SCHOOL OF MEDICINE AND HEALTH SCIENCE
DEPARTMENT OF MEDICINE
HEALTH EDUCATION GROUP ASSIGNMENT
TITTLE = HEALTH EDUCATION PLANING AND IMPLEMENTATION ON ALCOHOL
ABUSING IN DEBRE BRHAN UNIVERSITY BASED ON PRECED-PROCEDE PLANING
DONE BY; GROUP 3
SUBMITED TO; ADDISALEM MELESSE (MPH,
DATE; FEB 20/2021
Table of contents
Phase one ‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐2
Phase four ‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐5
Phase five ‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐6
Phase eight ‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐7
Phase nine ‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐8
Group members ‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐9
Alcohol abuse among college students refers to unhealthy alcohol drinking
behaviors by college and university students. Alcohol abuse among college
students has become a major public health concern. While the legal drinking age
varies by countries, the high amount of underage students that consume alcohol
has presented many problems and consequences for universities. The cause of
alcohol abuse tend to be peer pressure, difficult life and stress. College students
who abuse alcohol can suffer from health concerns, risky sexual behavior, brain
damage, problematic alcohol use in adulthood, liver damage and various types of
cancer, poor academic performances or legal consequences.
Individual and environmental and demographic factors have each been associated
with alcohol abuse in college and university population.
Commitment to seek solution by well‐developed planning for this behavioral
changing program is the key and effective way. And so following PRECEDE
PROCEDE planning model is preferable planning method to assess the overall
assessment of personal, demographical, behavioral and the administrative policy
to identify the key components on the planning and the following
implementation, follow up and evaluation are all inclusive in this planning model.
To minimize alcohol abuse in Debre Brhan university students.
To decrease economic crisis among the students.
To protect the students from long term negative health outcomes and legal
To increase academic performance of the students.
Hiding oneself in alcohol drinking and taking drugs are considered as a relieving
and coping mechanisms from so many life problems including stressful events of
academic programs, family concerns and so on. Beyond that students do such bad
behaviors to enjoy after exams. But such behavior latter have a long term
complications on health and general social life too including employment,
relationship, forming family, productivity, physical, mental and social wellbeing.
Intervention on this behavior have multidirectional benefits including the health
and wellbeing of the person, family, productivity of the university and so the
benefit of the country is preserved.
Prevalence of alcohol abuse among college students
Even if there is no written documents and studies conducted in our country
colleges and university students, other developed country revealed that the
prevalence of alcohol consumption is high in males, truant students, smokers and
Students who came from urban area are more victim for this unhealthy behavior
than rural students.
In our country Ethiopia, the pooled current and lifetime prevalence of alcohol
consumption was 23.86% and 44.16% respectively. The pooled prevalence of
hazardous alcohol consumption was 8.94%. The prevalence of hazardous alcohol
consumption was remarkably higher in men (11.58%) than in women (1.21%). The
prevalence of current and lifetime alcohol consumptions among university
students were 22.08% & 38.88% respectively. The pooled data revealed that male
sex was found to be a significant predictor of hazardous alcohol consumption as
well as current and lifetime consumption.
Alcohol abuse among university students are determined by so many things
including personal behavior of the student like stress coping mechanism, unaware
of the benefit of physical exercise, peer pressure is also one determinant that one
who is with that student can determine the behavior, environmental effect is also
other determinant, very coldness of the atmosphere in the compound triggers to
commit such unhealthy behaviors. Social environments are also supportive and
consider drinking alcohol is as a normal behavior but rather it has a wide range of
devastating outcomes and it increase the morbidity and mortality of other
comorbid diseases. Alcohol abuse also contributes to high mortality and disease
burden, particularly in relation to Cirrhosis/liver disease, traffic accidents and
suicide. Globally, alcohol has climbed the ranks to become the ninth leading cause
of disability‐adjusted life years.
Behavioral and environmental diagnosis
Behavioral and environmental determinant of alcoholism in DBU students
Behavioral determinants; Increased stress or anxiety secondary to academic
instability and inability to cope that, Social pressure from others like friend and
family, mental strain results from over focused o academic agendas, emotional
trauma or instability, anger or frustration of failures from exams and fear of
dropout, temptation to feel drunk, return of old habits.
Environmental; # early life stress and increased risk of alcohol dependence has
been strongly associated. So students with a greater amount of stress in their
lives are more prone to alcoholism than those with a lesser amount of stress.
# Economic instability leads students to become alcoholism to hide
themselves from economical strains.
# Cultural assumptions or social believes in this area consider
drinking alcohol is a normal and healthy behavior. So students are not feel
ashamed when they enters to the houses where alcohols are costumed.
# Academically stressful events are also the main and which take the
lion share responsibility for developing such unhealthy behaviors. Students who
are stressful by their academic performance and fear of dropout they become
much stressed and finally they decide to take alcohol to relieve from their internal
It focuses on the factors that predispose, reinforce, and enable the behaviors and
Predisposing factors ‐ self‐efficacy (how students consider themselves, does he
/she believe in him/her self to stop drinking?), knowledge ( how much is the
students are aware of the negative outcome of alcoholism?) , attitudes and
beliefs (what is their intention about alcoholism? Does they want to stop it or
not? Do they think that drinking much is unhealthy behavior?) necessary to
change health behaviors.
Enabling; this factor include
Availability; does the alcohol are found around the university area?
Accessibility; does alcohols are found easily around?
Affordability; does such beverages are get by minimum price?
The above enabling factors are fulfilled and push the students to become a victim
of alcohol abuse.
Reinforcing factors; most of the time such students are getting relive from their
stress after taking such alcohol. And playing with friend while drinking is
considered as a fun. So by observing such false positive insights students repeat
such unhealthy behaviors over and over again. But there is nothing to restrict
them from such behavior in opposite side of reinforcing such as punishing.
Administrative and policy diagnosis in the university
The university have no advanced tool to screen out and control its students to
restrict them from such unhealthy behaviors.
Even if it has rules and regulations on multidisciplinary area, unless the alcoholic
students does not disturb the peace of the compound no one is caring about the
health of the individual student. Actually it is difficult to filter out who is drunker
and who is not.
As a positive side the campus does not allow any type of beverage advertisement
around the university area.
After planning successfully, the proposed program should implemented among
1, having lectures for life skill and experience sharing session about alcoholism
with a fixed time for students.
2, to change student attitude; having group discussion with students about
3, to change student behavior; role playing with students to improve skill
associated with alcoholism and addiction avoidance.
4, advocating and leading students on alcoholism
5, print leaflets about alcoholism and its long term consequences and offer for
6, posting posters with good messages at a certain place in the campus
7, preparing and engaging students by other recreational methods like physical
8, adopt and follow a strong rules and regulations on such behaviors.
9, coordinating a free counseling, treatment and rehabilitative clinic in the
university with psychiatry experts.
In this phase while implementing those planed actions, did it going well?
Did all printed and adopted leaflets and rules are offering to the students?
Did students are engaged on all group discussion? They should be.
Did students engage themselves on other recreational mechanisms?
Did all lectures are given to the students?
Generally in order to be effective implementation of action plans the process
should be going well to achieve the best.
This phase determines the immediate effect of the program on the target
The students may show some changes on attitude on alcoholism even though it is
difficult to cut at once.
The students may be eager to seek advices on alcoholism and try to search
journals on that behavior.
They may show some efforts on controlling on predisposing, enabling and
Check how many of students have a brief awareness of alcoholism.
Assess how many of students cut off alcoholism.
Assess how much the university modify the environment to minimize alcoholism.
Assess How many students ae fail to stop alcoholism and why.
(1), 5‐12. Brown, R. L., Richman, J. A., & Rospenda, K. M. (2014). Economic stressors and alcohol‐related outcomes:
Exploring gender differences in the mediating role of somatic complaints.
Understanding alcohol abuse among college students; contributing factors and strategies for intervention
(Rosemary Iconis, Queensbrough community college of the city university of New York, USA)
Lecture notes on planning implementing and evaluating of health education (Addisalem Mellese, MPH, instructor
in DBU Jan 2020)
Thank you our instructor Dear Addisalem Melesse for letting us to know about the planning mechanism by doing
this paper work.
Thank you our group members for your patency to do this paper. And our classmate as a whole for your
• 1, mohammed Beshir‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐DBUMD/025/11
• 2, Nigus mengesha‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐DBUMD/026/11
• 3, Oumar Seid ‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐DBUMD/027/11
• 4, Solomon Birkneh‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐DBUMD/028/11
• 5, Tadele Abiye‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐DBUMD/029/11
• 6, Teferi Ayisanew ‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐DBUMD/031/11
• 7, Tesfahun Simegnew‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐DBUMD/032/11
• 8, Habtamu Mekonen‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐DBUMD/028/09