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COMMUNITY HEALTH NURSING: AN OVERVIEWWhat is a community? § a group of people with common characteristics or interests living together within a territory or geographical boundary § place where people under usual conditions are found
What is health? § Health-illness continuum § High-level wellness § Agent-host-environment § Health belief § Evolutionary-based § Health promotion § WHO definition
§ What is community health? § part of paramedical and medical intervention/ approach which is concerned on the health of the whole population § aims:1. health promotion2. disease prevention3. management of factors affecting health
§ What is nursing?- assisting sick individuals to become healthy and healthy individuals achieve optimum wellness
Public Health Nursing: the term used before for Community Health NursingAccording to Dr. C.E. Winslow, Public Health is a science & art of 3 P’s§ Prevention of Disease§ Prolonging life§ Promotion of health and efficiency through organized community effort
§ What is Community Health Nursing? “The utilization of the nursing process in the different levels of clientele-individuals, families, population groups and communities, concerned with the promotion of health, prevention of disease and disability and rehabilitation.” - Maglaya, et al
COMMUNITY HEALTH NURSING (CHN):§ a specialized field of nursing practice§ a science of Public Health combined with Public Health Nursing Skills and Social Assistance with the goal of raising the level of health of the citizenry, to raise optimum level of functioning of the citizenry (Characteristic of CHN)
BASIC PRINCIPLES OF CHNü The community is the patient in CHN, the family is the unit of care and there are four levels of clientele: individual, family, population group (those who share common characteristics, developmental stages and common exposure to health problems – e.g. children, elderly), and the community.ü In CHN, the client is considered as an ACTIVE partner NOT PASSIVE recipient of care
BASIC PRINCIPLES OF CHNü CHN practice is affected by developments in health technology, in particular, changes in society, in generalü The goal of CHN is achieved through multi-sectoral effortsü CHN is a part of health care system and the larger human services system.
ROLES OF THE PUBLIC HEALTH NURSEClinician, who is a health care provider, taking care of the sick people at home or in the RHUHealth Educator, who aims towards health promotion and illness prevention through dissemination of correct information; educating peopleFacilitator, who establishes multi-sectoral linkages by referral systemSupervisor, who monitors and supervises the performance of midwives
TARGET POPULATION (IFC) ARE:1. I ndividual2. F amily3. C ommunity
3 Elements considered in CHN:v Science of Public Health (core foundation in CHN),v Public Health Nursing Skills andv Social Assistance Functions
OBJECTIVES OF PUBLIC HEALTH: CODESC ontrol of Communicable DiseasesO rganization of Medical and Nursing ServicesD evelopment of Social MachineriesE ducation of IFC on personal Hygiene→ Health Education is the essential task of every health workerS anitation of the environment
3 ELEMENTS IN HEALTH EDUCATION: IEC§ I nformation: to share ideas to keep population group knowledgeable and aware§ E ducation: change within the individual 3 Key Elements of Education: K nowledge A ttitude S kills
3 ELEMENTS IN HEALTH EDUCATION: IEC§ C ommunication: interaction involving 2 or more persons or agencies 3 Elements of Communication: Message Sender Receiver
PUBLIC HEALTH WORKERS (PHW)PHW’s: are members of the health team who are professionals namely§ Medical Officer (MO)-Physician§ Public Health Nurse (PHN)-Registered Nurse§ Rural Health Midwife (RHM)-Registered Midwife-§ Dentist§ Nutritionist§ Medical Technologist§ Pharmacist§ Rural Sanitary Inspector (RSI)-must be a sanitary engineer
5 MAJOR FUNCTIONS:1. Ensure equal access to basic health services2. Ensure formulation of national policies for proper division of labor and proper coordination of operations among the government agency jurisdictions3. Ensure a minimum level of implementation nationwide of services regarded as public health goods4. Plan and establish arrangements for the public health systems to achieve economies of scale5. Maintain a medium of regulations and standards to protect consumers and guide providers
BASIC HEALTH SERVICES UNDER OPHS OF DOHE ducation regarding HealthL ocal Endemic DiseasesE xpanded Program on ImmunizationM aternal & Child Health ServicesE ssential drugs and Herbal plantsN utritional Health Services (PD 491): Creation of Nutrition Council of the Phils.T reatment of Communicable & Non communicable DiseasesS anitation of the environment (PD 856): Sanitary Code of the PhilippinesD ental Health PromotionA ccess to and use of hospitals as Centers of WellnessM ental Health Promotion
VISION BY 2030 (DREAM OF DOH)A Global Leader for attaining better health outcomes, competitive and responsive health care systems, and equitable health financing
MISSION To guarantee EQUITABLE, SUSTAINABLE and QUALITY health for all Filipinos, especially the poor and to lead the quest for excellence in health
Principles to attain the vision of DOH§ Equity: equal health services for all-no discrimination§ Quality: DOH is after the quality of service not the quantity Philosophy of DOH: “Quality is above quantity”§ Accessibility: DOH utilize strategies for delivery of health services
HEALTH CARE DELIVERY SYSTEM“the totality of all policies, facilities, equipment, products, human resources and services which address the health needs, problems and concerns of the people. It is large, complex, multi-level and multi-disciplinary.”
THREE STRATEGIES IN DELIVERING HEALTH SERVICES (ELEMENTS)ü Creation of Restructured Health Care Delivery System (RHCDS) regulated by PD 568 (1976)ü Management Information Systems regulated by R.A. 3753: Vital Health Statistics Lawü Primary Health Care (PHC) regulated by LOI 949 (1984): Legalization of Implementation of PHC in the Philippines
CREATION OF RHCDSRHO (National Health Agency) or existing national agencies like PGH or specialized agencies like Heart Center for Asia, NKIMHO & PHO (Municipal/Provincial Health Office) BHS & RHU (Barangay Health Station/Rural Health Unit)
3 LEVELS OF HEALTH CARE1. Primary-prevention of illness or promotion of health2. Secondary-curative3. Tertiary-rehabilitative
According to Increasing Complexity of According to the Type of Service the Services ProvidedType Service Type Example Health Promotion, Preventive Care, Health Promotion and Information Dissemination Continuing Care for common illness PreventionPrimary health problems, attention to psychological and social care, referrals Surgery, Medical services by Diagnosis and Treatment ScreeningSecondary Specialists Advanced, specialized, diagnostic,Tertiary therapeutic & rehabilitative care Rehabilitation PT/OT
LEVELS OF PREVENTION PRIMARY LEVEL SECONDARY LEVEL TERTIARY LEVEL Health Promotion and Illness Prevention of Complications thru Early Prevention of Disability, etc. Prevention Dx and TxProvided at – ! When hospitalization is deemed ! When highly-specialized medical! Health care/RHU necessary and referral is made to care is necessary! Brgy. Health Stations emergency (now district), ! referrals are made to hospitals and!Main Health Center provincial or regional or private medical center such as PGH,!Community Hospital and Health hospitals PHC, POC, National Center for Center Mental Health, and other gov’t!Private and Semi-private private hospitals at the municipal agencies level
Referral System in Levels of the Health Care:ü Barangay Health Station (BHS) is under the management of Rural Health Midwife (RHM)ü Rural Health Unit (RHU) is under the management or supervision of PHNü Public Health Nurse (PHN) caters to 1:10,000 population, acts as managers in the implementation of the policies and activities of RHU, directly under the supervision of MHO (who acts as administrator)
CHARACTERISTICS OF PHCAcceptableAccessibleAffordableAvailableSustainableAttainable
UTILIZES APPROPRIATE TECHNOLOGIES USED BY PHC: ACCEFSA ffordable, accessible, acceptable, availableC ost wise=economical in natureC omplex procedures which provide a simple outcomeE ffectiveF easibility of use=possibility of use at all timesS cope of technology is safe & secure
SENTRONG SIGLA MOVEMENT (SSM)was established by DOH with LGUs having a logo of a Sun with 8 Rays and composed of 4 Pillars:1. Health Promotion2. Granted Facilities3. Technical Assistance4. Awards: Cash, plaque, certificate
4 CONTRIBUTIONS OF PHC TO DOH &ECONOMY: § Training of Health Workers § Creation of Botika sa Baryo & Botika sa Health Center § Herbal Plants § Oresol
A. TRAINING OF HEALTH WORKERS3 Levels of Training:Grassroot/Village § Includes Barangay Health Volunteers (BHV) and Barangay Health Workers (BHW) § Non professionals, didn’t undergo formal training, receive no salary but are given incentive in the form of honorarium from the local government since 1993Intermediate - these are professionals including the 8 members of the PHWsFirst Line Personnel - the specialist
B. CREATION OF “BOTIKA SA BARYO & BOTIKA SA HEALTH CENTER”RA 6675: Generics Act of 1988: Implementing“Oplan Walang Reseta Program”-solution to the absence of a medical officer who prescribed the medicines so PHN are given the responsibility to prescribe generic medicines and“Walong Wastong Gamot Program”- available generics in “Botika sa Baryo” & Health Center§ Father of Generics Act: Dr. Alfredo Bengzon
8 COMMONLY AVAILABLE GENERICS (CARIPPON)Co-Trimoxazole: § it’s a combination of 2 generics of drugs which is antibacterial Trimethoprim(TMP) § Has a bacteriostatic action that stops/inhibits multiplication of bacteria § For GUT, GIT & URTI (TMP combined with SMX) Sulfamethoxazole (SMX) § Has bactericidal action that kills bacteria § For GUT, GIT, URTI & Skin Infections
8 COMMONLY AVAILABLE GENERICS (CARIPPON)Amoxicillin/Ampicillin§ An antibacterial drug that comes from the Penicillin family§ Effect is generally bacteriostatic (when source of infection is bacterial)§ These 2 drugs provide the least sensitivity reaction (rashes & GI) and the adverse effect of other antibiotics is anaphylactic shock
8 COMMONLY AVAILABLE GENERICS (CARIPPON)TB DRUGS:Rifampicin (RIF)Isoniazid (INH)Pyrazinamide (PZA)
8 COMMONLY AVAILABLE GENERICS (CARIPPON)ParacetamolHas an analgesic & anti-pyretic effectAcetyl Salicylic Acid (ASA) or Aspirin is never kept in the “Botika” because of its effects: § Anticoagulant-highly dangerous to Dengue patients that’s why it’s not available in “Botika” & Health Center
8 COMMONLY AVAILABLE GENERICS (CARIPPON)Oresol:a management for diarrhea to prevent dehydration under the Control of Diarrheal Diseases (CDD) Program
8 COMMONLY AVAILABLE GENERICS (CARIPPON)Nifedipine: § An anti-hypertensive drug § According to DOH, 16% of population belonging to 25 years old & above in the community are hypertensive
C. HERBAL PLANTSRA 8423: Alternative Traditional Medicine Lawa program where patient may opt to use herbal plants especially for drugs that are not available in dosage form or patients has no financial means to buy the drugTraditional Medicine:§ Use of herbal plants
10 ADVOCATED HERBAL PLANTS BY DOH: LUBBY SANTAAmpalaya Mamordica Type II Leaves Decoction charantia Diabetes (NIDDM)
POLICIES TO ABIDE:Know indicationsKnow parts of plants with therapeutic value: roots, fruits, leavesKnow official procedure/preparation
Procedures/Preparations: DecoctionØ Gather leaves & wash thoroughly, place in a container the washed leaves & add waterØ Let it boil without cover to vaporize/steam to release toxic substance & undesirable tasteØ Use extracts for washing
PROCEDURES/PREPARATIONS: PoulticeØ Done by pounding or chewing leaves used by herbolaryoØ Example: Akapulko leaves-when pounded, it releases extracts coming out from the leaves contains enzyme (serves as anti-inflammatory) then apply on affected skin or spewed it over skinØ For treatment of skin diseases
PROCEDURES/PREPARATIONS:InfusionTo prepare a tea (use lipton bag), keep standingfor 15 minutes in a cup of warm water where abrown solution is collected, pectin which servesas an adsorbent and astringent
PROCEDURES/PREPARATIONS: Juice/SyrupTo prepare a papaya juice, use ripe papaya &mechanically mashed then put inside a blender& add waterTo produce it into a syrup, add sugar then heat todissolve sugar & mix it
PROCEDURES/PREPARATIONS:Cream/OintmentStart with poultice (pound leaves) to turn it semi-solidAdd flour to keep preparation pasty & make it adhere to skinlesionsTo make it into an ointment: add oil (mineral, baby or any oil-serves as moisturizer) to the prepared cream to keep itlubricated while being massage on the affected area
D. ORESOLGlucose 20 grams 1° Significance: For re-absorption of Na Facilitates assimilation of Na 2° Significance: Provides heat & energySodium Chloride/NaCl 3.5 grams For retention of water/fluidSodium 2.5 grams Buffer content of solutionBicarbonate/NaHCO3 Neutralizer content of solutionPotassium Chloride/KCl 1.5 grams Stimulates smooth muscle contractility especially the heart & GIT
PREPARATION OF PROPER HOMEMADE ORESOLA volume or one liter homemade oresol Smaller volume or a glass homemade oresolWater 1000 ml. or 1 liter 250 ml.Sugar 8 teaspoon 2 teaspoonSalt 1 teaspoon ! teaspoon or a pinch of salt=10-12 granules of rock salt: iodized salt=tips of thumb & index finger are penetrated with salt
UNIVERSAL HEALTH CARE (UHC), ALSO REFERRED TO AS KALUSUGAN PANGKALAHATAN (KP)is the “provision to every Filipino of the highest possible quality of health care that is accessible, efficient, equitably distributed, adequately funded, fairly financed, and appropriately used by an informed and empowered public”
UNIVERSAL HEALTH CARE (UHC), ALSO REFERRED TO AS KALUSUGAN PANGKALAHATAN (KPThe Aquino administration puts it as the availability and accessibility of health services and necessities for all Filipinos.It is a government mandate aiming to ensure that every Filipino shall receive affordable and quality health benefits.This involves providing adequate resources – health human resources, health facilities, and health financing.
UHC’S THREE THRUSTS1) Financial risk protection through expansion in enrollment and benefit delivery of the National Health Insurance Program (NHIP);2) 2) Improved access to quality hospitals and health care facilities; and3) 3) Attainment of health-related Millennium Development Goals (MDGs).
FINANCIAL RISK PROTECTIONProtection from the financial impacts of health care is attained by making any Filipino eligible to enroll, to know their entitlements and responsibilities, to avail of health services, and to be reimbursed by PhilHealth with regard to health care expenditures.
MPROVED ACCESS TO QUALITY HOSPITALS AND HEALTH CARE FACILITIESImproved access to quality hospitals and health facilities shall be achieved in a number of creative approaches. First, the quality of government-owned and operated hospitals and health facilities is to be upgraded to accommodate larger capacity, to attend to all types of emergencies, and to handle non- communicable diseases.
The Health Facility Enhancement Program (HFEP) shall provide funds to improve facility preparedness for trauma and other emergencies. The aim of HFEP was to upgrade 20% of DOH- retained hospitals, 46% of provincial hospitals, 46% of district hospitals, and 51% of rural health units(RHUs) by end of 2011.
ATTAINMENT OF HEALTH-RELATED MDGSFurther efforts and additional resources are to be applied on public health programs to reduce maternal and child mortality, morbidity and mortality from Tuberculosis and Malaria, and incidence of HIV/AIDS. Localities shall be prepared for the emerging disease trends, as well as the prevention and control of non- communicable diseases.The organization of Community Health Teams (CHTs) in each priority population area is one way to achieve health-related MDGs. CHTs are groups of volunteers, who will assist families with their health needs, provide health information, and
ATTAINMENT OF HEALTH-RELATED MDGSRNheals nurses will be trained to become trainers and supervisors to coordinate with community-level workers and CHTs. By the end of 2011, it is targeted that there will be 20,000 CHTs and 10,000 RNheals.Another effort will be the provision of necessary services using the life cycle approach. These services include family planning, ante-natal care, delivery in health facilities, newborn care, and the Garantisadong Pambata package.Better coordination among government agencies, such as DOH, DepEd, DSWD, and DILG, would also be essential for the achievement of these MDGs.
GOAL 1: ERADICATE EXTREME POVERTY AND HUNGERTarget : Halve, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of people whose income is less than one dollar a dayTarget : Halve, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of people who suffer from hunger
GOAL 2: ACHIEVE UNIVERSAL PRIMARYEDUCATIONTarget : Ensure that, by 2015, children everywhere, boys and girls alike, will be able to complete a full course of primary schooling
GOAL 3: PROMOTE GENDER EQUALITY AND EMPOWER WOMENTarget : Eliminate gender disparity in primary and secondary education preferably by 2005 and to all levels of education no later than 2015
GOAL 4: REDUCE CHILD MORTALITYTarget : Reduce by two-thirds, between 1990 and 2015, the under-five mortality rate
GOAL 5: IMPROVE MATERNAL HEALTHTarget : Reduce by three-quarters, between 1990 and 2015, the maternal mortality ratio
GOAL 6: COMBAT HIV/AIDS, MALARIA AND OTHER DISEASESTarget : Have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the spread of HIV/AIDSTarget : Have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the incidence of malaria and other major diseases
GOAL 7: ENSURE ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITYTarget : Integrate the principles of sustainable development into country policies and programmes and reverse the loss of environmental resourcesTarget : Halve, by 2015, the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking waterTarget: By 2020, to have achieved a significant improvement in the lives of at least 100 million slum dwellers
GOAL 8: DEVELOP A GLOBAL PARTNERSHIP FOR DEVELOPMENTTarget : Develop further an open, rule-based, predictable, non- discriminatory trading and financial systemTarget: Address the special needs of the least developed countriesTarget: Address the special needs of landlocked countries and small island developing StatesTarget: Deal comprehensively with the debt problems of developing countries through national and international measures in order to make debt sustainable in the long term
FIELD HEALTH SERVICE INFORMATION SYSTEM (FHSIS)• It is a network of information• It is intended to address the short term needs of DOH and LGU staff withmanagerial or supervisory functions in facilities and program areas.• It monitors health service delivery nationwide.
OBJECTIVES OF FHSISTo provide summary data on health service delivery and selected program accomplishment indicators at the barangay, municipality/ city, and district, provincial, regional and national levels.To provide data which when combined with data from other sources, can be used for program monitoring and evaluation purposes.To provide a standardized, facility-level data base that can be accessed for more in-depth studies.To minimize the recording and reporting burden at the service delivery level in order to allow more time for patient care and promote activities.
IMPORTANCE OF FHSIS• Helps local government determine public health priorities.• Basis for monitoring and evaluating health program implementation.• Basis for planning, budgeting, logistics and decision making at alllevels.• Source of data to detect unusual occurrence of a disease.• Needed to monitor health status of the community.• Helps midwives in following up clients.• Documentation of RHM/PHN day to day activities.
COMPONENTS OF FHSIS1. Individual Treatment Record (ITR)2. Target Client List (TCL)3. Summary Table4. The Monthly Consolidation Table (MCT)
INDIVIDUAL TREATMENT RECORD (ITR)The fundamental building block or foundation of the Field Health Service Information System is the INDIVIDUAL TREATMENT RECORD.This is a document, form or piece of paper upon which is recorded the date, name, address of patient, presenting symptoms or complaint of the patient on consultation and the diagnosis (if available), treatment and date of treatment.
TARGET CLIENT LIST (TCL)The Target Client Lists constitute the second “building block” of the FHSIS and are intended to serve several purposesFirst is to plan and carry out patient care and service delivery. Such lists will be of considerable value to midwives/nurses in monitoring service delivery to clients in general and in particular to groups of patients identified as “targets” or “eligibles” for one or another program of the Department
TARGET CLIENT LIST (TCL)The second purpose of Target Client Lists is to facilitate the monitoring and supervision of service delivery activities.The third purpose is to report services delivered.The fourth purpose of the Target Client Lists is to provide a clinic-level data base which can be accessed for further studies
TARGET CLIENT LISTS TO BE MAINTAINED IN THE FHSIS1. Target Client List for Prenatal Care2. Target Client List for Post-Partum Care3. Target Client List of Under 1 Year Old Children4. Target Client List for Family Planning5. Target Client List for Sick Children6. NTP TB Register7. National Leprosy Control Program Form 2-Central Registration Form
SUMMARY TABLEThe Summary Tables is a form with 12-month columns retained at the facility (BHS) where the midwife records monthly all relevant data. The Summary Table is composed of:(1) Health Program Accomplishment this can serve as proof of accomplishments to show LGU officials whenever they visit the facility.(2) Morbidity Diseases the source of ten leading causes of morbidity for the municipality/city. This summary table will help the nurse and MHO to get the monthly trend of diseases.
THE MONTHLY CONSOLIDATION TABLE (MCT)ü The Consolidation Table is an essential form in the FHSIS where the nurse at the RHU records the reported data per indicator by each BHS or midwife.ü This is the source document of the nurse for the Quarterly Form.ü The Consolidation Table shall serve as the Output Table of the RHU as it already contains listing of BHS per indicator.
FHSIS REPORTINGThese are summary data that are transmitted or submitted on a monthly, quarterly and on annual basis to higher level. The source of data for this component is dependent on the records.
THE MONTHLY FORMProgram Report (M1)The Monthly Form contains selected indicators categorized as maternal care, child care, family planning and disease control.Morbidity Report (M2)The Monthly Morbidity Disease Report contains a list of all diseases by age and sex. The Midwife uses the form for the monthly consolidation report of Morbidity Diseases and is submitted to the PHN for quarterly consolidation.
THE QUARTERLY FORMProgram Report (Q1)The Quarterly Form is the municipality/city health report and contains the three-month total of indicators categorized as maternal care, family planning, child care, dental health and disease controlMorbidity Report (Q2)The PHN uses the form for the Quarterly Consolidation Report of Morbidity Diseases to consolidate the Monthly Morbidity Diseases taken from the Summary Table.
THE ANNUAL FORMS (A-BHS, A1, A2 & A3)ABHS Form is the report of midwife which contains data on demographic,environmental and natality.The report of nurse at the RHU/MHC are the Annual Form 1 which is the report on vital statistics: demographic, environmental, natality and mortality.Annual Form 2 is the report that lists all diseases and their occurrence in the municipality/city. The report is broken down by age and sex.Annual Form 3 is the report of all deaths occurred in the municipality/city. Thereport is also broken down by age and sex.
FLOW OF REPORTOFFICE PERSON RECORDING FORMS FREQUENCY SCHEDULE OF TOOLS SUBMISIONBHS Midwife - ITR Monthly Form Monthly Every 2nd week of the - TCL (M1 & M2) succeeding month - ST A-BHS Form Annually Every 2nd week of JanuaryRHU PHN - ST Quarterly Quarterly Every 3rd week of the 1st - MCT Form month of succeeding (Q1 & Q2) quarter Annual Forms Every 3rd week of - A1 January - A2 - A3
Fertility§ Crude Birth Rate (CBR) - Overall total reported birthsMorbidity-Illnesses affecting the population group§ Incidence Rate (IR)-reported new cases affecting the population group§ Prevalence Rate (PR)-determine sum total of new + old cases of diseases per percent population
Mortality-Reports causes of deaths§ Crude Death Rate (CDR)-overall total reported death§ Maternal Mortality Rate (MMR)-maternal deaths due to maternal causes§ Infant Mortality Rate (IMR)-# of infant deaths (0-12 months) or less than 1 year old§ Neonatal Mortality Rate (NMR)-# of deaths among neonates (newborn 0-28 days, < 1 month)§ Swaroops Index (SI)-deaths among individual in the age group of 50 and above
CRUDE BIRTH RATE (CBR)CBR= Overall total reported births x 1000 -------------------------------------------- Population
INCIDENCE RATE (IR)IR= new cases of disease x 100 ------------------------------------ Population
PREVALENCE RATE (PR):PR= new cases + old cases x 100 -------------------------------------- Population
CRUDE DEATH RATE (CDR)CDR = overall total deaths x 1000 ---------------------------------- Population
MATERNAL MORTALITY RATE (MMR)MMR= # of maternal deaths x 1000 ---------------------------------- RLB
INFANT MORTALITY RATE (IMR)IMR = # of infant deaths x 1000 --------------------------------- RLB
NEONATAL MORTALITY RATE (NMR)NMR = # of neonatal deaths x 1000 --------------------------------------- RLB
SWAROOP’S INDEX (SI)SI= # of deaths (individual >50 years old) x 100 ------------------------------------------------------------ Total Deaths
FAMILY HEALTH NURSING PROCESSa systematic approach of solving an existing problem/meeting the needs of familyR apportA ssessmentP lanningI nterventionE valuation
I. RAPPORTü Trust buildingü Knowing your clientü Adjusting to the situation and environmentü RESPECT
II. ASSESSMENTData Gathering: tools or instruments used duringsurvey:ü Interviewü Observationü Questionnaires-mostly patronized & used in CHNü Records & Reports availableConsolidation or Collation: collecting back the questionnaires, tabulate and summarize
Validation: uses statistical approachesStatistical Approaches:1. Central Tendencies: 3 M’sMean=averageMedian=range (Highest – Lowest Score)Mode=frequency of occurrence of a variable, used if there’s too many variable occur
2. Standard Deviation: used if there are too many variables available to be treated which is seldom used in CHN SD=√ ∑ (x-x) ∑=summation of n-1 x=variables available x=mean (given special attention) n=# of existing variables
3. Percentile (%) Method:most commonly used in CHN by adding all cores then multiply by 100
Presentation of Data Sales Series1. Table/Chart Categ 1 1st Qtr Categ Series2. Graph: Categ 2 2nd Qtr CategPie Series 0 20 3 6Bar-2 variables only 4 Series 2 1Line 0 Series Catego Catego Catego Catego 2Polygon-connecting the resultsHistograph-2 or more variables & appear adjacent to each other
TYPOLOGY OF NURSING PROBLEMSA. First Level Assessment: to determine problems of familySources of Problems using IDBFamily: use of Initial Data Base (IDB)Nature: Health Deficit (HD), Health Threat (HT), Foreseeable Crisis (FC)
USE OF INITIAL DATA BASE (IDB): 1. Family Chart Structure:Nuclear -Father, mother, childrenExtended (3rd generation)-Relatives staying with the familyMulti-generational extended-“apo sa tuhod” or “apo sa talampakan”Dyad -Husband & wife only (childless couple)Blended -widow married another widow & have childrenGay -Same sex living togetherMatriarchal -Mother is the decision makerPatriarchal -Father is the decision makerCommunal -different families forming a community
2. Socio-economic: poverty level, educationalattainment & nature of occupation of membersof the family (sources of income)3. Socio-cultural: different nature of religion4. Home environment: assessment according toES, treatment of garbage, preparation of food,availability of toilet, water & food sanitation,sources of diseases
4. Medical history: history of certain disease, family member with disease 5. Resources available in community for use by the family:5 Generalized M’s in resources available in community: § Man/Manpower § Money § Machine § Materials § Methods
DEFINE THE PROBLEM AFTER IDENTIFYING ITACCORDING TO NATUREHealth Deficit (HD)- if identified problem is an abnormality, illness or disease, there’s a gap/difference between normal status (ideal, desirable, expected) & actual status (the outcome/result/problem encountered on that actual day)
Health Threat (HT)-any condition or situation which will be conducive to health alteration, health interference & health disturbance.Foreseeable Crisis (FC)-stress points, anything which is anticipated/ expected to become a problem
Jobless FatherSuffering from TB thWife is pregnant for the 8 time2 y/o youngest child lacks immunization rd9 y/o eldest child is 3 degreemalnourishedPoor environmental sanitation
III. PLANNING Four (4) Standard Steps:Prioritization -start if there are multiple identified problemsFormulation of objectives -planning a procedure will start here if there is only one problemDeveloping strategies of actionFormulation of evaluation tools for the identified strategy developed
CRITERIA IN IDENTIFYING THE PROBLEMCriteria Score WeightI. Nature: assess by PHW Health deficit (HD) 3 1 Health threat (HT) 2 Foreseeable Crisis (FC) 1II. Modifiability Easily 2 2 Intermediate (moderate) 1 Not modifiable 0III. Preventive Potential Highly 3 1 Moderate 2 Low 1IV. Salience of the Problem Problem needing urgent 2 1 attention Problem not needing 1 urgent attention Not a felt problem 0
§ Steps:a. Decide on a scoreb. Score x weight ----------------- Highest Scoreb. Get the sum total of all the scores§ Interpretation:Perfect score=5, if score nearing 5 then prioritize the problemCriteria 1, 2 & 3 has to be assessed objectively by the health workerCriteria 4 has to be assessed by the perception of the family
IV. INTERVENTIONü Is the capacity to provide managementü Is the professional phase of nursing processü Is the time when the PHN executes the standard function of an RNü Three (3) Standard Functions of RN: § Dependent-giving of medicines § Independent-monitor, assess, provide, educate § Interdependent-referrals
V. EVALUATIONThree (3) Things to be evaluated: SPO1. Structure of program & activity -what articles, equipments, supplies are utilized2. Process utilized -steps used3. Outcome of activity -results can be:§ Desirable -to be implemented, advocated, strengthen§ Undesirable -to be avoidedTwo (2) Aspects to be evaluated in the Outcome:§ Quality -characteristic or kind of outcome; no numerical value, not measurable§ Quantity -from the word “quantum”, with numerical value, measurable
OBJECTIVES OF COPARPatterns to be followed:1. Organize people2. Mobilize people3. Work with people4. Educate peopleü Knowledgeü Attitudeü Skills
PHASES OF COPAR1. Preparatory2. Organizing3. Mobilizing4. Educating5. Collaborating6. Phase Out
1. PREPARATORY PHASEA. Area of Selection § It should be DOPE Community: Depressed, Oppressed, Poor & Exploited, a new criteria for community organization § “Old Criteria”→ it must be a virgin community=meaning no agency has gone there. § This is a dangerous situation that’s why RA 7305: Magna Carta for Public Workers was provided-a PHN is to receive a hazard pay of 20-25% of monthly salary
1. PREPARATORY PHASEB. Entry: the 1st thing to do upon entering the community is to have a courtesy call with the Barangay
1. PREPARATORY PHASEC. Integration/Immersion § Immersion is imbibing the life situation/ condition of the community by living, eating & sleeping with the family to be able to understand their situation § It requires 2 Qualities of PHN: § Empathy § Sympathy (Integration)
1. PREPARATORY PHASED. Community Study: Diagnosis of Community-COPAR § Makes use of the Nursing Process/Problem Solving Approach § Prioritized which among the problems identified is to be attended 1st like in nature, magnitude, modifiability, preventive potential, salience
PRIORITIZATION OF COMMUNITY PROBLEMSNATUREHealth Status (HS) 3Health Resource(s) 2Health Related 1Indicators of Health Status/Condition:Fertility: ↑ CBR=community is overpopulated=HSMorbidity: IR (new cases) & PR (old cases)=HSMortality: Deaths like children dying of pneumonia=HS
PRIORITIZATION OF COMMUNITY PROBLEMSNATUREHealth Status (HS) 3Health Resource(s) 2Health Related 1Health Resource(s):5 M’s-Manpower/Man, money, machinery, material & methods(+) available facilities-Hospital/Clinic, mode of transportation, market, school & movie houses for recreation
PRIORITIZATION OF COMMUNITY PROBLEMS NATURE Health Status (HS) 3 Health Resource(s) 2 Health Related 1Health Related: Categories according to 5 Aspects of Man=PEMSSP hysical, P hysiological, P sychologicalE motionalM entalS ocialS piritual
MAGNITUDE OF THE PROBLEM: % of population affected by the identifiedproblem75-100% 450-74 % 325-49 % 2<25 % of the population 1MODIFIABILITYEasily 3Intermediate 2Low 1Not modifiable 0PREVENTIVE POTENTIALHighly 3Moderate 2Low 1SALIENCE
2. ORGANIZING PHASEChoosing Potential Community LeadersCore Group FormationCommunity Assembly: Community Organizing Participatory Action Research (COPAR) § Attend the assembly of the family/families § Families in the community should be represented, any family members can represent his/her family as long as he/ she is a RESPONSIBLE (one who also can comprehend) member of that family. § Barangay Captain/Chairman need not necessary be the leader. He can recommend
3. MOBILIZATION PHASEMobilization- let the members of the community do the work. PHN should only SUPERVISE
4. HEALTH EDUCATIONü Adjust on the level of understanding of the communityü Return demonstration is the best way of teachingü Focus on the KSAü Respect of the custom and tradition
EPIDEMIOLOGYis the pattern of occurrences & distribution of diseases, defects & deaths 2 Population in DistributionPatterns Susceptible Immune (at risk to develop, acquire (those that did not or experience the disease) experience the disease, usually individuals develop resistance against the disease)Epidemic 80% (more than 50%) 20%Endemic 50% 50%Sporadic 20% 80%Pandemic ----- -----
EPIDEMIC§ Greater than 50% of populations are susceptible or less immune individual§ Greater % of the population is affected by the occurring diseaseExample: Health worker reports that Community Lanting has anepidemic of measles affecting children less than 7 years oldTotal susceptible population: 3000Children affected by measles: 17501750
ENDEMICThe disease occurs regularly, habitually, constantly affecting the population group2 Local Endemic Diseases: where causative agent is available on those places§ Schistosomiasis: Samar, Leyte, Mindoro, Davao§ Malaria: Palawan & Mindanao-reasons why it’s prevalent § Forested areas § Surrounded by bodies of water
SPORADIC§ The pattern of occurrence is on & off where: On=available causative agent Off=no available causative agent§ It’s intermittent (unpredictable) in occurrence§ Disease occurs only if there’s a susceptible host like in rabies
PANDEMICWorldwide, international, universal, global in occurrence like in AIDS, Hepatitis B, PTB, measles, mumps, diphtheria, pneumonia§ SARS is categorized by WHO as an OUTBREAK only because out of 191 nations, 33 countries are reported to have it.
HOME VISITü Is a PROFESSIONAL contact between PHN & the familyü The services provided is an extension of the Health Service Agency (Health Center)
OBJECTIVES OF HOME VISIT § Assessment § Nursing Care § Treatment § Health Education § Referral (if care fails)
PRIORITIES (IN THE CARE): TO PREVENT CROSS CONTAMINATION1. Newborn2. Post partum3. Pregnant mothers4. Morbid casesThe families need the assistance of the health center that’s why home visit was done to the familyThe person who makes the home visit is rendering services on behalf of the health center
PHASES OF HOME VISIT:1. Planningü Starts at the health centerü Makes a study on the status of the familyü Statement of the problemü Formation of objective2. Socialization –first activity is to establish rapport & to gain the trust of the family
PHASES OF HOME VISIT:3. Activityü Intervention/Professional Phaseü Opportunity to provide or extend health servicesü Standard Role of the Nurse: Independent, Dependent and Interdependentü To be effective, come in complete uniform (also bring a long umbrella with pointed end which serve as protection)4. Summarization - ability to put into record & report (orally) about the outcome of the activity
PUBLIC HEALTH BAG:Indispensable tool that should be organize to save time & effort and to prevent cross infection & contamination
GUIDING PRINCIPLES IN THE USE OF PUBLIC HEALTH BAG:§ Content -should be prepared by the one who will make home visit Note: BP Apparatus is kept separately from PHN bag§ Cleaning ü The inner part of the bag should be clean & sterile ü Should be done every after home visit ü Never endorse the bag
GUIDING PRINCIPLES IN THE USE OF PUBLICHEALTH BAG: § Contamination § The less one opens the bag, the lesser chance of contamination § In general, the bag is open 3x: ü Putting out materials for hand washing ü Putting out materials used for nursing care ü Returning all what have been used
GUIDING PRINCIPLES IN THE USE OF PUBLICHEALTH BAG:Care of Communicable Case(s)- should be disinfected with the use of 70% isopropyl alcohol or Lysol which should be done at the health center and not at home
POLICIES FOR SCHISTOSOMIASIS CONTROLPROGRAM (SCP): CHESC ase FindingH ealth EducationE nvironmental SanitationS nail Eradication
CASE FINDING:6 Aspects or Thing to Know§ Disease: Schistosomiasis§ Other name: Bilhariasis or Snail Fever§ Causative agent: Schistosoma-a blood fluke (parasite) 3 Types of Species: ü Schistosoma japonicum-endemic in the Philippines & affecting Indonesia, China, Japan, Korea Vector: Oncomelania quadrasi ü Schistosoma mansoni ü Schistosoma haematobium
§ Laboratory Procedures to rule out Schistosomiasis: Blood Examination: ↑ eosinophil level indicates parasitism Fecalysis: Kato Katz (plain stool exam that uses a special apparatus resembling a feeding bottle sterilizer) Procedure: ü Collect specimen ü Have the test tube undergo centrifugation for 20 minutes ü Get specimen from precipitate & swab it on glass slide ü Observe it on microscope
§ Signs & Symptomsü CNS: High grade fever→ cerebral convulsionü GIT: Nausea & vomiting, Diarrhea→ Chronic dysentery (prolonged diarrhea of more than 2 weeks & consistency is mucoid & bloody (with streaks of blood)ü Liver: Presence of infection manifested by jaundice & hepatomegalyü Spleen: Infection of spleen→ inflammation→ enlargement of organ (Splenomegaly)→ abdominal distension→ abdominal pain on the right upper quadrantü Blood: Anemia & weakness
§ Treatment: Drug of Choice-Praziquantel (Biltricide) 60 mg/KBW/day ü Example: If patient is 50 kg, 50 kg x 60 mg/KBW/day=3000 mg/day ü Initial treatment: 1st 2 weeks=3000 mg/day, then do stool exam after 2 weeks→ if still (+), extend treatment for another 2 weeks. Repeat stool exam, if still (+) after the extended week, continue treatment for 2 weeks again. No adverse effect or over dosage even if extended for a year. ü Length of Treatment: takes months to a year
Health Education: It affects mostly farmers so educate them to wear rubber bootsEnvironmental Sanitation: Snail is the 1st concern Water where snail thrives is the 2nd concern Toilet=3rd concern Food GarbageSnail Eradication: Use molluscicides treat the entire suspected soil with chemical solution that kills snails
CASE FINDING:§ Disease: Malaria§ Other name: Ague§ Causative Agent: Plasmodium-a protozoa 4 Types of Species: ü Plasmodium falciparum-more fatal that affects the Philippine Vector: Female Anopheles Mosquito (FAM) ü Plasmodium vivax ü Plasmodium ovale ü Plasmodium malariae
§ Laboratory Procedure: Malarial smear-extract blood at the height of fever because plasmodium is very active & ruptures at this period.§ Signs & Symptoms of Malaria:1st Stage=Cold: Chilling sensation for 1-2 hours2nd Stage=Hot: High grade fever lasting for 3-4 hours3rd Stage=Wet: Diaphoresis (excessive sweating/perspiration)
§ Treatment: Drug of Choice-Quinine 2 Forms: a) Chloroquine (Aralen) b) PrimaquineIf Quinine is not available, may use Sulfadoxime-an antibacterial drug paired with pyrinthamine
PERSONAL PROTECTION:§ Sleep under a mosquito net§ Sleep in a screened room§ Sleep with long sleeve attire§ Use repellents that contains DET (diethyl toluamide or toluene which has a pungent odor that drives away mosquitoes & an irritant to mucous membrane of respiratory tract when inhaled§ Plant a Neem Tree using the leaves
CLEAN: Chemical Method=insecticide spraying at night Larvae eating fish=Tilapia Environmental Sanitation & Health Education=insect, water, trash Anti-mosquito soap=basil citronelli Neem tree=banana, banaba, gabi, eucalyptus provide repellent effect
STRATEGIES:A. Provision of Regular and Quality Maternal Care ServicesØ Regular and quality pre-natal care§ hx-taking, utilization of HBMR (Home-Based Mother’s Record) as a guide in the identification of risk factors§ PE: weight, height, BP-taking§ Perform head-to-toe assessment, abdominal exam§ Tetanus Toxoid Immunization§ Fe supplementation: given from 5th mo. of pregnancy to two months postpartum (100-120 mg orally/day for 210 days)§ Laboratory exam: Heat-acetic acid test. Benedict’s test§ Oral/Dental exam
Ø Pre-natal counselingØ Provision of safe, delivery care§ all birth attendants shall ensure clean and safe deliveries at the faciltiies (RHUs/hospitals)§ at-risk pregnancies and mothers must be immediately referred to the nearest institution
Ø Provision of quality postpartum careØ Proper schedule of follow-up must be followed:§ 1st postpartum visit for home deliveries must be done within 24 hours after delivery§ 2nd, done at least 1 week after delivery§ 3rd, done 2-4 weeks thereafter Attendants must be aware of the early signs, symptoms and complications. They should follow the 3 CLEANS: CLEAN Hands CLEAN Surface CLEAN Cord
C. Improvement of the health personnel’s capabilities on newborn care, midwifery thru trainings. Note: All deliveries should be done in health care facilities ONLY D. Improvement on the quality of care at the First Referral LevelØ Orientation, training should be done on the use of proper filling-up of HBMR cardØ Proper referrals/endorsements must be done for future If-upsE. Prevention of unwanted pregnancies through family planning services F. Prevention and management of STDs
G. Promotion of Appropriate health practices H. Upgrade reporting services I. Mobilize political commitment and community involvement to provide support to basic health care delivery
GOALS: A. Safe Pregnancyü Right age to be pregnant=20-35 years old, not less than 20 & not more than 35ü Right interval of pregnancy=once in 2 or 3 yearsü Home Base Mother’s Record (HBMR): the record used for care of mothers in CHN
Laboratory Examinations:Benedict’s Test: test for sugar in the urine; test for diabetes § Heat test tube with 5 cc of Benedict’s Solution (blue) in the burner then add 3-5 gtts of urine (amber yellow) then heat again. Observe for the change in color:Blue : (-) sugar in urineGreen : trace of sugar in urine +1 +Yellow : traces of sugar in urine +2 ++Orange : more traces of sugar in urine +3 +++Brick Red : surely diabetic +4 ++++
Laboratory Examinations:Acetic Acid Test: test for albumin in urine; test forPregnancy Induced HPN § Collect urine in test tube, heat it in burner then add 3-5 gtts of acetic solution (clear white). Observe for change in color:If it remains clear: (-) CHON or albumin in urineIf it turns cloudy: (+) CHON=proteinuria
POLICIES:1. Non coercive (give freedom of choice)2. Integration of Family Planning in all Curricular Program:§ LOI 47 DECS states that Family Planning is to be integrated in all school curricular programs, either baccalaureates or non- baccalaureates, enrolled separately as one unit3. Multi-Sectoral Approach: establish relationship with otheragencies which can either be: § Intrasectoral § Intersectoral-Local or International (WHO, Unicef, USAID, Japhiego)
METHODOLOGIES: Biological A. Basal Body Temperature (BBT) § Get the temperature early morning before waking up which should be monitored daily at the same time § There should be a sudden drop of temperature between 0.3-0.6°C followed by an increase of temperature by 0.3-0.6°C which means that the woman is fertile
B. Sympto-thermalC. Cervical Mucus Test Ø Billing’s Method by Dr. Billing Ø Spinnbarkheit (came from a German word Spinner which means to play with the cervical mucus with the finger) or Wet & Dry Method: § Wet Cervical Mucus (Fertile): abundant, stretchy & transparent § Dry Cervical Mucus (Safe & Not fertile): whitish, pasty & adhesiveD. Calendar (Rhythm)§ Deleted already since 1998 because it’s not recommended for irregular cycle of menstruation§ Menstrual cycle should be regular; obtain 4-6 months cycle
E. Lactation Amenorrhea Method (LAM): RA 7600-Breastfeeding & Rooming In Law§ DOH organized Maternal & Child Family Health Institute (MCFHI) with the following members: ü All government hospitals ü Private hospitals (volunteer)§ Normal involution (uterus goes back to normal) of the uterus: after 45 days or 5-6 weeks or 1 ½ months if not breastfeeding§ Frozen breast milk is to be put out of the freezer 2 hours before feeding ( Body of Ref: 2-3 days / Freezer: 3-4 months)§ Left over milk should be discarded & should not be re-preserved or re-frozen because it is already contaminated
METHODOLOGIES:TemporaryA. Chemical§ Oral Pills (Logentrol)-has low dose of estrogen & progesterone that inhibits ovulation§ Parenteral: Depot Medroxyprogesterone Acetate (DMPA)/Depo- provera- inhibits ovulation making women amenorrheic;1991, DMPA was found to be causing cancer of the cervix1994, DMPA is given IM 4x a year every 3 months (90 days interval)
§ Implants: Norplant-it inhibits ovulation effective for 5 years but seldom advocated for use because it is usually expensive; the client buys the device (consists of 5 capsules) & have it implanted at the health center by minor surgical incision in: ü upper inner arm because it is nearest to the brain ü external oblique ü thigh ü gluteal muscles
B. Mechanical:§ IUDü Up to 10 years protection§ Cervical cap & Diaphragmü Prevent the sperm to pass the cervixü Works better with spermicideü Wore 30 minutes before coitus and keep up to 6 hours after coitus§ Condomü Most effective way to prevent STD’s / STI’s
METHODOLOGIES:C. BehavioralØ AbstinenceØ WithdrawalD. PermanentØ Vasectomy (reversible)-since year 2000 in the PhilippinesØ BLT
POLICIES:I. Nutritional Surveillance (NS): to determine victims of malnutritionA. Anthropometric Measurement: study of measurements ofhuman dimensionsØ Age for Weight-if weight is not appropriate with the age: ü Stunting: growth retardation ü Wasting: connotes malnutritionØ Age for Height-if height is not appropriate with the age: StuntingØ Weight for Height
Rule Male FemaleEvery height of 5 110 lbs. 105 lbs.ft.Every increment + 6 +5of an inch above5 ft. ADDEvery decrement - 6 -5of an inch below5 ft. SUBTRACT
Ø Skin Folds Test-pinch the external oblique muscle (“bilbil”) with your palmNormal: 1 inchOverweight: > 1 inchØ Middle Upper Arm Circumference (MUAC)-used in children below 5 years old by measuring the middle upper arm with a tape measureNormal: 13 cms. & aboveMalnutrition: <13 cms
POLICIES:I. Nutritional Surveillance (NS): to determine victims of malnutritionB. Biochemical MethodØ Micronutrient Malnutrition -available in small amount in the body VADAG:Vitamin A Deficiency: § Deficiency: Xeropthalmia-opacity of cornea leading to night blindnes Infants (6-12 months) : Give 100,000 i.u. Pre-schoolers (12-83 months) : 200,000 i.u. Post partum : 200,000 i.u. § Never give Vitamin A to infants less than 6 months & pregnant women because it is toxic
Anemia: Iron Deficiency Anemia § Target age group: 0-59 months (less than 5 years) § Give 3-6 mg/kbw/day § Always give the maximum Example: Child weighs 8 kg 8 x 6=48 mg/day for the 1st 3 months then monitorIf still anemic, continue giving but compute again 6 mg/kbw
Goiter: Iodine Deficiency Disease (endemic in uphill)§ Target age group: 0-59 months§ Give 1 capsule (200 mg) of potassium iodate in oil once a yearFor a child < 5 years old, empty contents of capsule in a cup with warm water because he can’t tolerate it§ Adverse Effect of Iodine Deficiency Disease that must be avoided: Ø Mental retardation-intelligence quotient: idiot, moron & imbecile Ø Growth retardation- cretinism (pedia) & dwarfism (adult)
Ø Macronutrient Malnutrition - available in large amount in the body (Protein Energy Malnutrition or PEM)§ Kwashiorkor-protein deficiency§ Marasmus-carbohydrate deficiency (energy giving food)
Kwashiorkor MarasmusEtiology Disease experienced by an elder Muscle wasting child upon the birth of a new babyDeficiency CHON CHOAge Toddlers (1-3 years old) All agesMajor Signs & Facial edema, moon facie Muscle wasting, old man’s facieSymptomsHair Changes (+) color changes from black to (-) hair changes brown or from brown to golden yellow (+) sparse “flag sign”Skin Dermatosis: (-) dryness, peeling off of the skin, desquamationBehavior Irritable ApatheticManagement High CHON diet High CHO dietHospital Setting Total Parenteral Nutrition (TPN) Hyperalimentation process IV infusion with CHON, CHO regulated by a machine
POLICIES:II. Food ProductionFortification-products without any nutrient are added with nutrientsRA 8172 (Asin Law): Fidel Salt (Fortification of Iodine Deficiency Elimination)=Iodized Salt-“Patak” sa Asin” by Secretary Flavier on December 1-5, 2003where DOH workers go to market to check if salt sold contains iodine byplacing few drops of reagent:If salt color turns to blue violet→ fortified with iodineIf salt color show no change→ not fortified with iodineRA 832 (Rice Fortification): FVR (Fortified Vitamin Rice) by Secretary Flavierunder FVR, Erap Rice under Erap, Gloria Rice or “Bigas ni Gloria” under PGMA
ENVIRONMENTAL SANITATIONØ refers to all factors available in the environment affecting the health of the individual or populationØ regulated by PD 856: Comprehensive Sanitation Code of the Philippines
ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH SERVICE (EHS) OF DOH IS RESPONSIBLE FOR§ Promotion of healthy environmental conditions & prevention of environmental related diseases through appropriate sanitation strategies§ Promotion & implementation of sanitation programs through the Department of Health Field Health Units§ Conceptualization of new programs/projects to contend with emerging environmentally related health problems
COMPONENTS:ü Water Supply Sanitation Programü Proper Excreta and Sewage Disposal Programü Insect and Rodent Controlü Food and Sanitation Programü Hospital Waste Management Program
1. WATER SUPPLY SANITATION PROGRAMü Potableü Free from any particles that might cause illness to an individual
Ways to make Water Potable:§ Boiling: minimum of 3 minutes to maximum of 10 minutes for drinking§ Sterilization: 30 minutes after the water starts to boil§ Filtration: makes use of filter paper or cotton cloth to separate solid particle from liquid if water comes from river
§ Coagulation/Flocculation: uses aluminum crystal (tawas) that collects or absorbs particles from liquid part & becomes slimy ü In 1 gallon of water, drop tawas (the size of magi cubes) & allow to stand for 6-8 hours ü Initially, water appears to be cloudy then after 6-8 hours of standing, the water becomes clear
Chlorination: uses 100% pure concentrated chlorine bought from botika or given free by health centersØ To prepare stock solution (SS): in 1 liter drinking water, add 1 tablespoon of concentrated chlorine which is potent for 3-4 monthsØ To prepare the chlorinated water: in 2 ½ gallons of drinking water (10,000 ml=10 liters), add 1 tablespoon from the prepared stock solution & let it stand for 30 minutes to react with water
§ Fluoridation: adding fluoride to prevent dental caries (primary significance) & whitens enamel of teeth ( 2nd significance)§ Aeration: exposing drinking water in air to strengthen taste within 24 hours which is usually used in uphill areas where there’s less or no pollution
3 TYPES OF APPROVED WATER SUPPLY AND FACILITIESLevel IPoint SourceA protected well or a developed spring with anoutlet but without a distribution system for ruralareas where houses are thinly scattered.
3 TYPES OF APPROVED WATER SUPPLY AND FACILITIESLevel IICommunal faucet system or stand postsA system composed of a source, a reservoir, a pipeddistribution network and communal faucets, located atnot more than 25 meters from the farthest house inrural areas where houses are clustered densely.
3 TYPES OF APPROVED WATER SUPPLY AND FACILITIESLevel IIIWaterworks system or individual houseconnectionsA system with a source, a reservoir, a pipeddistributor network and household taps that issuited for densely populated urban areas.
3 TYPES OF APPROVED TOILET FACILITIESLevel 1Non-water carriage toilet facility:- Pit latrines- Reed Odorless Earth Closet- Bored-hole- Compost Toilets requiring small amount of water to wash waste intoreceiving space- Pour flush- Aqua privies
Pit latrinesØ most commonly observed in rural areaØ has three components: the pit, a squatting plate and the super-structureØ types of pit include“Antipolo type”, a pit type of toilet provided with concrete floor and an elevated seat with a coverVentilated Improved Pit or VIP, pit with a vent pipeReed Odourless Earth Closet or ROEC, a pit completely displaced from the superstructure and connected to the squatting plate by a curved chute.
Bored Hole Latrineü consists of relatively deep holes bored into the earth by mechanical or manual earth-boring equipmentü holes are about 10-18 inches in diameter and usually 15-35 feet deep. The hole is provided to facilitate squatting. Two types of bored-hole latrines are:Wet Type - when the hole penetrates ground water table or other strata.Dry Type - when he hole does not reach ground water table; fills up at a faster rate then than the wet type.
3 TYPES OF APPROVED TOILET FACILITIESLevel 2On site toilet facilities of the water carriage type withwater sealed andflushed type with septic vault/tank disposal facilities.
3 TYPES OF APPROVED TOILET FACILITIESLevel 3Water carriage types of toilet facilitiesconnected to septic tanks an/or to seweragesystem to treatment plant.
THINGS TO CONSIDER IN CONSTRUCTING A TOILETFACILITY:ü At least 25 meters away from water sources at a lower elevationü It should be within your financial capabilityü It should be approved by the local health authorities
CARE AND MAINTENANCE OF YOUR TOILET FACILITY:ü Water must be provided at all times.ü Use toilet paperü Use lysol once a month for odor removalü Clean the bowl by muriatic acid to remove the stains.ü Avoid depositing solid objects on the bowl to prevent cloggingü Always check your toilet if it’s cleanü Use plunger when clogging occurs. Don’t use sticks or rods to avoid the breakage of the trap or the bowl.
3. PROPER SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENTrefers to satisfactory methods of storage, collection and final disposal of solid wastes
SOURCES OF SOLID WASTEHousehold Waste - these are wastes generated in or discharged from household including shops but excluding commercial activities Commercial Waste - restaurants, stationery shops, grocery shops or any commercial activity are the main sources of commercial waste. Market Waste - only refers to waste generated in or discharged from markets both for whole sale and retailing
SOURCES OF SOLID WASTEInstitutional Waste - these are wastes generated in government, state enterprise and private firm office. Street Sweeping Waste - these are wastes generated by the street sweeping cleansing service. River Waste - includes all the wastes generated by the river and creek cleansing Medical Waste - these are wastes generated in hospitals.
COMPONENTS OF SOLID WASTEGarbage refers to left over vegetable, animal and fish material from kitchen and food establishments. These materials have the tendency to decay giving off foul odors and sometimes serve as food for flies and rats. Rubbish refers to waste materials such as bottles, broken glass, tin can, waste papers, discarded textile materials, porcelain wares, pieces of metal and other wrapping materials.
COMPONENTS OF SOLID WASTE Ashes are left over from burning of wood and coal. Ashes may become a nuisance because of the dust associated with them. Stable manure is animal manure collected from stables. Dead animals like dead dogs, cats, rats, pigs, and chickens that are killed by cars and trucks on streets and public highways. They include small and large animals that died from disease.
COMPONENTS OF SOLID WASTEStreet sweeping includes dust, manure, leaves, cigarette buts, waste papers and other materials that are swept from streets. Night soil is human waste normally wrapped and thrown into sidewalks and streets. This also includes human waste from pail system of toilets. Yard cuttings includes leaves, branches, grass and other
SANITARY WAYS OF TREATING GARBAGE:Segregation-separating biodegradable from non biodegradableCollection-adherence to the proper collection time→ the City of Manila coordinates with Leonel Waste Management (a private firm which collects garbage) where the truck driver coordinates with the Barangay Chairman on the time they will collect garbage so don’t bring out garbage before the collection time
WAYS OF DISPOSAL Household○ Burial ► Deposited in 1m x 1m deep pits covered with soil, located 25 m. away from water supply ○ Open burningo Animal feedingo Compostingo Grinding and disposal sewer
WAYS OF DISPOSAL Community○ Sanitary landfill or controlled tipping► Excavation of soil deposition of refuse and compactingwith a solid cover of 2 feet ○ IncinerationEcological Solid Waste Management: RA 9003- the use ofincinerator approved in 2000 but was implemented in 2003because of lack of funding to purchase
POLICIES:ü Food establishment are subject to inspection (approved of all food sources containers and transport vehicles)ü Comply with sanitary permit requirementü Comply with updated health certificates for food handlers, helpers, cooksü All ambulant vendors must submit a health certificate to determine present of intestinal parasite and bacterial infection
3 POINTS OF CONTAMINATIONü Place of production processing and source of supplyü Transportation and storageü Retail and distribution points
5. HOSPITAL WASTE MANAGEMENTRA 4226-Hospital Licensure Act monitors the hospital license & proper management of wastes as well as renewal of license to operate
GOAL:To prevent the risk of contraction contracting nosocomial infection from type disposal of infectious, pathological and other wastes from hospital
COLOR CODING OF BIN TO KEEP WASTE:Green: wet wasteBlack : dry wasteYellow: infectious/pathological waste like blood, sputum, urine, feces & gauzeOrange: toxic/hazardous waste