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Faculty of English Language and Literature
1. Ambiguous/Ambiguity: Something that is unclear. Obscure. Vague.
Sentence: The ending of the movie was ambiguous in wh...
Sentence: A series of eruptions there in 1999 caused officials to evacuate
hundreds of people.
Sentence: Children were e...
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  1. 1. 1 ENGLISH VOCABULARY SUPPORT (VOLUME II) HAJVERY UNIVERSITY LAHORE PAKISTAN Faculty of English Language and Literature Composed by: Marryiam Khan
  2. 2. 2 1. Ambiguous/Ambiguity: Something that is unclear. Obscure. Vague. Sentence: The ending of the movie was ambiguous in which the future of the world was in question. Sentence: The e-mail messages were too ambiguous to make a news story. 2. Avenge: To take revenge by harming or punishing someone for the wrong he/she has done to you or somebody. Sentence: Edward swore to avenge his father, but his resolution soon dissolved into doubts and hesitation. Sentence: The brothers vowed to avenge the death of their father. They vowed to avenge their father by capturing and punishing his killer. 3. Contentment: A state of happiness and satisfaction. Sentence: She closed her eyes and sighed in contentment. Sentence: The history of the country became one of peaceful progress marked by the growing contentment of the people. Sentence: Happiness consists in contentment. Sentence: Riches do not always bring contentment. Sentence: His face wore a look of pure contentment. 4. Evacuate/Evacuated/Evacuation: Remove (someone) from a place of danger to a safer place. To leave a building in a state of emergency or danger. Sentence: Army helicopters tried to evacuate the injured. Sentence: Employees were urged to evacuate their offices immediately. Sentence: A navy warship was also on its way to the area to help evacuate refugees.
  3. 3. 3 Sentence: A series of eruptions there in 1999 caused officials to evacuate hundreds of people. Sentence: Children were evacuated from London to escape the bombings. Sentence: The police evacuated the village before the explosion. Sentence: Residents were evacuated when the fire suddenly broke out in an apartment. Sentence: The firemen evacuated the guests from the burning hotel. Sentence: Police ordered the evacuation of the building. Sentence: “The evacuation is being organized at the request of the United Nations Secretary General”, said Katie to her friend Bella. 5. Influx: an arrival or entry of large numbers of people or things. Sentence: A massive influx of tourists visited Dubai. Sentence: The influx of winter visitors adds to the wealth of the city. Sentence: The country sealed its borders to prevent the influx of illegal immigrants. Sentence: The sudden influx of families needing work and housing caused some problems at first. 6. Strangle: To squeeze someone’s neck. Sentence: Bella strangled her roommate to death. Sentence: “Suddenly my shirt collar felt like it was starting to strangle me”, said John to his tailor. Sentence: He slid his hands around her neck and tried to strangle her. 7. Obstruct: To block something. Sentence: A large tree obstructed the road.
  4. 4. 4 Sentence: “The group is trying to obstruct the peace process”, asked Katie to her friend Edward. 8. Gape: To stare in wonder or amazement and astonishment with mouth open. Sentence: “I could only gape in astonishment as I saw the man take the bottle from the shelf and put it under his coat”, said Bella to her friend Katie. 9. Breach: Violation of a law, agreement, or code of conduct. A gap, crack, a split, a rift. Sentence: They were sued for breach of contract. Sentence: The huge waves made a breach in the sea wall. Sentence: He sued the company for breach of agreement. Sentence: Publication of the article was a breach of ethics. Sentence: The breach quickly widened. 10. Acquit/Acquitted: To free someone from a criminal charge by a verdict of not guilty. Sentence: Two members of the group were acquitted for lack of evidence. Sentence: Thirteen defendants were convicted and two were acquitted. Sentence: They were acquitted because the evidence against them was inadequate to convict them. 11. Convict: To declare someone to be guilty of a criminal offence/crime by the verdict of a jury. Sentence: “It is easy to convict him of having failed to control the growing violence in the town”, said Katie to her friend Edward. Sentence: The convict tried in vain to escape several times from prison. 12. Incline/Inclined/Inclination: A willingness/wish to do a particular thing.
  5. 5. 5 Sentence: Bella’s preference of MBBS over Masters in Fine Arts shows her inclination towards Science. He writes only when he feels inclined to. Sentence: Nobody felt inclined to argue with Smith. 13. Disincline/Disinclined/Disinclination: A reluctance or an unwillingness to do a particular thing. Sentence: Bella’s preference of Masters in Fine Arts over MBBS shows her disinclination towards Science. Sentence: “There's a good chance that many of your neighbors will be disinclined to get out and take their dogs for a walk when the weather is bad”, said Katie to her friend Edward. Sentence: Augustus was ageing fast, and was more and more disinclined to appear physically in the senate or in public. 14. Recruit/Recruited/Recruitment: To enlist or select someone for a job and job in army. Sentence: The police are trying to recruit more black and Asian officers. Sentence: This is a nationwide campaign to recruit women into trade unions. Sentence: The specialist institutions directly recruit their own staff. Sentence: “At a minimum, we must recruit two new teachers”, said the principal to the vice principal. Sentence: They spotted a local student as a CIA recruit. Sentence: The football fan club began to recruit new members last week. 15. Pacify: To appease, to make calm to relax and to soothe. Sentence: “You're right”, Rita said in order to pacify him. Sentence: “Try to pacify the child, he has been crying for hours” said the nurse to her fellow worker.
  6. 6. 6 Sentence: More troops were needed to pacify the area. Sentence: The announcement was designed to pacify the angry crowd. Sentence: Doctor immediately gave him an injection to pacify the symptoms of fever. Sentence: It was difficult for the police to pacify the angry crowd. 16. Prudent/Prudence: Sensible, cautious, far sighted. Sensibility, caution, far sightedness. Sentence: That was a prudent decision. Sentence: It might be more prudent to get a second opinion before going ahead. Sentence: He is concerned with the well-being of every citizen, and is a kind, prudent, generous man. 17. Imprudent/Imprudence: Unwise, foolish, careless, incautious and short sighted. Sentence: “I was imprudent to place myself at such risk” said Katie to her friend Bella. Sentence: “Because the drug company made an imprudent decision to ignore test results; it is being sued for selling harmful medications”, said Edward to his friend John. Sentence: “When Alan is angry, he often makes imprudent decisions that he later regrets”, said Bella to her friend Edward. 18. Conciliate/Conciliation: To calm the anger of someone who is angry or discontented. Sentence: The duty of a ruler is to conciliate the people, not to provoke them. Sentence: Attempting to conciliate the angry protesters, Bob held up his hands and urged everyone to take a deep breath.
  7. 7. 7 Sentence: Conciliations are being made between the two political parties to promote peace within the city. 19. Crouch: Lower the body with limbs close to the chest. To adopt a position where the knees are bent and the upper body is brought forward and down. Sentence: They all crouched down in the street. Sentence: The teacher crouched down to talk to her kindergarten student. Sentence: He moved out of the shadows in a crouch so that he would not be visible against the lightening sky behind him. 20. Wreath: Ornaments/jewelry made from flowers. A decorative arrangement of foliage or flowers on a circular base for example, a Christmas wreath. An arrangement of flowers, leaves, or stems fastened in a ring and used for decoration or for putting on a grave. Sentence: The bride wore a wreath of flowers on her head. Sentence: A Christmas wreath hung on the front door. Sentence: The President laid a wreath of flowers on the hero's grave. Sentence: The Queen laid a wreath at the war memorial. Sentence: They laid a wreath at the place where so many people died. Sentence: The President ended his visit by laying a wreath at the war memorial. 21. Contempt: A strong feeling of disliking. Hatred, Resentment. Sentence: Some people say that familiarity breeds contempt. Sentence: What they write sometimes is sheer contempt of court. Sentence: “She is contemptuous of me simply because I do not agree with her every word”, said Katie to her friend Edward.
  8. 8. 8 Sentence: Throughout the trial, it was apparent the serial killer was contemptuous of the victims. Sentence: She gave him a contemptuous look. Sentence: Her voice sounded contemptuous. 22. Sob/Sobbed/Sobbing: To weep or cry noisily, making loud, convulsive gasps. Sentence: Sonya was sitting sobbing in the corridor. Sentence: Anatole was sobbing painfully. Sentence: Her mother's words comforted the sobbing girl. Sentence: I heard a child sobbing loudly. Sentence: “We could hear the child sobbing in the other room” said Katie to her friend Edward. Sentence: The child started to sob when he couldn't find his mother. Sentence: She began to sob again, burying her face in the pillow. Sentence: She began to sob and moan. Sentence: “She was holding my arm with both her hands and weeping against it, and now she drew herself to my shoulder and wept and sobbed in my embrace”, said Katie to her friend Edward. Sentence: She sobbed convulsively. Sentence: She sobbed and screamed at her helplessness. 23. Acclaim/Acclaimed: praise enthusiastically and publicly. To praise and admire. To glorify and sing the praises of someone or something. Sentence: The astronaut was welcomed with joyous, resounding acclaim. Sentence: The performance received considerable acclaim.
  9. 9. 9 Sentence: Her latest novel has won great critical acclaim. Sentence: The novel received great acclaim. Sentence: Dr. ABC is the internationally acclaimed clinical nutritionist. Sentence: “Debora’s staff works tirelessly all day and surely deserves acclamation”, said Katie to her friend Edward. Sentence: The standing ovation was the biggest acclamation of the night. 24. Drift/Drifted/Drifting: To be carried slowly by a current of air or water. Walk slowly, aimlessly, or casually. To wander, to roam. Sentence: “We travelled through forests, drifted around sandy corners, and finally reached the Sea shore”, said Katie to her friend Edward. Sentence: The drift of the icebergs in the sea endangers the ships. Sentence: “We turned off the motor on the boat, and just drifted with the current for a while”, said Bella to her friend Katie. Sentence: The wind is drifting the snow. Sentence: The ship was drifting on the ocean. Sentence: He felt himself drifting off to sleep. 25. Calamity: An event causing great and often sudden damage or distress; a disaster. A catastrophe, tragedy, a disaster. Sentence: The earthquake caused great calamity for the people. Sentence: An earthquake is a natural calamity. Sentence: The marriage proved to be the greatest calamity of his life. Sentence: His death was the great calamity of Scotland. 26. Slurp/Slurped/Slurping: To drink or eat with a loud sucking voice.
  10. 10. 10 Sentence: The slurping sounds intensified. Sentence: She slurped her coffee. Sentence: She drank he juice with a loud slurp. Sentence: He slurped noisily from a wine glass. Sentence: He took a noisy slurp of his beer. 27. Curfew: A regulation requiring people to remain indoors between specific hours, especially at night. Sentence: Because of the political upheaval in the country a curfew was implemented to avoid violence. Sentence: A dawn to dusk curfew was implemented in the city. Sentence: The whole area was immediately placed under curfew. 28. Worrisome, Worrisomely: Anxious, Bothersome, Distraught. Something that cause anxiety and distraught. Sentence: “You seem worrisome Edward, is everything alright?” asked Bella to her friend Edward. Sentence: There was something worrisome in her eyes. Sentence: “What is wrong with you Edward?”, Bella asked worrisomely. 29. Smother, Smothered, Smothering: To kill someone by covering their nose to suffocate them. To suffocate someone to death. Sentence: A teenage mum tried to smother her baby in the hospital. Sentence: She smothered him to death. 30. Lascivious, Lasciviously, Lasciviousness: Feeling, showing or carrying overt sexual interest or explicit details. Sentence: There was a lascivious glint in his eyes.
  11. 11. 11 Sentence: He gave her a lascivious wink. 31. Elicit, Elicited, Eliciting: To bring out, to evoke, to obtain. 32. Sacred, Sacral, Sacrality, Sacralize: Something having sacred importance. Holy, venerated, revered. To give or award something with sacred importance. Sentence: There were rural images that sacralize country life. Sentence: A church is a sacred building. Sentence: Cows are sacred to Hindus. Sentence: Temples, mosques, churches and synagogues are all sacred buildings. Sentence: John was officially punished for touching the sacralities in the museum. Sentence: His religious outlook is shown in a wider sacralization of the law in his reign. 33. Malevolent, Malevolence, Malevolently: Maleficent, malicious, and malignant. An inclination of someone or something to do evil to others. Sentence: He is malevolent. Sentence: She is malevolent. Sentence: She looked at her friend malevolently. Sentence: The bombing was an act of great malevolence. 34. Invade, Invaded, Invasive, Invasion: To enter in a large number. To enter a country or region to occupy or seize it. Sentence: The virus invaded the central nervous system of the patient. Sentence: The President ordered the army to invade at dawn. Sentence: Invasive organisms, pests and diseases threaten food and agricultural systems and freshwater and marine ecosystems. Sentence: The invasion of the army happened at dawn.
  12. 12. 12 35. Gratitude, Grateful: The quality of being thankful. Feeling or showing appreciation for something kind. Sentence: She expressed her gratitude to the committee for their support. Sentence: Gratitude is the sign of noble souls. Sentence: Tears of gratitude filled her eyes. Sentence: I am grateful to you for your help. Sentence: Kate gave him a grateful smile. 36. Exploit, Exploiter, Exploited, Exploitation, Exploitative: Make full use of and derive benefit from someone or something in a way that is considered unfair. Sentence: “A lot of rich people exploit the poor to make their money”, said Bella to her friend Katie. Sentence: She exploited his weakness. Sentence: “Enter their organizations and exploit their weaknesses!”, Edward said to Jacob. Sentence: The native population was subjugated and exploited. Sentence: “They have been marginalized, exploited and constantly threatened”, said Bella to her friend Edward. Sentence: Migrant workers are vulnerable to exploitation. Sentence: He was a cruel exploiter. Sentence: He was indulged in exploitative activities. 37. Irreparable: Something that is impossible to repair. An injury or loss that is impossible to rectify or repair. Sentence: The inexperienced workers were doing irreparable damage to the company.
  13. 13. 13 Sentence: The flood did irreparable damage to the building. 38. Resent, Resented, Resentment: To strongly dislike someone or something. A strong feeling of dislike for someone or something. Sentence: She resented the fact that her fiancé had children. Sentence: “I resent his interference in my work”, asked Jacob to Edward. Sentence: “I resent your criticism”, said Jacob to his friend Katie. Sentence: “Does she resent my being here?”, said Katie to her friend Edward. Sentence: She was filled with deep resentment at being passed over for promotion. Sentence: She felt a wave of resentment surging inside her. 39. Redeem, Redeemed, Redemption: Compensate for the faults or sins or the wrong doings. A compensation for the faults or the wrong doings. 40. Redeem, Redeemed, Redemption (Another meaning): Gain or regain possession of something in exchange for payment. To buy back, repurchase. Sentence: This Pilgrimage is a chance to redeem oneself from the committed sins, asked Bella to Georgiana. Sentence: She is going to redeem her diamond ring. Sentence: The amount required to redeem the mortgage was twenty lakhs. Sentence: They visited the Shrine of Our Lady to pray for redemption. 41. Amateur: A person who engages in a pursuit or profession especially a sport on an unpaid basis. A person who engages in a profession or pursuit on an unpaid basis. Sentence: She is an amateur in dancing.
  14. 14. 14 Sentence: The competition is open to both amateur and professional photographers. Sentence: She is an amateur in the field of teaching. 42. Inflate, Inflated, Inflatable, Inflated, Inflation: To fill something a tyre or a balloon or other expandable structure with air or gas so that it becomes enlarged. 43. Inflate, Inflated, Inflatable, Inflated, Inflation (Another meaning): Increase by a large or excessive amount. A rise in something. Sentence: The life jacket failed to inflate. Sentence: Inflate your life jacket by pulling sharply on the cord. Sentence: The balloons had been inflated with helium. Sentence: He inflated the balloons with helium. Sentence: They gifted their children an inflatable paddling pool. Sentence: Inflation needs to be curbed globally. Sentence: The government is determined to eradicate inflation. 44. Waive, Waived, Waiver: Exemption, relief, dispensation, relaxation. Sentence: The Principal agreed to waive his usual fee. Sentence: The Court decided to waive her fine as it was her first offence. Sentence: The student needed a fee waiver. 45. Commence, Commenced, Commencement: To begin, to start. A beginning, starting of something. Sentence: The meeting commenced at 10.00 am. Sentence: “My holidays will commence at the beginning of May”, said John to Carol.
  15. 15. 15 Sentence: The students shall enroll in their particular courses at the commencement of the academic session. 46. Audible, Audibly, Audibility: Able to be heard. In a way that can be heard. Capable of being heard, loud enough to be heard. Sentence: The sound was clearly audible in the awful silence. Sentence: The lecturer spoke so quietly that he was scarcely audible at the back of the hall. Sentence: His whisper was clearly audible. Sentence: “Please ensure the audibility of your recorded lecture”, the head teacher said to the junior teachers. Sentence: The third girl answered most audibly than the previous two. Sentence: He sighed audibly and rubbed the back of his neck again. 47. Inaudible, Inaudibly, Inaudibility: Unable to be heard. In a way that is unable to be heard. Inability to be heard. Sentence: The noise of the wind made her cries inaudible. Sentence: The lecturer spoke inaudibly during the entire lecture. Sentence: The inaudibility of the violins spoiled the performance. 48. Accumulate, Accumulated, Accumulating, Accumulation: To gather together in an increasing number or quantity. A buildup of something. Sentence: Dirt must not be allowed to accumulate in the home. Sentence: Toxins accumulated in her body and she caught a harmful disease. Sentence: Accumulation and circulation of money in few hands is unjust. Sentence: Her only interest was the accumulation of money.
  16. 16. 16 49. Navigate, Navigated, Navigation: To plan and direct the course of a ship, aircraft or other form of transport especially by using instruments or maps. To steer. Sentence: Sailors have special equipments and instruments that help them to navigate. Sentence: “I do not like to navigate London’s busiest streets”, said Katie to her friend Edward. Sentence: “How do you navigate your way through a forest?”, asked Albert to Michael. Sentence: The voyage was an achievement of navigation and courage. Sentence: “Navigation is difficult on this river because of hidden rocks”, said Bella to her friend Edward. 50. Plausible, Plausibly, Plausibility: Reasonable, logical, and acceptable. In a way that is reasonable, logical and acceptable. The quality of being reasonable, logical and acceptable. Sentence: She could not find plausible explanation for the disappearance of the diamond ring. Sentence: The student stood still trying to invent a plausible excuse. Sentence: She was a plausible liar. Sentence: He argued very plausibly for the acceptance of the bill in the senate. Sentence: He argued very plausibly that the claims were true. Sentence: Their claims gained plausibility. Sentence: Plausibility is the base of a reason. Sentence: Her reason lacked plausibility.
  17. 17. 17 51. Implausible, Implausibly, Implausibility: Unreasonable, illogical, and unacceptable. In a way that is unreasonable, illogical and unacceptable. The quality of being unreasonable, illogical and unacceptable. Sentence: Her reason was implausible. Sentence: The student gave a series of implausible excuses. Sentence: He gave an implausible excuse for showing up late for work. Sentence: The drug manufacturer was fined for making implausible claims about its weight loss products. Sentence: “It is implausible that the outdoor concert will take place during curfew hours”, said Henry to his friend Edward. Sentence: He argued very implausibly for the acceptance of the bill in the senate. Sentence: He argued very implausibly that the claims were true. Sentence: “The main problem with the film is its implausibility”, said Albert to his friend Katie. Sentence: “May be the scientific data/evidence will convince you of the implausibility of these outdated home remedies”, said Edward to John. 52. Terminate, Terminated, Termination, Terminable: To bring something to a closure or to an end. To discontinue the employment of someone. Sentence: “You have no right to terminate the contract” said Michael to Henry. Sentence: Some patients terminated contact with the therapist because they do not understand why certain questions are being asked to them. Sentence: Last year football was terminated at the school. Sentence: Plans are being made to terminate unproductive employees. Sentence: The dispute was brought to a happy termination.
  18. 18. 18 Sentence: The employee’s termination was scheduled for 6 March. Sentence: The contract is terminable by either party. Sentence: Modernization is a non-terminable process. Sentence: His employment was terminable at the will of his boss. 53. Scrutiny, Scrutinize, Scrutinized, Scrutinization: Critical observation of someone or something. To inspect, to check. Sentence: His relationship with his boss came under scrutiny. Sentence: Her suspicious activities came under police scrutiny. Sentence: His private life came under media scrutiny. Sentence: He scrutinized her face. Sentence: My mother scrutinized my room. Sentence: “A clean freak, my mother always scrutinizes and inspects my room”, said Katie to her friend Edward. Sentence: She leaned forward to scrutinize their faces. Sentence: The doctor scrutinized the patient’s face for symptoms. Sentence: She closely scrutinized her opponent’s every move. Sentence: “Because of recent terror attacks, the airline authorities closely scrutinize all bags that are going on board and airplanes”, said Katie to his friend John. Sentence: “Because of recent terror attacks, the airline screeners closely scrutinize all bags that are going on board and airplanes”, said Katie to his friend Edward. Sentence: For the past two years she had been a victim of intense scrutinization. 54. Scowl, Scowled, Scowling: An angry or bad tempered expression of the face. To frown.
  19. 19. 19 Sentence: He looked at me with a scowl on his face. Sentence: She scowled at him defiantly. Sentence: During the whole ceremony, Edward wore a permanent scowl on his face. Sentence: During the whole ceremony, Edward sat with a permanent scowl on his face. Sentence: She looked at me with a scowl. Sentence: A teenage girl was sitting alone in the corner with a scowl on her face. Sentence: Natasha scowled in disgust at the little kid who broke her mobile phone. Sentence: Bella glanced at John who was scowling at her father. 55. Crumple, Crumpled, Crumpling: To crush or squeeze something to an extent that the thing becomes creased, wrinkled and distorted. Sentence: She pulled her wallet out of her bag and threw the crumpled bill on the floor. Sentence: She crumpled the piece of paper into a ball and threw it into the dust bin. Sentence: Tom crumpled the paper. Sentence: Crumpling the previous page, she took out her notebook from the bag and tore a new page from it. Sentence: Crumpling the undelivered letters the manager threw them in the dust bin and left the room. 56. Distort, Distorted, Distortion: To deform and misshape something. Sentence: Heat caused the plastic to distort. Sentence: He distorted his face in disgust.
  20. 20. 20 Sentence: “My friend has an app on her mobile phone that distorts our faces in amusing and funny ways”, asked Katie to her friend Catherine. Sentence: A sudden spasm/sensation of pain distorted his face. Sentence: The distortion of democracy is a major threat for the world. 57. Anguish, Anguished, Anguishing: Severe mental/psychological pain or physical pain or suffering. Agony, Torment, Grief, Sorrow. Sentence: “Anguish, fear and anger filled my heart”, said Katie to her friend Bella. Sentence: He was in anguish. Sentence: “When my husband died, the anguish that I felt was unbearable”, said Katie to her friend Suzie. Sentence: Tears of anguish filled her eyes. Sentence: The loss of her husband anguished her deeply. Sentence: The victims uttered anguished cries. Sentence: He was anguished after the death of his grandmother. Sentence: She left her anguishing in the room. Sentence: After divorcing his wife, Alice spent the next two weeks anguishing about whether he made the right decision or not? 58. Clench, Clenched, Clenching: To tightly close the parts of the body especially out of extreme anger. A contraction of tightening of the parts of body. Sentence: “I felt my jaws clench and teeth grind together”, said Katie to her friend Edward. Sentence: His hands continued to clench and unclench. Sentence: Peter had to clench his jaw to suppress his anger.
  21. 21. 21 Sentence: The condition in which a person grind his/her teeth together or clench his/her mouth is called Sleep Burxism. Sentence: The anguishing thought made her chest clench so tight that she almost stopped walking and started sobbing. Sentence: His chest was clenched so tight that he felt extreme physical pain. Sentence: He clenched his fists in anger. Sentence: She answered through clenched mouth. Sentence: The policeman clenched his arms. Sentence: She stared at Darcy, clenching her hands so tight that her fingernails bit into her palms. Sentence: Clenching her hands together she prayed fervently. 59. Verge: An extreme limit beyond which something specified is expected to happen. An edge, a brink or border of something. Sentence: She was on the verge of crying again. Sentence: Due to the continuous/perpetual economic instability, the country was on the verge of collapse. Sentence: Jessica seemed on the verge of tears. Sentence: The continuous anguish caused her to be on the verge of nervous collapse. Sentence: Due to marine environment pollution, the dolphins are on the verge of extinction. Sentence: She stood on the verge of the lake at the line where the water met sand. 60. Falsify, Falsified, Falsification: To alter or change or misrepresent or misreport especially a document, important information or evidence so as to mislead.
  22. 22. 22 Falsify, Falsified, Falsification (Another meaning): To prove anything for example, a statement or a theory to be wrong. Sentence: The evidences were altered to falsify the results. Sentence: She falsified a document to get a job. Sentence: The manager falsified the data to prevent detention. Sentence: Falsification of data in legal matters is a crime. 61. Hoarse/Hoarsely: Of a person’s voice sounding rough and harsh. Sentence: She sounded a bit hoarse because of throat infection/sore throat. Sentence: When he spoke his voice was hoarse and abnormal/out of normal. Sentence: The cold and throat infection/sore throat made him a little hoarse. Sentence: She got hoarse after yelling so much. Sentence: He tried to speak, but his voice was so hoarse that his words were incomprehensible/unintelligible. Sentence: “Thank you”, Maria said hoarsely. Sentence: The puppy barked hoarsely all the time. 62. Throb, Throbbed, Throbbing: A beat or sound or sensation or pain with a strong, regular rhythm. To pulsate or beat or thump in a regular manner. Sentence: A sharp pain began to throb in his head. Sentence: Her head began to throb with pain. Sentence: Her ankle began to throb with pain. Sentence: The relentless throb of pop music energized the audience during the concert. Sentence: His head throbbed and his body ached.
  23. 23. 23 Sentence: The music throbbed and the people danced. Sentence: “My head is throbbing”, said Bella to the doctor. Sentence: His head was throbbing and his body was aching after he met a car accident. 63. Knead, Kneaded, Kneading: To mould and blend wheat flour into wheat paste and clay into dough with the hands. Sentence: “Please add the water and knead the wheat flour/flour well” said Katie to her friend Edward. Sentence: “Knead the dough for three minutes”, said Bella to her friend Edward. Sentence: “Lightly knead the dough for three minutes”, said John to his friend Edward. Sentence: “To knead the dough, press it down with the palms of your hands”, said Edward to his friend John. Sentence: Tom is kneading the dough. Sentence: Michael added some water and kneaded the dough well. 64. Malice, Maleficent, Malicious, Maleficence: Someone or something that is immensely harmful and evil in intent and action and effect. Something or someone that cause immense harm or destruction, especially by supernatural means. Sentence: He bore no malice against his fierce opponent/enemy. Sentence: Maleficent bacteria can pose serious threats to one’s health. Sentence: Filled with malice, Bella poisoned her husband. Sentence: She felt no malice. Sentence: There was a spark of malice in his remark. Sentence: Actions that are done in malice produce harmful results.
  24. 24. 24 Sentence: Bob had a maleficent look in his eyes that radiated so much evil that everybody feared meeting him. Sentence: John’s family was quarrelsome and malicious. Sentence: Their talk was slightly/a bit malicious. Sentence: Edward complained that he had been receiving malicious telephone calls. Sentence: Avoidance of maleficence is one of the cardinal principles of ethics. Sentence: John was convicted for being guilty of maleficence. Sentence: “I will gather some documents that will show you all the maleficence of this organization”, said John to his friend Edward Sentence: “It is an act of sheer maleficence”, said Edward to his friend John. Sentence: The murder was an act of sheer maleficence. 65. Inscribe, Inscribed, Inscribing, Inscription: To Carve or to engrave as a long lasting record. The action of carving, inscribing and engraving something is called Inscription. Sentence: “I cannot comprehend/understand what is inscribed on the pillar”, said Bella to her friend Katie. Sentence: The watch was inscribed with her name. Sentence: His name was inscribed on the trophy. Sentence: Edward was inscribing his wife’s name on the wooden frame. Sentence: The old inscription was still comprehensible/understandable. Sentence: The ring bears an inscription. Sentence: The gravestone bears an inscription. Sentence: The inscription on the coin has faded away.
  25. 25. 25 66. Beneficent/Benevolent, Beneficial, Beneficence/Benevolence: Someone who is generous, bountiful, kindhearted and humane is called Beneficent or Benevolent. Something or someone that produces good and helpful results is called Beneficial. Sentence: Moderate exercise is beneficial for heath. Sentence: The doctors decided that it would not be beneficial to keep him in the hospital. Sentence: Sunshine and water is beneficial to living beings. Sentence: It will be a mutually beneficial project/business. Sentence: Under the beneficent government the country prospered and extended its trade. Sentence: The reign of the king was beneficent/benevolent and long. Sentence: She became extremely beneficent to the poor cottagers. Sentence: Religion teaches love, kindness, sympathy, benevolence and morality. Sentence: His benevolent nature prevented him from refusing any beggar who came across him. Sentence: She was a benevolent woman who gave all of her money to the N.G.O. 67. Void: An empty space. Sentence: The death of John’s wife left a painful void in his life. Sentence: Below him was nothing but a black void. Sentence: Void/Empty spaces surround the tanks. Sentence: The office fell void when all the workers were gone. 68. Tentative, Tentatively: Not certain or fixed. Unconfirmed. Sentence: The date sheet for the exam was tentative.
  26. 26. 26 Sentence: The investment that she made was small and tentative. Sentence: “The timings of the party are tentative and can be changed according to the order of the Principal”, said Bella to her friend Katie. 69. Vicious, Viciously, Viciousness: Someone or something that is cruel, violent and brutal. Merciless, inhuman, malicious, maleficent, evil. Sentence: There were vicious animals in the jungle. Sentence: “Mark is a vicious person”, said Katie to his friend Edward. Sentence: Honor killing is a vicious act. Sentence: The boy had been viciously assaulted. Sentence: “John was a vicious person who relished in torturing and murdering little children. His viciousness is beyond our conception”, said Katie to her friend Bella. Sentence: His evil act revealed his viciousness. 70. Coherent, Coherence, Coherently: Logical, reasonable and well organized. Sentence: The government lacks a coherent economic policy. Sentence: The President’s policy is perfectly coherent. Sentence: “The essay of the student lacked coherence; it was not a coherent narrative. Therefore, I could not give him marks for it,” the teacher replied to the principal. Sentence: To have a city like London with no coherent system of government was absurd. Sentence: The website was appraised for its coherent approach towards English language learning. Sentence: She could not talk coherently after the accident.
  27. 27. 27 Sentence: There was no coherence between the first and the second half of the film. Sentence: The economic policy that was made by the new government lacked coherence. 71. Incoherent, Incoherence, Incoherently: Unclear, Incomprehensible, unreasonable and unorganized. Sentence: “The essay of the student was incoherent; it was not a coherent narrative. Therefore, I could not give him marks for it,” the teacher replied to the principal. Sentence: There was incoherence between the first and the second half of the film. Sentence: To have a city like London with an incoherent system of government was absurd. 72. Elate, Elated, Elation: Extremely happy, delighted and joyous. Sentence: She was elated by the news. Sentence: He was greatly elated by his success. Sentence: Her success elated her family. Sentence: Her mood swung between elation and despair. Sentence: She was filled with elation when her daughter was born. Sentence: He felt both guilt and elation. 73. Seldom: Something that is not often and is rare. Sentence: “John seldom offers/shares his opinions during the meetings”, said Katie to her friend Edward. Sentence: His name is seldom mentioned in the newspapers.
  28. 28. 28 Sentence: “These bacteria seldom penetrate the living cells in the body, though they do so but in a few cases”, said the doctor to his patient. 74. Expel, Expelled, Expulsion: To officially make someone leave a school, or other organization. To force someone to leave a place. To force out something especially from the body or something. Sentence: The heart muscles contract to expel the blood. Sentence: “When we breathe out we expel air from our lungs”, the doctor said to Katie. Sentence: The government is trying to expel all the foreign journalists. Sentence: “Is that antidote strong enough to expel the poison from the body?”, asked Natalia to her friend Katie. Sentence: The manager expelled the worker from the factory. Sentence: The headmaster expelled the boy from the school. Sentence: Expulsion from a school is a harsh form of punishment. Sentence: The expulsion of dust and lava from the volcano was visible from miles away. Sentence: The recurrent chain of terrorist attacks led to the expulsion of the new immigrants from the country. Sentence: His unethical behavior resulted in his expulsion from the college. 75. Illuminate, Illuminated, Illuminating: To make something visible or bright by shining light on it. To light up something. To brighten. Sentence: The lights illuminated the room. Sentence: “The headlights of the cars are meant to illuminate the way during the night”, said Edward to his friend John. Sentence: The headlights of the cars illuminated the darkness during the journey.
  29. 29. 29 Sentence: The street lights illuminated the whole area at night. Sentence: The torch light illuminated the room during a power breakdown. Sentence: “These lights are used for illuminating the playing area”, said Katie to her friend Edward. Sentence: The moon shone brightly, illuminating the night. Sentence: A rope of colored lights was illuminating the dance floor. 76. Vulnerable, Vulnerability: Someone or something that is exposed to the possibility of being harmed. At risk. Unsafe. Unprotected. Unguarded. Sentence: Children are the most vulnerable members of a society. Sentence: Young birds are very vulnerable to the predators. Sentence: The kittens were vulnerable to the predators. Sentence: These offices are highly vulnerable to terrorist attacks. Sentence: The prevalence of conflicts in the country reflects its vulnerability. Sentence: The recurrence of the terrorist attacks in the country reflects its vulnerability. 77. Serene, Serenely, Serenity: A state of being calm, peaceful and tranquil. Sentence: Katie has a lovely and serene face. Sentence: The Sea was serene. Sentence: The boat sailed serenely towards the horizon. Sentence: It was a serenely beautiful night. Sentence: “The relaxed, elegant and calm atmosphere adds to the feeling of serenity inside the cabin”, said Katie to her friend Edward. Sentence: The crowds and noise disturbed the serenity of the park.
  30. 30. 30 78. Falter, Faltered, Faltering: To lose strength or momentum. Falter, Faltered, Faltering (Second meaning): To move unsteadily. To stagger. To limp. Sentence: He faltered and finally fell down in the middle of the street. Sentence: The economy of the country is beginning to falter. Sentence: His voice began to falter. Sentence: In the country the growth began to falter and inflation began to rise. Sentence: Her optimism faltered. Sentence: The music faltered, stopped and started again. Sentence: She took a few faltering steps. Sentence: His business was faltering. 79. Stalk, Stalked, Stalking: To pursue, follow and chase someone or something. Sentence: Stalk that person and bring him to me, the police officer said to his security guard. Sentence: The movie was about a detective being stalked by a killer. Sentence: Tom was stalking Bella for three weeks on social media until Bella blocked him on the Facebook and Whatsapp. Sentence: The police stalked Bella and recorded her phone calls. 80. Feverish: Having or showing the symptoms of fever. Sentence: The doctor touched his forehead, he felt hot and feverish. Sentence: “I felt feverish all night”, said Katie to her friend Edward. Sentence: “I am feeling a bit feverish, I hope it is not the start of flu”, said Katie to her friend Bella.
  31. 31. 31 81. Valiant, Valiantly, Valiance: Brave, fearless and courageous. Bravery. Sentence: The Prince was handsome and valiant. Sentence: Edward was a valiant man but he was not talented enough to be a ruler. Sentence: Jacob, a valiant soldier was an excellent poet as well. Sentence: Tom struggled valiantly to rescue the drowning man. Sentence: The soldiers fought valiantly during the war. Sentence: Without great valiance, one cannot be considered a hero. Sentence: The warriors were inspired by the valiance of the war heroes. 82. Marginal: Minor, Insignificant. Sentence: There was a marginal economic growth in the business. Sentence: There has been only a marginal increase in sales. Sentence: ABC was considered a marginal language. 83. Marginalize, Marginalized, Marginalization: Treat and regard a person, specific group or concept as insignificant. Sentence: They had always been marginalized, exploited and constantly threatened. Sentence: We must not marginalize the poor in our society. Sentence: The economic support agency helps people from marginalized groups. Sentence: “We can no longer justify any more aggression and marginalization by the army”, said the Prime Minister during his speech. Sentence: He promised to fight against social marginalization and unemployment.
  32. 32. 32 Sentence: There are three types of marginalization: social marginalization, economic marginalization and political marginalization. 84. Disguise, Disguised: To adopt or give (someone or oneself) a different appearance in order to conceal someone’s or one’s true identity. Sentence: He tried to disguise his voice on the phone. Sentence: He disguised himself as a woman. Sentence: Tom disguised himself as a policeman. 85. Perseverance: Persistence in doing something despite difficulties and delay in achieving success. Determination. Dedication. Sentence: Perseverance always gives fruit. Sentence: Success is the product of hard work, commitment and perseverance. 86. Affluent, Affluence: Having a great deal of money and wealth. Wealthy. Rich. Sentence: The policy led to the creation of a new, affluent middle class. Sentence: Only affluent families could afford the luxuries of life. Sentence: The sign of the man’s affluence was his valuable art collection. Sentence: America is a land of affluence. Sentence: America is an affluent country. 87. Stimulate, Stimulated, Stimulating: Cause to act in a specified manner. Cause to occur rapidly. Sentence: She questioned whether it was feasible to stimulate investment in these regions? Sentence: Olive oil stimulates hair growth. Sentence: “A raise in employee wages might stimulate production”, said Katie to her friend Edward.
  33. 33. 33 Sentence: “All the factors stimulated urban development”, said Katie to her friend Bella. Sentence: “This drug is for stimulating the metabolism of human body”, said Edward to his friend John. Sentence: “By stimulating the economy, we can make this country prosper”, said Katie to her friend Bella. 88. Persist, Persisted, Persistent, Persistence: Continue to exist. Continue. Sentence: “If the pain persists, consult your doctor”, said Katie to her friend Bella. Sentence: Fog will persist throughout the night. Sentence: “This situation cannot be allowed to persist”, said Bella to his friend Katie. Sentence: “The nausea persisted for a while but I felt better after taking a medicine”, said Katie to her friend Bella. Sentence: His depression persisted. Sentence: “See your doctor for persistent sleep issues”, said John to his friend Edward. Sentence: Persistent winds changed the weather. Sentence: He was completely obsessed by one persistent thought. Sentence: The persistence of chaos disrupted the economic growth of the country. Sentence: The doctor could not explain the persistence of the high temperature. 89. Capricious: A person whose mind, mood and behavior suddenly, unusually and unexplainably changes. Sentence: She was as capricious as her mother had been.
  34. 34. 34 Sentence: His wife is very capricious. Sentence: It is very difficult to work with a capricious boss. 90. Wink, Winked, Winking: To close and open one eye quickly, especially to indicate that something is a joke or a secret or as a signal of affection or greeting. Sentence: The strong wind made me wink. Sentence: “I saw him wink at her”, said John to his friend Edward. Sentence: “He gave me a friendly wink”, said Katie to her friend Bella. Sentence: She winked at him. Sentence: He winked at the boy. Sentence: We winked at her again. Sentence: She was winking at him. Sentence: Winking at Emma, he stepped forward. 91. Peculiar, Peculiarity/Queer, Queerly: Strange. Odd. Strangely. Oddly. Sentence: There was a peculiar expression on her face. Sentence: There was a queer expression on her face. Sentence: The wine had a peculiar taste. Sentence: The wine had a queer taste. Sentence: There was a peculiar smell in the kitchen. Sentence: There was a queer smell in the kitchen. Sentence: He looked at him peculiarly. Sentence: He looked at him queerly. 92. Verily: Truly.
  35. 35. 35 Sentence: Verily, every good deed results in goodness. Sentence: Verily, God loves mercy. 93. Intact: Not damaged or impaired in any way. Unharmed. Undamaged. Perfect by all means. Sentence: The Castle has remained intact over the centuries. Sentence: The old castle was still intact after over 1000 years. Sentence: The glasses remained intact after being dropped. 94. Farrier: A person who shoes horses is called a farrier. One who shoes horses and possesses some veterinarian’s skills to care for horses’ feet. Sentence: “A man who shoes horses is called a farrier”, replied Katie to her friend Edward. Sentence: The farrier’s fee was $ 28 a day. Sentence: His father was a farrier, but he wanted to become a tailor. 95. Reconcile, Reconciled, Reconciling, Reconciliations: Restore friendly between. The restoration of friendly relations. Sentence: “Why do you want to reconcile?” the angry husband said to his guilty wife. Sentence: His parents who were separate, reconciled with each other for the sake of their kids. Sentence: “I do not want to reconcile”, said Katie to her friend Edward. Sentence: They were reconciled after a quarrel. Sentence: His last wish was to be reconciled with his son. Sentence: “If the reconciliation between the two tribes takes place, there will finally be peace in the area”, said Katie to her friend Edward.
  36. 36. 36 Sentence: Signing the trade agreement was praised as an act of reconciliation between the two countries. Sentence: People tried to reconcile the couple who was filing for divorce. 96. Drizzle, Drizzled, Drizzling: Light rain is called drizzle. To rain lightly. Sentence: “It is drizzling”, said Katie to her friend Edward. Sentence: Suddenly the clouds appeared and it started to drizzle. Sentence: Suddenly the clouds faded and it started to drizzle. Sentence: The morning was very misty with a slight drizzle. Sentence: It was drizzling in the morning. Sentence: “I walked home in the drizzling rain”, said John to his friend Jacob. 97. Stagnate, Stagnant, Stagnation: Of a body of water or the atmosphere of a confined space having no current or flow and often having an unpleasant smell as a consequence. Something that is still, motionless and static. Showing no activity. Something that is not flowing and is static. Sentence: “If it fails to evolve it will stagnate and rot”, said Katie to her friend Edward. Sentence: “If the new recruitments will not be made, the work will stagnate”, Bella said to her friend Katie. Sentence: “There are marshes that stagnate water”, said John to his friend Edward. Sentence: Mosquitoes breed in stagnant pools of water. Sentence: The moss grows in stagnant pools of water. Sentence: A very few number of fishes survived in the stagnant water of the lake. Sentence: The new policies were made to revive the stagnant economy.
  37. 37. 37 Sentence: When blood becomes stagnant in veins, it begins to form clots on the vessel walls. Sentence: “Stagnation in sales is holding back economic recovery”, said Katie to her friend John. Sentence: Stagnation of trade between the two countries gave birth to economic crisis in both of the countries. Sentence: It was a period of economic stagnation. 98. Economical: Inexpensive. Reasonable. Affordable. Giving good value or return in relation to the money. Sentence: Because it is expensive to eat at a restaurant every day, it is more economical to buy groceries and make your own meals. Sentence: A small car is more economical to drive. Sentence: “John has accustomed himself to economical living”, said Katie to her friend Edward. (The End)