Fight for Net Neutrality
What is “net neutrality”?
Why should I care ?
What is Net Neutrality?
“Net neutrality simply means that service providers and government
treat all data online equally, by charging each user the same fee for the
use of content , sites, and applications and move at the same speed over
the network. The owners of the Internet’s wires cannot discriminate.
This is the simple but brilliant “end-to-end” design of the Internet that
has made it such a powerful force for economic and social good.”
Ask a Ninja’s “What is Net Neutrality?” video
Top Global Web Sites (2016)
Some top ISPs in the USA (2016)
Fight for the Net Neutrality
Pros of net neutrality
Lower cost of internet
Promotes innovation, drives
entrepreneurship, stimulates ISP
Cons of net neutrality
Higher expenditure of ISP
Ease of access to certain sites
Force to use certain services
Block all peer to peer technologies
Exclusive deals with content providers
Monitor all online activities.
Associated Legal & Corporate Issues
While various pieces of legislation have been proposed,
nothing has received enough support to be made law.
Telecom companies like AT&T and Time Warner have tried
various pricing strategies based on bandwidth consumption
however, none have met with success, either ending in public
outcry, or a ruling by the FCC.
Some companies which own the networks want to
inhibit P2P activity, claiming it slows their whole
network and is primarily used for illegal purposes.
The most extreme proposals from such companies
suggest varying payment plans which provide limited
to complete access of the internet.
Supporters of the Concept
Organizations that support network neutrality include:
Consumer Federation of America
American Electronics Association
Gun Owners of America
the Media Access Project
the Christian Coalition
Tim Berners-Lee (the inventor of the World Wide Web) has also spoken out in favor
of net neutrality.
Barack Obama Supports Net Neutrality
Net neutrality becomes part of the official Democratic
party platform in 2008
Obama appointed Julius Genachowski as head of the FCC
American Recovery and Investment Act of 2009 provides
$7.2 billion for broadband infrastructure and mandates
that the FCC prepare a National Broadband Plan
Genachowski Adds Two Items to
FCC Policy Statement of 2005
“broadband providers cannot discriminate against particular Internet
content or applications”
• “providers of broadband Internet access must be transparent about their
network management processes.”
Video of Genachowski
Opposition to the Concept
The free-market advocacy organizations Freedom Works Foundation, National Black
Chamber of Commerce, the Competitive Enterprise Institute, and the Progress and
Freedom Foundation, high-tech trade groups (such as the National Association of
Manufacturers), and others oppose network neutrality.
Arguments of Proponents
End-to-end architecture of the Internet must be preserved
This means preventing discrimination by conduit companies against content and
services that they do not control
Conduit companies will reserve lots of bandwidth for services like cable
Net neutrality guarantees constitute unnecessary regulation
The threat of discrimination is overblown
Cable and telephone companies need new revenues to build out the network
Need to have “intelligent networks” to obtain “quality of service”
Competition is sufficient to prevent abuses.
More Arguments of Proponents
There is insufficient competition between cable operators and Telco's
to guarantee non-discrimination
There is a potential for violations of freedom of speech in the
absence of net neutrality guarantees
Gigi Sohn Larry
Social Issues with Network Neutrality
End to end principle: the principle that communications protocol operations should be
defined to occur at the end-points of a communication system.
Data discrimination: a claim that the current internet is not neutral as its implementation of
best effort generally favors file transfer and other non-time sensitive traffic over real-time
Social Issues with Network Neutrality (cont.)
3. Quality of service: There is no single, uniform method of interconnecting network using IP,
and not all networks that use IP are part of the internet. Thus IPTV networks such as
AT&T’s U-Verse service are isolated from the Internet, and are therefore not covered by
network neutrality agreements.
4. Over provisioning.
5. Peer-to-peer file sharing.
6. Pricing models.
The National Broadband Plan
FCC announced intention to guarantee net neutrality in spite of
Comcast ruling in 2009
Genachowski spoke of a “third way” between “heavy-handed
prescriptive regulation” and the “light-touch approach” of the past
FCC would attempt to reclassify transmission component of broadband
as a “telecommunication service”
Comcast Throttling of Bit-
Torrent Traffic in 2007
Robb Topolski discovers delays in delivery of Bit-Torrent files for his barber
Topolski publishes this on Torrent Freak blog
EFF and AP verify independently
Comcast eventually admits that it was “traffic shaping” using an application
called Sand vine that prevents “seeding”
The FCC told Comcast to stop doing this
Comcast complied but appealed to courts
The Comcast Ruling of 2010
US Circuit Court of Appeals of DC ruled on April 6, 2010, that the FCC
did not have the authority to regulate ISPs under the Telecom Act of
1996 (therefore Comcast was not bound to obey FCC rules regarding
Ruling was based on FCC decision to reclassify cable modems and DSL as
New FCC Chair
New Chair, Ted Wheeler as of October 2013
Telecom lobbyist background
Hired Gigi Sohn for policy advice
SAVE THE INTERNET
Net neutrality was framed by Republicans as a regulatory issue.
Democratic framing was confusing.
Republicans and their supporters carried the day until June 2006 when the
political tide began turn against them.
The 2006 and 2008 election results meant that Democrats and their allies
would attempt to pass legislation guaranteeing net neutrality.
However, the Comcast ruling and strong Republican opposition to net
neutrality made legislative action very unlikely. It is still not clear whether
the FCC strategy to reclassify broadband transmission will work.
Notes de l'éditeur
Net = network , neutral = to be equal.
Some of the most popular website people use often. The LinkedIn is professional social network.
Finally , on 2nd February 2015, the FCC enacted its strongest –ever rules on net neutrality, preserving an open internet by prohibiting broadband providers from blocking or slowing content that flows across their pipes. ( the internet will remain “open”)