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World Bank Group
Turn down the heat: Why a 4°C
warmer world must be avoided
by Maria del Rosario
The global warming and climate change impact on the environment of human life and the entire
ecosystem. It is a problem whose solution requires harmonization and commitment among all
countries, be they developed or in development.
CO2 is naturally present in the atmosphere and is part of the Earth’s carbon cycle it is the
natural circulation of carbon trough the atmosphere, oceans, soil, plants and animals. Most of
the Earth’s carbon is stored in rocks and sediments, while the rest lies in the ocean,
atmosphere, soils and living organisms. Although CO2 is a natural part of the Earth’s carbon
cycle, it is the most important long-lived “forcing” of climate change because it is emitted
through human activities, such as deforestation, land-use changes and the burning of fossil
The main greenhouse gases are:
*Carbon dioxide CO2 generated by burning of fossil fuels, changes in land use, cement production
*Methane (CH4), generated by burning fossil fuels, agriculture, livestock, waste management
*Nitrous oxide N2O generated by burning fossil fuels, agriculture, changes in land use.
*Chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) is an organic compound that contains carbon, chlorine, and fluorine,
produced as a volatile derivative of methane and ethane; it is generated by refrigerants, aerosols,
plastic foams. A common subclass is the hydro chlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs), which contain
hydrogen, as well and generated by liquid coolants
*Sulfur hexafluoride generated by electrical insulating
The greenhouse gas effect is a natural effect that sustains life on Earth. When the sun’s light
reaches the atmosphere, roughly half of it is gathered at the Earth’s surface where it is then radiated
back upward as infrared heat. About 90% of this heat is then absorbed by the greenhouse gases in
the atmosphere and radiated back toward the surface, which helps to warm the Earth to an average
life-supporting temperature. Although the greenhouse effect is a natural phenomenon, human
activities are exacerbating and altering it, making the Earth hotter.
The construction of climate change scenarios requires considering scenarios: a) economic
progress: An emission scenario, as found in various reports of the IPCC, is a plausible
representation of the future development of emissions based on a homogeneous series and
inherently consistent hypotheses about the driving forces -growth demographic, socioeconomic
development and I technological change and fundamental relationships between them. b)
emission of greenhouse gases and aerosols and atmospheric concentration of GHGs.
Concentration scenarios arise from the carbon cycle models that make projections of
atmospheric concentrations of GHGs (aggregated and expressed as CO2 equivalent) and aerosols
based on emission scenarios. These models show that the biosphere and oceans have the ability
to capture and store atmospheric carbon dioxide.
Climate models: These models use
concentration scenarios to generate climate
change scenarios. A climate change scenario
is a description in space and time of possible
ranges of future climate conditions
Climate models: These models use
concentration scenarios to generate
climate change scenarios. A climate
change scenario is a description in space
and time of possible ranges of future
In weather, the use of models
is essential for weather
forecasting and to try to
foresee the consequences of
possible climate changes in
the medium and long term.
The problem is that the reality
is so complex that not even
using the most powerful
computers can be
Besides the direct effect of
increasing concentrations of
greenhouse gases in global
temperature of the Earth, we
must consider both positive
feedbacks such as negative.
The uncertainty is a
major constraint on
our ability to detect,
climate changes that
could occur in the
several studies show
that the world could
face due to the
increase in global
Concerning difference between adaptation and mitigation, the IPCC uses the following
Mitigation: An anthropogenic Adaptation:
Adjustment in natural
intervention to reduce the sources or human systems in
or enhance the sinks of greenhouse actual or expected effects,
gases (IPCC, 2001a). which moderates harm or
In Buenos Aires,
What can we do
What can we do?
1- To improve the situation….
2- Speaking about cleaner fuels…..
3- Reducing noise pollution…..
4- Transport Management…..
5- Urban management…..
6- AIR QUALITY AND SOUND…..
7- Insulation for energy
8- Change of
culture and behavior…..
1- To improve the
Make an inventory and constant
monitoring of emission sources
Promote citizen participation
in the regulation and control
of emission sources
for emission control.
Create a coherent policy for the
Reduce the value of
patents for vehicles with
Implement the gradual
conversion to clean
Reducing noise pollution
and reduction of
insulation of places
AIR QUALITY AND SOUND
clean air and
Promote the train and
Streamline the flow of vehicular
transport to reduce emissions and
Discourage the use of private car in
To improve traffic conditions for
pedestrians and cyclists
The green initiative involving the creation of new
green spaces to mitigate the effect of emissions.
The adequacy of the Code of Urban Planning at
the Environmental Urban Plan.
The decentralization of urban activities.
The appropriate location of the different
uses of polluting activities.
Insulation and energy
efficiencyFit draught excluders
Update your boiler
Insulate your roof
Insulate your cavity walls
Install double glazing
Use on energy efficient light
Insulate your floor
Do not leave the lights on in the rooms
would be on them
Use efficient light bulbs in points many hours
Reduces bath times.
Use the washing machine and dishwasher
when fully loaded.
Dry Sun clothes instead of tumble.
Buy products made from paper certified
forest management sustainable and PEFC or
FSC, as they ensure a net sink carbon.
Turns on and off appliance that are not in use
Educate the public in environmental issues
through formal and informal education
Demonstrate political will by the State to
induce changes in behavior
Apply exemplary penalties on those who do
not meet standards
wind, solar water
heating, solar pvc,
air source, biomass,
It is important to be aware that
climate change is a global problem
that affects us all and accept our
shared responsibility, as most
decisions we make in our daily lives
will help to significantly reduce GHG
emissions the atmosphere.
Turn down the heat material