of an educational program. • EDUCATIONAL AIM:- is the most important part of the goal system, since all the other objectives are derived from it.
  10. 10. Specific behavioral objectives Also termed instructional objectives or terminal objectives , these are highly specific statements that describe the changes in behavior that constitute learning.
  11. 11. Learner’s observable behavior Unless the learner’s behavior is observable it is impossible to assess whether or not an objective has been achieved.
  12. 12. Levels of objective The behavior components arise from knowledge, attitude & skills component. This is otherwise known as cognitive, affective & psychomotor domain.
  13. 13. The PROCESS MODEL of Curriculum Lawrence Stenhouse proposed the model known as “PROCESS MODEL”. According to him the minimum requirements for a curriculum are that it should offer:- IN PLANNING:- *Principles for the selection of content *principles for the development of teaching strategy *Principles for making of decision about sequence. *Principles on which to diagnose the strengths & weaknesses of individual students.
  14. 14. The PROCESS MODEL of Curriculum IN EMPIRICAL STUDY:- * Principles on which to study & evaluate the progress of students. * Principles on which to study & evaluate the progress of teacher. * Guidance as to the feasibility of implementing the curriculum in varying school context, pupil context, environments & peer group situation.
  15. 15. EXPRESSIVE MODEL CURRICULUM CONTENT:- Content is usually selected on the basis of providing the student with some worthwhile learning activities, usually of an exploratory or problem solving nature. LEARNING OUTCOMES:- It specifies the behavior the student is to acquire. •It is the outcome of learning activity which has been planned ( by the teacher) to provide the student with an opportunity to personalize learning.
  16. 16. EXPRESSIVE MODEL LEARNING ACTIVITIES:- In Expressive objective student motivation is the fundamental criterion used by teachers to select learning activities ASSESSMENT:- In their purest form, expressive objectives are a reflection of the aims & the values of an education which believes in molding student’s behavior often in idiosyncratic ways. MAIN APPLICATION:- The expressive model is usually associated with curriculum design in the field of art & design.
  17. 17. PROBLEMCENTERED MODEL CURRICULUM CONTENT:- The starting point for learning is a problem, a query, a puzzle that the learner wishes to solve. The content knowledge in this model arises from the work on the problem. LEARNING OUTCOMES:- Both interpersonal ( team skills) & intrapersonal (reflective skills) are explicitly expressed as an important component of the learning outcomes.
  18. 18. PROBLEM CENTERED MODEL LEARNING ACTIVITIES:-Training in ‘learning how to learn’ & group learning skills often form part of the learning activities undertaken at the start of problem based learning modules ASSESSMENT:- Is a mixture of tutor marked assignment, peer group assessment of team skills & self assessment of intrapersonal skills. MAIN APPLICATION:-the problem based model is usually associated with vocational courses in health sciences, architecture, engineering, business studies & education.
  19. 19. CULTURAL ANALYSIS MODEL •This model has been developed by Denis Lawton. •This model proposes a curriculum planned on the technique of cultural analysis. •Culture is defined as ‘the whole way of life of a society & the purposes of education is to make available to the next generation what we regard as the most important aspect of culture. •Culture analysis is the process by which a selection is made from the culture in terms of curriculum planning.
  20. 20. CULTURAL ANALYSIS MODEL Lawton suggests cultural analysis will ask:- •What kind of society already exist? •In what ways is it developing? •How do its members appear to want it to develop?
  21. 21. CULTURAL ANALYSIS MODEL Lawton offers a five stage model for this analysis: CULTURAL INVARIANTS: This examines all the aspects that human societies have in common, such as economic & morel aspects, beliefs & other systems. CULTURAL VARIABLES:- involves analyzing the difference between cultures in each of the systems. SELECTION FROM THE CULTURE:- this stage consists of comparing the cultural analysis of the systems with the existing school curriculum.
  22. 22. CULTURAL ANALYSIS MODEL PSYCHOLOGICAL QUESTIONS & THEORIES: it is an important consideration for any curriculum development. CURRICULUM ORGANIZATION:- In this final stage , the curriculum can now be planned on the basis of the cultural analysis carried out in the previous stages, bearing in mind the important psychological question & theories that influence learning & instruction.
  23. 23. OTHER MODELS & APPROACHES TO THE CURRICULUM Beattie’s four fold model of the curriculum suggests that there are four fundamental approaches to the task of planning a curriculum for nursing. The Curriculum as a :- MAP OF KEY SUBJECTS SCHEDULE OF BASIC SKILLS
  24. 24. OTHER MODELS & APPROACHES TO THE CURRICULUM PORTFOLIO OF MEANINGFUL PERSONAL EXPERIENCE AGENDA OF IMPORTANT CULTURAL ISSUE The Curriculum as a :-
  25. 25. GREAVES CURRICULUMMODEL This model of nursing is based upon the behavioral objectives model & consists of a 4* 4 matrix. OBJECTIVES CONTENT METHODS EVALUATION ASSESSMENT PLANNING IMPLEMENTA TION EVALUATION

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