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  2. Learning objectives. i. Define lymphadenitis ii. Causes of lymphadenitis iii. Signs and symptoms of lymphadenitis iv. Diagnosis/investigation v. Treatment of lymphadenitis vi. Complications of lymphadenitis.
  3. Definition. • Lymphadenitis is an inflammation of the lymph nodes, resulting in lymph node swelling and tenderness. The lymph node , also called lymph glands, are part of the lymphatic system. The lymphatic system is part of the immune system. Lymph nodes produce cells that help the body fight infections.
  4. Cont. • Inflammation of the lymph nodes can arise due to infections or to non- infectious causes. Infectious causes include both viral infections, such as HIV or upper respiratory viruses, and bacterial infections. Less commonly, fungal or parasitic.
  5. Cont. i) Bacterial infections:  staphylococcus,  streptococcus,  mycobacterium in Tuberculosis ii) Viral infections:  HIV  Epstein-Barr virus
  6. Cont. Noninfectious causes of lymphadenitis include: iii) Lymphoma (Cancer of the lymph nodes). In lymphadenitis, the nodes will swell near the site of an underlying infection , inflammation , or tumor
  7. Signs and symptoms. i. Hard, swollen or tender lymph nodes ii. Itchy skin iii. Redness, warmth or swelling iv. High grade fever v. pain
  8. Diagnosis/ investigations. i. Physical exam will reveal the swelling ii. Blood test – CBC iii. CT scans for tumor iv. X-ray v. Lymph node biopsy
  9. Treatment. • Antibiotics if bacterial caused e.g cephalexin, amoxicillin/clavulanate, clindamycin • Pain killer such as ibuprofen to control pain and fever • Anti inflammatory to reduce the swelling • Surgery to drain pus • If the cause is cancer; surgery, chemotherapy and radiation therapy.