2. • HISTORY
A key to the understanding of the negative aspects of stress is the concept of
milieu interieur (the internal environment of the body),which was first advanced
by the French physiologist Claude Bernard.
He described it as external changes in the environment or external forces that
change the internal balance must be reacted to and compensated for if the
organism is to survive.
3. Meaning of stress
Stress can have a big impact on your body, in ways that are felt by just you,
and in way that the world can see. One of the more visible potential by-
products of stress is weight gain--many people find themselves to be
"emotional eaters“ who react to stress by reaching for something--often
the wrong thing--to eat. Stress can also create a loss of apetite, which can
be a problem as well.
4. STRESS: WHAT IS IT?
Although we all talk about stress, it often isn’t clear what stress is really
Many people consider stress to be something that happens to them, as a
negative event such as an injury or a job loss. Others think that stress is
what happens to our body, mind, and behaviour in response to an event
(E.g. heart thumping, anxiety, or nail biting).
• STRESS & STRESSOR
Stress : A person’s response to events that are threatening or challenging.
Stressor : A stimulus that causes stress
7. CATEGORIZING STRESSORS
There are three general types of stressors:
1. Cataclysmic events: Strong stressors that occur suddenly and typically
affect many people at once(e.g., natural disasters).
2. Personal stressors: Major life events, such as the death of a family
member, that have immediate negative consequences that generally
fade with time.
3. Background stressors: Everyday annoyances, such as being stuck in
traffic, that cause minor irritations and may have long-term ill effects if
they continue or are compounded by other stressful events.
8. COPING WITH STRESS
• Efforts to control, reduce, or learn to tolerate the threats that lead to
stress are known as coping.
• We habitually use certain coping responses to deal with stress.
• Stress management
It is the amelioration of stress and especially chronic stress often for the
purpose of improving everyday functioning. Stress produces numerous
symptoms which vary according to persons, situations, and severity. These
can include physical health decline as well as depression.
9. TYPES OF STRESS MANAGEMENT
• Acute stress is usually for short time and may be due to work pressure,
meeting deadlines pressure or minor accident, overexertion, increased
physical activity, searching something but you misplaced it, or similar
things. Symptoms of this type of tension are headaches, back pain,
stomach problems, rapid heart beat, muscle aches or body pain.
• This type of stress is the most serious of all the 3 stress types. Chronic
stress is a prolonged stress that exists for weeks, months, or even years.
This stress is due to poverty, broken or stressed families and marriages,
chronic illness and successive failures in life. People suffering from this
type of stress get used to it and may even not realize that they are under
chronic stress. It is very harmful to their health
10. STEPS TO MANAGING STRESS
1. Identify if you are stressed
2. Identify the stressor.
3. Identify the reason for the stressor.
4. Select an appropriate stress management
11. Causes of stress at home
1. Death of spouse, family, near relative or friend.
2. Injury or illness of any family member.
3. Marriage of self or son or daughter or brother or sister.
4. Separation or divorce from partner.
5. Pregnancy or birth of a new baby.
6. Children's behavior or disobedience.
7. Children's educational performance.
8. Not sufficient money to raise your standard of living.
9. Loss of money in burglary, pick-pocketed or share market.
12. Causes of stress at work
1. To meet out the demands of the job.
2. Your relationship with colleagues.
3. To control staff under you.
4. To train your staff and take work from them.
5. Support you receive from your boss, colleagues and juniors.
6. Excessive work pressure.
7. To meet out deadlines.
8. To give new results.
9. To produce new publications if you are in research area.
10. Working overtime and on holidays.
13. Other causes of stress
1. Fear, intermittent or continuous.
2. Threats: physical threats, social threats, financial threat, other
4. Lack of sleep.
5. Somebody misunderstands you.
6. Setback to your position in society
14. advantages of stress management
Business advantages of stress management:
1. Less absenteeism due to stress-related disorders
2. Less worker's compensation loss due to stress-related illness or
3. Improved job performance
4. Less stressful, more efficient workplace
5. Improved employee attitude
6. Improved employee overall health
15. • Health advantages of stress management:
1. Decreased stress-related symptoms
2. Improved sleep
3. Decreased anxiety
4. Decreased use of medications
5. reduced pain, increased ability to manage pain
6. Increased ability to relax physiologically
7. Increased sense of control and improved self-esteem
16. Disadvantages of stress management
• Stress is a disadvantage because it can potentially raise your heart rate
and weaken your immune system. Also, it can be a factor in poor
decision making because under stress we may not think logically or
consider the consequences of the choices we make.
17. A Model of Stress
19. • Some people thrive on stressful situations, while others are
overwhelmed by them. What is it that differentiates people in terms of
their ability to handle stress?
• At least four variables — perception, job experience, social support,
and belief in locus of control — have been found to be relevant
1. Relevant Moderators
4. Social Support
5. Belief in Locus of Control
20. • Perception
The stress potential in environmental, organizational, and individual factors
doesn't lie in their objective condition. Rather, it lies in an employee's
interpretation of those factors.
• Job Experience
Experience is said to be a great teacher. It can also be a great stress-
• Social Support
There is increasing evidence that social support — that is, collegial
relationships with co-workers or supervisors — can buffer the impact of
21. • Belief in Locus of Control
Those with an internal locus of control believe they control their own
destiny. Those with an external locus believe their lives are controlled by
outside forces. Evidence indicates that internals perceive their jobs to be
less stressful than do externals.
22. PROBABLE SYMPTOMS
• Loss of mental concentration
• Extreme anger and frustration
• Family conflict
• Migraine, Headaches and back problems
25. 1.Individual Approaches
• Time Management
• Physical Exercise
• Relaxation Training
• Social Support
• Time Management An understanding and utilization of basic time management
principles can help individuals better cope with job demands.
• Physical Exercise Non-competitive physical exercise such as aerobics, race
walking, jogging, swimming, and riding a bicycle have long been
recommended by physicians as a way to deal with excessive stress levels.
26. • Relaxation Training Individuals can teach themselves to relax through
techniques such as meditation, hypnosis, and biofeedback. The objective is
to reach a state of deep relaxation, where one feels physically relaxed,
somewhat detached from the immediate environment, and detached from
• Social Support Having friends, family, or work colleagues to talk to provides
an outlet when stress levels become excessive. Expanding your social
support network, therefore, can be a means for tension reduction.
27. • Organizational Approaches
1. Selection and Placement
2. Goal Setting
3. Job Redesign
4. Participative Decision Making
5. Organizational Communication
6. Wellness Program
• Selection & Placement Individuals with little experience or an external locus of
control tend to be more stress-prone . Selection and placement decisions
should take these facts into consideration.
• Goal Setting The use of goals can reduce stress as well as provide motivation.
Specific goals that are perceived as attainable clarify performance
expectations. Additionally, goal feedback reduces uncertainties as to actual
job performance. The result is less employee frustration, role ambiguity, and
28. • Job Redesign Redesigning jobs to give employees more responsibility,
more meaningful work, more autonomy, and increased feedback can
reduce stress, because these factors give the employee greater control
over work activities and lessen dependence on others.
• Participative Decision Making By giving these employees a voice in
decisions that directly affect their job performances, management can
increase employee control and reduce this role stress.
• Organizational Commitment Given the importance that perceptions play
in moderating the stress-response relationship, management can also
use effective communications as a means to shape employee
• Wellness Program These programs focus on the employee's total
physical and mental condition. For example, they typically provide
workshops to help people quit smoking, control alcohol use, lose weight,
eat better, and develop a regular exercise program.
29. EUSTRESS vs. DISTRESS
Eustress, or positive stress, has the following characteristics:
•Motivates, focuses energy
•Is perceived as within our coping abilities
30. • Positive stress results
1. Enables concentration
2. Increases performance
3. Energizes you into motion
In contrast, Distress, or negative stress, has the following characteristics:
•Causes anxiety or concern
•Can be short- or long-term
•Is perceived as outside of our coping abilities
•Can lead to mental and physical problems
32. • Negative Stress Results
1. Loss of motivation
2. Reduces effectiveness
3. Physical, mental, And behavioral problems
33. • Work-related stress can result in high levels of employee turnover.
Employees experiencing stress are more likely to make poor decisions
and casual errors. Workplace relations and customer service may
34. • Be Prepared for Changes
• Find and protect time to refresh, re-energize and re-motivate.
• Avoid giving in to alcohol, smoking and other substance abuses.
• Positive attitudes towards stressful situations in life.
• Don't be complacent.
• Sit straight and comfortably on your seat, and try breathing exercises
• Try creative visualization
35. Relief from stress
1. Stop shallow breathing
2. Create the habit of deep breaths
3. Visualize and communicate your vision
4. Be aware of your choices you always have a choice
5. Learn to say no; you cannot do everything you are asked.
6. Be thankful.
7. Listen to music.
• Crack some jokes.
• Do your goofiest impression.
• Tickle a child that you love.