2. -A term denoting membership
of a citizen in a political
society, which membership
implies, reciprocally, a duty of
allegiance on the part of the
member and duty of
protection on the part of the
is a person having the title of
he is a member of a
democratic community who
enjoy full civil and political
rights, and is accorded
protection inside and outside
the territory of the state.
4. MEANING OF SUBJECT AND ALIEN
A citizen is a member of a democratic community who enjoys
full civil and political rights. In Monarchial State, he is often
An alien is a citizen of a country who is residing in or passing
through another country, he is popularly called “FOREIGNER”.
He is not given the full rights to citizenship but is entitled to
received protection as to his person or property.
5. General ways of Acquiring Citizenship.
By birth, because of blood
Relationship or place of birth.
By naturalization, except incase of collective
naturalization of the inhabitants of a territory which
takes place when it is ceded by one state to another as
a result of a conquest or treaty.
6. TYPES OR ROUTES OF CITIZENSHIP:
- Jus Sanguinis and
- Jus Soli or Jusloci
7. JUS SANGUINIS
A Latin word, translates to ‘right of blood’.
This describes a person whose parent, or grandparent or
other ascendant is already a citizen of a specific state
separate from the country that the person was born in.
8. JUS SOLI (right of soil)
Refers to an instance in which a citizen
born within a country is given its
Is another common route to acquiring citizenship. This
usually applies to those who have entered the country
legally, through political asylum or have awfully lived there
for a specific period.
10. Ways in acquiring by naturalization:
1.By judgement of the court.
The foreigner who wants to become a Filipino citizen must
apply for naturalization with the proper Regional trail court.
2. By direct act of congress.
In this case our law-making body simply
enacts an act directly conferring citizenship or
11. 3. By administrative proceeding.
Under R.A. No. 9139, known as the administrative
naturalization law of 2000, “aliens born and residing
in the Philippines may be granted Philippine
citizenship by administrative proceedings before a
special committee on naturalization.
12. KINDS OF CITIZEN UNDER THE CONSTITUTION. THEY ARE:
They refer to those:
a.Who at the moment of their birth are already citizens
of the Philippines, and
b.Don’t have perform any act to acquire his Philippine
13. 2. Citizens at the time of adoption of the new Constitution.
They refer to those who are considered citizens of the
Philippines under the 1973 Constitution at the time of the
adoption of the new Constitution.
3. Citizens through election.
They refer to those born of Filipino mothers before January
17, 1973 who upon reaching the age of majority elect
Philippines citizenship after the ratification of the 1973
constitution pursuant to the provisions of the 1973
14. 4. Naturalized citizens
They refer to those who were originally citizens of
another country, but who, by an intervening act (i.e.,
naturalization), have acquired new citizenship in a
15. LOSS OF CITIZENSHIP
A Filipino citizen may lose his citizenship in any of the following ways:
a.By naturalization in foreign country (see R.A. No. 9225 infra.)
b.By expressing renunciation of citizenship;
c. By subscribing to an oath of allegiance to support the constitution
and laws of a foreign country;
d.By rendering service to, or accepting commission in the armed forces
of a foreign country ( except under certain circumstances).
16. 2. Involuntary
a.By cancellation of his certificate of naturalization by
the court: and
b.By having been declared by competent authority, a
disaster in the Philippine armed force in the time of
The voluntary lost or renunciation of one’s nationality is
called EXPATRIATION. In time of war, however, a Filipino
citizen cannot expatriate himself.
17. REACQUISITION OF LOST PHILIPPINE CITIZENSHIP
Citizens may be required:
1.By naturalization provide the applicant possesses none of
the disqualifications provided in the naturalization law.
2.By repatriation of the deserters of Philippines armed
forces and women who lost their citizenship by reason of
marriage to an alien, after the termination of their
marital status and
3.By direct act of the congress of the Philippines.
18. Repatriation - is affected merely by taking the
necessary oath of allegiance to the Republic of the
Philippines and registering the same in the proper
Dual Citizenship on the other hand, refers to the
position of two citizenships by an individual, that of his
original citizenship and that of a country where he
became a naturalized citizen.
19. RETENTION AND REACQUISITION OF CITIZENSHIP
1.Retention of Philippine Citizenship
Any provision of law to the contrary not with
standing , natural born citizens of the Philippines
who have lost their Philippine citizenship by reason
of their naturalization as citizens of a foreign country
are deemed to have re-acquired Philippine
citizenship upon taking the following oath of
allegiance to the Republic.
20. 2. Derivative citizenship
The unmarried child, whether legitimate,
illegitimate or adopted, below 18 of age, of those
who re-acquired Philippine citizenship upon
affectivity of the Act shall be deemed citizens of
21. 3. Civil and political rights and liabilities
those who retain or re-acquire
Philippine citizenship under the Act shall
enjoy full civil and political rights and be
subject to all attendant liabilities and
responsibilities under existing laws of
22. DUTIES AND OBLIGATIONS OF
1.To be loyal to the Republic
By loyalty, we mean faith and
confidence to the republic and love and
devotion to the country.
23. 2. To defend the state
Men may differ and do differ on religious beliefs
and creeds, government policies, the wisdom and
validity of laws, even the correctness or the judicial
decisions and decrees, but in the field of love of
country, national unity, and patriotism, they can
hardly afford to differ for these are matters in which
they are mutually and vitally interested , for them
they mean national existence or survival as a nation
or national extinction.
24. 3.To Contribute to the Development and Welfare of
the development and welfare of the state should
be the concern of every citizen for he will be the
first to enjoy the benefits thereof.
4. To Uphold the Constitution and Obey the Laws.
the constitution is the expression of the
sovereign will of our people . It is the shrine for all
the hopes and visions for our nations.
25. 5.To Cooperate with Duly Constituted Authorities.
Community living imposes community obligations
and responsibilities upon individuals.
6. To Exercise Rights Responsibly and with Due Regard
for the Rights of Others .
society is composed of men, each with interest of
each own . In the course of life, the interest of the
man conflict with those of many others.
26. 7. To Engage in Gainful Work.
Employment is not the obligation solely of the state.
Every citizen should consider it as its own responsibility
and should strive to become a useful and productive
member of the society to assure not only himself , but,
perhaps, more important , his family a life worthy of
8. To Register and Vote.
suffrage is both a privilege and a duty which every
qualified citizen must perform.
Gladys Kyra Barnigo
Rhel Jan Casiño
Jean Mae Marie Bulacoy
Marc Robert Cosmod