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World Bank

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World Bank

  1. 1. World Bank Group Turn down the heat: Why a 4°C warmer world must be avoided by Maria del Rosario Johnsson
  2. 2. The global warming and climate change impact on the environment of human life and the entire ecosystem. It is a problem whose solution requires harmonization and commitment among all countries, be they developed or in development. CO2 is naturally present in the atmosphere and is part of the Earth’s carbon cycle it is the natural circulation of carbon trough the atmosphere, oceans, soil, plants and animals. Most of the Earth’s carbon is stored in rocks and sediments, while the rest lies in the ocean, atmosphere, soils and living organisms. Although CO2 is a natural part of the Earth’s carbon cycle, it is the most important long-lived “forcing” of climate change because it is emitted through human activities, such as deforestation, land-use changes and the burning of fossil fuels
  3. 3. The main greenhouse gases are: *Carbon dioxide CO2 generated by burning of fossil fuels, changes in land use, cement production *Methane (CH4), generated by burning fossil fuels, agriculture, livestock, waste management *Nitrous oxide N2O generated by burning fossil fuels, agriculture, changes in land use. *Chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) is an organic compound that contains carbon, chlorine, and fluorine, produced as a volatile derivative of methane and ethane; it is generated by refrigerants, aerosols, plastic foams. A common subclass is the hydro chlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs), which contain hydrogen, as well and generated by liquid coolants *Sulfur hexafluoride generated by electrical insulating The greenhouse gas effect is a natural effect that sustains life on Earth. When the sun’s light reaches the atmosphere, roughly half of it is gathered at the Earth’s surface where it is then radiated back upward as infrared heat. About 90% of this heat is then absorbed by the greenhouse gases in the atmosphere and radiated back toward the surface, which helps to warm the Earth to an average life-supporting temperature. Although the greenhouse effect is a natural phenomenon, human activities are exacerbating and altering it, making the Earth hotter.
  4. 4. The construction of climate change scenarios requires considering scenarios: a) economic progress: An emission scenario, as found in various reports of the IPCC, is a plausible representation of the future development of emissions based on a homogeneous series and inherently consistent hypotheses about the driving forces -growth demographic, socioeconomic development and I technological change and fundamental relationships between them. b) emission of greenhouse gases and aerosols and atmospheric concentration of GHGs. Concentration scenarios arise from the carbon cycle models that make projections of atmospheric concentrations of GHGs (aggregated and expressed as CO2 equivalent) and aerosols based on emission scenarios. These models show that the biosphere and oceans have the ability to capture and store atmospheric carbon dioxide.
  5. 5. Climate models: These models use concentration scenarios to generate climate change scenarios. A climate change scenario is a description in space and time of possible ranges of future climate conditions Climate models: These models use concentration scenarios to generate climate change scenarios. A climate change scenario is a description in space and time of possible ranges of future climate conditions In weather, the use of models is essential for weather forecasting and to try to foresee the consequences of possible climate changes in the medium and long term. The problem is that the reality is so complex that not even using the most powerful computers can be reproduced faithfully. Besides the direct effect of increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases in global temperature of the Earth, we must consider both positive feedbacks such as negative. The uncertainty is a major constraint on our ability to detect, attribute and understand climate change and projecting current climate changes that could occur in the future. Nevertheless, several studies show the consequences that the world could face due to the increase in global temperature
  6. 6. Concerning difference between adaptation and mitigation, the IPCC uses the following definitions: Mitigation: An anthropogenic Adaptation: Adjustment in natural intervention to reduce the sources or human systems in response to or enhance the sinks of greenhouse actual or expected effects, wich gases (IPCC, 2001a). which moderates harm or exploits beneficial opportunities (IPCC, 2001a).
  7. 7. In Buenos Aires, Argentina, What can we do today???
  8. 8. What can we do? 1- To improve the situation…. 2- Speaking about cleaner fuels….. 3- Reducing noise pollution….. 4- Transport Management….. 5- Urban management….. 6- AIR QUALITY AND SOUND….. 7- Insulation for energy efficiency….. 8- Change of culture and behavior….. 9-Using
  9. 9. 1- To improve the situation….. Make an inventory and constant monitoring of emission sources Promote citizen participation in the regulation and control of emission sources Implement systems for emission control. Create a coherent policy for the Metropolitan Area
  10. 10. Reduce the value of patents for vehicles with clean technologies I Implement the gradual and mandatory conversion to clean fuels. Develop the market for photovoltaic cars
  11. 11. Reducing noise pollution The replacement and reduction of these sound sources The acoustic insulation of places that produce annoying noises The implementation schedules of silence AIR QUALITY AND SOUND Ensuring clean air and silence through the more demanding standards
  12. 12. Promote the train and underground. Streamline the flow of vehicular transport to reduce emissions and noise. Discourage the use of private car in critical areas To improve traffic conditions for pedestrians and cyclists
  13. 13. The green initiative involving the creation of new green spaces to mitigate the effect of emissions. The adequacy of the Code of Urban Planning at the Environmental Urban Plan. The decentralization of urban activities. The appropriate location of the different uses of polluting activities.
  14. 14. Insulation and energy efficiencyFit draught excluders Update your boiler Insulate your roof Insulate your cavity walls Install double glazing Use on energy efficient light bulbs Insulate your floor Insulation for energy efficiency
  15. 15. Do not leave the lights on in the rooms would be on them Use efficient light bulbs in points many hours of use. Reduces bath times. Use the washing machine and dishwasher when fully loaded. Dry Sun clothes instead of tumble. Buy products made from paper certified forest management sustainable and PEFC or FSC, as they ensure a net sink carbon. Turns on and off appliance that are not in use Educate the public in environmental issues through formal and informal education Demonstrate political will by the State to induce changes in behavior Apply exemplary penalties on those who do not meet standards
  16. 16. Renewable energy technologies: micro wind, solar water heating, solar pvc, air source, biomass, ground source heating, wind, ASHP, GSHP, geothermal & Bioenergy
  17. 17. It is important to be aware that climate change is a global problem that affects us all and accept our shared responsibility, as most decisions we make in our daily lives will help to significantly reduce GHG emissions the atmosphere.
  18. 18. Sources http://blog.nuestroclima.com/blog/2007/10/09/consecuencias-del-cambio-climatico-en-argentina-informe-oficial/ http://www.ecoportal.net/Temas_Especiales/Cambio- Climatico/El_Cambio_Climatico_y_su_Influencia_sobre_Argentina http://www.buenosaires.gob.ar/agenciaambiental/monitoreoambiental/monitoreoderuido http://www.buenosaires.gob.ar/agenciaambiental/o http://www.ambiente.gov.ar/archivos/web/UCC/File/09ccargentina.pdf http://www.ecoportal.net/Temas_Especiales/Cambio-Climatico/El_Cambio_Climatico_y_su_Influencia_sobre_Argentina http://www.theozonehole.com/cfc.htm Turn down the heat material https://www.google.co.uk/search?q=fotos+de+eficiencia+energetica&biw=1301&bih=620&tbm=isch&tbo=u&source=univ&sa=X&ei=ubJbVa- 8F8KyUa7ygYAB&ved=0CCAQsAQ&dpr=1.05#imgrc=WN8NbBAo2M- cVM%253A%3B8FmDCdvtr8sGdM%3Bhttp%253A%252F%252Fwww.ambientum.com%252Frevista%252F2010%252Fjunio%252Ffotos%252Feficiencia-energetica-impulsa-empleo- verde%252Feficiencia_energetica.jpg%3Bhttp%253A%252F%252Fwww.ambientum.com%252Frevista%252F2010%252Fjunio%252Feficiencia-energetica-impulsa-empleo- verde.asp%3B300%3B201 https://www.google.co.uk/?gws_rd=ssl#q=fotos+de+escenarios+del+cambio+climatico https://www.google.co.uk/?gws_rd=ssl#q=fotos+de+contaminacion+acustica