1. Maternal and Child Health Nursing
MATERNAL and CHILD HEALTH NURSING
Lecturer: Mark Fredderick R. Abejo RN, MAN
Fertilization to Conception
Fertilization: the union of the ovum & sperm. The start of Mitotic cell division &fetal sex determination.
> Primary oocyte (immature ovum) contains Diploid number of chromosomes (46).
> One oocyte contains a haploid (23) number of chromosomes after division.
> Gamete (mature ovum): is a cell or ovum that has undergone Maturation & will be ready for
> One gamete carries 23 chromosomes.
> A sperm carries 2 types of sex chromosomes. X & Y.
> 400 million sperm cells in one ejaculation.
> Functional Life of spermatozoa is 48 hours
> XX= female, XY= male.
Process of Fertilization:
After ovulation ovum will be expelled from the Graafian follicles ovum will be surrounded byZona
Pellucida(mucopolysaccharide fluid) & a circle of cells (Corona Radiata) which increases the bulk of the Ovum
expelled from the Fallopian Tube by the Fimbriae (infundibulum). Sperms move by flagella & Penetrate the &
dissolve the cell wall of the ovum by releasing a proteolytic enzyme (Hyaluronidase) After
penetration Fusion will result to Zygote. Zygote migrate for 4 days in the body of the uterus (Mitosis will
take place-Cleavage formation will begin) After 16-50 cell formation from mitosis, a mulberry & Bumpy
appearance will follow morula after 3-4 days, the structure will be ball like in appearance which will be called
Blastocyst. Cells in the outer ring are called Trophoblast (later it forms the placenta, responsible for the dev’t of
placenta & fetal membrane; Cells in the inner ring are called Erythroblast cells (which will be the embryo).
Terms to remember:
Ovum: From ovulation to fertilization
Zygote: From fertilization to implantation
Embryo: From implantation to 5-8 weeks.
Fetus:From 5-8 weeks until term
The ovum is said to be viable for 24-36 hours.
Sodium Bicarbonate- the frequent medication to alter the vaginal ph, decrease the acidity of the vagina
so as to INCREASE THE MOTILITY OF THE SPERM.
2. Maternal and Child Health Nursing
Fetal Membranes: membranes that surround the fetus, & give the placenta the shiny appearance.
1. Amnion: shiny membrane on the 2nd week of Embryonic Development & encloses the Amniotic Cavity
2. Chorion: Outer membrane that supports the sac of the amniotic fluid.
Chorionic Villi: finger like projections from the chorion. This is the place where gases, nutrients and
waste products between the maternal & fetal blood takes place.
Amniotic Fluid: surrounds the embryo, contains fetal urine, lanugo from fetal skin & epithelial cells.
Ph is 7. 2. Specific Gravity: 1.005 – 1.025
Normal Amount: 500 – 1000 ml.
Oligohydramnios- less than 300 ml.
Polyhydramnios- more than 2000 ml. observe for Down syndrome & congenital defects
Functions of Amniotic Fluid:
a. Protects the fetus from changes in the temperature & cushion against injury.
b. Protects the umbilical cord from pressure, the fetus drinks & breaths the fluid into the lungs.
Amniotic Fluid Colors: Normal color: transparent, clear, with white tiny specks
Dark amber or yellow: Ominous sign of presence of Bilirubin, hemolytic disease
Port Wine Colored: Abruptio Placenta
Greenish: Meconium Stained / FETAL DISTRESS: always go for Cesarian Section! Also if ph is less
If with odor: deliver within 24 hours, may indicate infection.
Umbilical Cord: 21 inches in length & 2 cm in thickness, circulatory communication of the fetus to the
mother. CONTAINS 2 ARTERIES & 1 VEIN. Covered by a gelatinous mucopolysaccharide called
Implantation occurs at the end of the 1st week after fertilization, when the blastocyst attaches to the endometrium.
During the 2nd week (14 days after implantation), implantation progresses and two germ layers, cavities, and cell
layers develop. During the 3rd week of development (21 days after implantation), the embryonic disk evolves into
three layers, and three new structures — the primitive streak, notochord, and allantois — form. Early during the
4th week (28 days after implantation), cellular differentiation and organization occur.
3. Maternal and Child Health Nursing
PRE-FERTILIZATION CONCEPTION IMPLANTATION
Zona reaction Morula (after 3-4
Ovum moves to amulla of days implantation)
fallopian tubes Zygote (fertilized ovum; Blastocyst
about 24-48 hrs, divides; (trophoblast;
Capacitation cleavage divides, travels to embryolast)
the uterus Implants complete
Acrosome reaction w/n 7-10 days
THREE PREGNANCY SIGNS & SYMPTOMS
PRESUMPTIVE PROBABLE POSITIVE
Amenorrhea Pregnancy test (presence of HCG) Auscultation of fetal
Nausea/Vomiting Softening of the uterine isthmus (Hegar’s sign) heart by week 8
Breast sensitivity and Cervical softening (Goodell’s sign) Ultrasound imaging
increased size of fetal heart motion
Fatigue Abdominal Braxton-Hicks contractions by week 7
enlargement Ballotment: bouncing of the fetus in the amniotic fluid against the
Skin pigmentation examiners hand. During the 16th-20th week. confirmation of
changes gestational sac by
(Melasma chloasma, Braxton Hicks Contractions: painless week 6
linea nigra- a brown line contractions felt for 20-30 minutes occurs on
running from the the 16th week. Ultrasound: 6 weeks can
umbilicus to the auscultate the fetal heart.
symphysis pubis Chadwick’s sign is a bluish coloring of the vaginal
mucosal that occurs as early as 6 weeks gestation. Fetal movements palpated
Stretch marks will Rationale: due to increase vascularity & blood by the provider by week
eventually fade to a silvery vessel engorgement. 20.
white color, but it is highly Increase size of the uterus
unlikely that they will The most objective sign of
completely disappear. + Pregnancy Test pregnancy is fetal
> Secretion of HCG in the urine (Frog Test). movement felt by the
Breast changes- increase in Detectable 10 days after the missed period examiner.
fullness, darker areola.
. The fetal heartbeat typically can be heard and fetal
Quickening: first fetal rebound is possible between 18 and 22 weeks. The
mov’t. fetal outline becomes palpable and the fetus is highly
mobile between 28 and 31 weeks. Braxton Hicks
contractions increase in frequency and intensity
between 32 and 35 weeks.
ORIGIN OF BODY TISSUE
Tissue Layer Body Portion Formed
Ectoderm Nervous system, mucus membranes, anus & mouth
Mesoderm Connective Tissue, Reproductive, circulatory & upper Urinary
system, bones, cartillage
Endoderm Lining of the GI tract, Respiratory Tract, bladder & urethra
4. Maternal and Child Health Nursing
Embryo is 4-5 mm length
Trophoblasts embedded in deciduas
1 mo/ 4 weeks Foundations for nervous system, genitourinary system, skin, bones, and
lungs are formed
Rudiments of eyes, ears, nose appear
Cardiovascular system functioning, heart beginning to beat, beginning of heart circulation.
Placental transport of substances ( 5 weeks)
The fetus is 27-31 mm and weighs 2-4 grams
Fetus s markedly bent
2 mo/ 5-8 weeks Head is disproportionately large due to brain development
Centers of bone begin to ossify
Ganglionic cells (5th to 12th weeks)
Placenta and meconium are present, with facial features
3 mos./9-12 wks CVS done (8 12 weeks) every organ present, Head greatly enlarged
Average length is 50-55 mm and weighs 45 gms.
Fingers and toes are distinct.
Rudimentary kidneys secrete urine.
Fetal circulation is complete.
External genitalia show definite characteristics.
SEX IS VISUALLY RECOGNIZABLE. Heart is audible in a Doppler ( 11th week)
Fetus swallows. With nails. Kidneys able to secrete.
4 mos. /13-16 weeks 94-140 mm length and weighs 97-200 gms.
Head is erected, lower limbs are well developed.
Heartbeat is present
Nasal septum and palate close
Fingerprints are set
LANUGO APPEARS IN THE BODY
5 mos. /17-20 weeks Fetus is 150-190 mm. In length and weighs approximately 260-460 gms.
Lanugo covers entire body.
Eyebrows and scalp hair is present.
Heart sounds are perceptible by auscultation.
Vernix caseosa covers skin.
Heartbeat can be heard in the fetoscope ( 18 weeks—20 weeks). Liver is already pancreas
Quickening felt by a mother. Skeleton begins to develop.
Brown Fats begin to form. Heart sounds in the stethoscope
Can be heard ( 17- 20 weeks)
NOTE: There is a placental barrier to syphilis until the 18th week of pregnancy. If
the mother is treated before 18th week, the baby will most likely not be affected.
6 mos. /21-25 weeks 21-25 WEEKS… OLD MAN’s FACE
Length 200-240 mm. Wt. 495-910 gms.
Skin appears wrinkled and pink to red.
Eyebrows and fingernails develop.
VERNIX COVERS THE ENTIRE BODY. Has the ability to hear. Production of lung surfactants.
Passive Antibody transfer ( placental immunoglobulin G)
Sustained weight gain occurs.
7 mos. /26-29 weeks Length 250-275; weight 910-1500 gms.
Rhythmic breathing occurs
Pupillary membrane disappears from eyes.
Fetus often survives if born prematurely
Brain develops rapidly. Lecithin- Sphingomyelin (L/S ratio is already 2:1)
Brains fully developed. If born, neonate may survive.
8 mos. /30-34 weeks Length 280-320 mm. weight 1700-2500 gms.
Toenails become visible
Steady weight gain occurs
Vigorous fetal movement occurs.
LANUGO DISAPPEARS. Bones are fully developed.
Aware of sounds outside the body. Assumes the delivery position. Increased
chance of survival.
9 mos. /35-37 weeks Length 330-360 mm. weight 2700-3400 gms.
Face and body has a loose wrinkled appearance because of subcutaneous fat
Body is usually lump and lanugo disappears
Nails reach fingertip edge
Amniotic fluid decreases.
Increase Development. Sole of the foot have already
creases. Good chance of survival.
5. Maternal and Child Health Nursing
10 mos. / 38-40 weeks Length 360 mm.; Weight 3400-3600 gms.
Skin is smooth, chest is prominent
Eyes are uniformly slate colored
Bones of skull are ossified and are nearly together at sutures.
Testes are in scrotum.
As early as 3rd week of intra-uterine life, fetal blood is already is circulating, specifically there is already exchange of
nutrients with the maternal circulation in the chorionic villi.
> Arteries carry UNOXYGENATED BLOOD. VEINS carry OXYGENATED BLOOD.
> Fetal Circulation Bypass: Why:
DUE TO NON-FUNCTIONING LUNGS:
----- Ductus arteriousus (between pulmonary artery & Aorta, OPENS AT BIRTH & CLOSES 24 –48 hours after
delivery.) It CONTAINS a mixture of arterial & venous blood.
----- Foramen Ovale : between right & left atrium
DUE TO NON-FUNCTIONING LIVER:
----- Ductus Venosus (by pass the liver, closes at birth; an umbilical vein that carries High oxygen from the placenta.
Maternal & Fetal Diagnostic Test
CHORIONIC VILLI SAMPLING Earliest test possible on fetal cells; sample obtained
by slender catheter passed through cervix to
a. Chorionic Villi Sampling: removal of a
small piece of Chorionic villi sampling to
detect the ff: fetal chromosome, enzyme, DNA
& biochemical abnormalities. Performed
between the 8th – 11th weeks of gestation. Can
detect the ff; Genetic Defects:
Cystic fibrosis, trisomy 21, Tay Sachs, sickle
cell anemia, thallasemia, Duchenne
muscular dystrophy & hemophilia.
Most common indication: advance maternal
age: increases risk of chromosomal damage
from aging of oocyte.
Greatest Advantage over Amniocentesis:
PERFORMED DURING THE FIRST
TRIMESTER. (16th- 20th week of gestation). .
Laboratory results are obtained in 1 - 7 days
compared to 20-28 days for an amniocentesis.
1. Risk of Abortion
3. Embryo-fetal/placental damage
4. Spontaneous abortion
5. Premature rupture of the membranes
After an Rh-negative patient undergoes
amniocentesis or CVS, the nurse should
administer Rh (D) immune globulin
(RhoGAM), to prevent Rh sesnsitization, an
antigen antibody immunologic reaction that
sometimes occurs when an Rh negative mother
carries an Rh + fetus.
The patient does not require complete bed
rest after CVS---SHE SHOULD REFRAIN
FROM SEXUAL INTERCOURSE AND
PHYSICAL ACTIVITY FOR 48 hours. A
small amount of spotting is normal for the 1st
ULTRASOUND Use of sound and returning echo patterns to identify
intrabody structures; useful early in pregnancy to
identify gestational sacs; later uses include
assessment of fetal viability, growth patterns,
anomalies, fluid volume, uterine anomalies and
adnexal masses. Use adjunct to amniocentesis; safe
for fetus (no ionizing radiation)
6. Maternal and Child Health Nursing
Ultrasound: done 18-40 weeks for fetal
THE BEST TEST FOR ECTOPIC
- Non-invasive procedure with high frequency sound
waves to obtain outline of the fetus, placenta &
uterine cavities and to confirm gestational age &
- NEEDS A FULL BLADDER TO OBTAIN A
BETTER IMAGE (drink a full glass every 15
minutes beginning an hour & half the procedure)
- COMMON METHOD IN LOCATING THE
PRECISE POSITION OF THE FETUS &
PLACENTA BEFORE AMNIOCENTESIS.
AMNIOCENTESIS Location and aspiration of amniotic fluid for
examination; possible after the 14th week when
sufficient amounts are present; used to identify
chromosomal aberration, sex of fetus, levels of
alpha-fetoprotein and other chemicals indicative of
neural tube defects and inborn error of metabolism,
gestational age, RH factor.
I.V. anesthesia isn't given for amniocentesis. The
client should be supine during the procedure;
afterward, she should be placed on her left side
to avoid supine hypotension, promote venous
return, and ensure adequate cardiac output.
Amniocentesis: invasive procedure for amniotic
fluid analysis, & fetal lung maturity.
Procedure: Ultrasound 1st: the rationale: to locate
the Placenta. The patient MUST EMPTY THE
BLADDER TO REDUCE THE SIZE OF THE
BLADDER. Vital signs are assessed every 15
Typically performed on the 3rd trimester to assess
LECITHIN-SPHINGOMYELIN RATIO IN THE
AMNIOTIC FLUID (this ratio indicates fetal
lung maturity), which is commonly delayed in a
diabetic client, Cesarean Delivery should
not be done, unless the fetal lungs are matured.
PLACE A FOLDED TOWEL ON HER RIGHT
BUTTOCKS TO TIP HER SLIGHTLY TO THE
LEFT & MOVE THE UTERUS OFF THE VENA
CAVA TO PREVENT SUPINE HYPOTENSION
ABDOMINAL PREP IS DONE, then, needle
insertion in a 20-22 gauge spinal needle,
withdrawing amniotic fluid.
NORMAL L/S RATIO (lecithin/sphingomyelin):
2:1 = normal fetal lung maturity ratio
Most important factor affecting Amniocentesis:
NEEDLE INSERTION-because of the risk of
puncture or damage to the placenta, fetus,
umbilical cord, bladder & uterine arteries.
1. Maternal hemorrhage
3. Rh immunization
4. abruptio placenta
5. Amniotic fluid embolism
CALL THE PHYSICIAN FOR THE FF: Chills,
fever, leakage of fluid, decrease fetal movement
or uterine contractions.
7. Maternal and Child Health Nursing
After amniocentesis, the patient is
monitored for uterine contractions, fetal heart
rate changes and leakage of amniotic fluid
from the puncture site. During this period, the
patient isn’t ambulated.
X-RAY Can be used late in pregnancy (after ossification of
fetal bones) to confirm position and presentation; not
used in early pregnancy to avoid possibility of
causing damage to fetus and mother.
ALPHA-FETOPROTEIN Maternal serum screens for open neural tube defects.
SCREENING It is a glucoprote in produced by fetal yolk sac, GI
tract and liver. Test done between 16 and 18 weeks
PRINCIPAL SCREENING TEST DOR
THE DETECTION OF NEURAL TUBE
DEFECTS (spina bifida, hydrocephalus-
can be reduced through increase folic acid-
0.4 mg/day in the 1st trimester)
> Maternal blood sampling between 16-20
LOW: chromosomal defects (Downs
HIGH: (greater than 10 mg/dl) Neural tube defects,
anencephaly & the absence of ventral abdominal
wall, premature delivery, toxemia & fetal distress &
L/S RATIO Uses amniotic fluid to ascertain fetal lung maturity
through measurement of presence and amounts of the
lung surfactants lecithin and sphingomyelin. At 35-
36 weeks; ratio is 2:1 indicative of mature levels.
PHOSPHATIDYL GLCEROL Found in amniotic fluid after 35 weeks. In
conjunction with the L/S ratio; it contributes to
increased reliability of fetal lung maturity testing.
Maybe done in laboratory.
Phosphatidyl Glycerol (PG): when present in the
amniotic fluid, it can be predicted that respiratory
distresss will not occur, or RDS will not occur.
CREATININE LEVEL Estimates fetal renal maturity and function, uses
BILIRUBIN Level-high early in pregnancy; drops after 36 weeks
gestation; uses amniotic fluid.
The yellow color is the result of fetal anemia and
FETAL MOVEMENT COUNT Teach mother to count 2-3 times daily, 30-60
minutes each time, should feel 5-6 movements per
counting time; mother should notify care giver
immediately of abrupt change or no movement.
PERCUTANEOUS UMBILICAL Uses ultrasound to locate umbilical cord. Cord blood
BLOOD SAMPLING aspirated and tested. Used in second and third
BIOPHYSICAL PROFILE A collection of data on fetal breathing movements,
body movements, muscle tone, reactive heart rate
and amniotic fluid volume.
A. Non-Stress Test – accelerations in heart rate accompany normal fetal movement; non-invasive
Tocodynamometer records fetal movements and Doppler ultrasound measures
- Observation of fetal heart rate related to fetal movement. Fetal well-being.
Indicated for: assess placental function & oxygenation, fetal well being, evaluates fetal heart rate in response to
fetal movement especially for: Maternal Problems such as chronic hypertension, diabetes and Pre-eclampsia, given
after the 32nd week.
Patient should eat snacks.
Position: Semi-Fowlers or left lateral positions the mother may ask tom press the button every time she feels fetal
movements; the monitor records a mark at each point of fetal movement.
8. Maternal and Child Health Nursing
1. Reactive (normal): indicates a fetal fetus
Greater than 15 beats per minute- occur with fetal movement in a 10 or 20 minute period.
- 2 or more FHR accelerations of 15 seconds over a 20 minutes interval and return of FHR to normal baseline.
2. Non-Reactive (Abnormal): No fetal movement occurs or there is short-term fetal heart rate variability (less
than 6 beats per minute). The doctor will order an Oxytocin Test AFTER the patient has non-reactive test.
NOTE: COMMONLY PERFORMED ON DIABETIC PATIENTS BECAUSE OF THE INCREASE RISK FOR STILL
B. Contraction Stress Test (CST) – based on the principle that healthy fetus can withstand decreased oxygen during
contraction but compromised fetus cannot. Response of the fetus to induced uterine contractions as an INDICATOR
OF UTEROPLACENTAL & FETAL PHYSIOLOGICAL INTEGRITY.
Woman in semi-Fowler’s or side-lying position.
Monitor for post-test labor onset.
a. Mammary stimulation Test or Breast Stimulation Exam or
Nipple Stimulated CST – non-invasive
b. Oxytocin Challenge test
Indications: ALL PREGNANCIES AFTER 28 WEEKS WITH HIGH RISK CLIENTS.
Contraindicated for history of PRE-TERM LABOR.
POSITIVE RESULT: Late decelerations with at least 50% of contractions. Potential risks to the fetus, which may
necessitate to C-section.
Abnormal and known as “Positive window”. Abnormal: ―Positive Window‖: (+) LATE DECELERATIONS OF
FHR with three contractions a 10 minute interval. Indicates Uteroplacental Insufficiency.
NEGATIVE RESULTS: No late decelerations with a minimum of 3 contractions lasting 40-60 seconds in 10 minutes
period. Normal: ―Negative Window‖: (-) LATE DECELERATIONS OF FHR with three contractions a 10m minute
Normal and known as “Negative window
1. Estriol excretion: measures placental functioning through urine test.
Collect a 24-hour urine specimen or serum blood levels.
High Estriol: Good placental function
Low Estriol: Fetal hypoxia
Estriol: estrogenic hormone, synthesized by the placenta & adrenal gland of the fetus which secreted by the
Rh Incompatibility Test:
Purpose: to discover presence of antibodies present in Rh-negative mother’s blood
> Test will confirm the diagnosis for Hemolytic Disease in the Newborn.
1. Indirect Coomb’s Test: women who have Rh negative have this test done to determine if they have
antibodies to the factor present. Repeated 28 weeks pregnancy. Mothers reveal antibodies as
a result of previous transfusion or pregnancy.
2. Direct Coomb’s test: tests for newborns cord blood- determines presence of maternal antibodies
attached to the baby’s cell.
Rh (D) & D negative who hasn’t formed antibodies should receive Rhogam at 28
weeks gestation or after 72 hours after delivery.
Nitrazine Test: use of nitrazin strip to detect the presence of amniotic fluid.
Vaginal Secretions: PH: 4.5- 5.5
Amniotic fluid: PH: 7.2 – 7.5 (turns the yellow Nitrazine blue gray, blue green – Ruptured Membranes)
Kicks count: fetal movement counting mother sits quietly on the LEFT SIDE for 1 hour after meals & count fetal kicks for
30 minutes. Notify the physician or health care provider if FEWER THAN 3 KICKS.
Biophysical Profile : surveillance of fetal well being base on 5 categories:
1. Fetal breath mov’t
2. Fetal tone
3. Amniotic fluid
4. Fetal heart reactivity
5. Placental Grade
Fetal score of 8 – 10: normal fetal well-being
Fetal score of 4 – 6: fetal distress