• At the end of this chapter, you should be able
– Define curriculum
– Identify sources of curriculum
– Discuss factors affecting curriculum development
in nurse education
3. Concepts of the curriculum
• Since education is an orderly and deliberate
effort, some plan is needed to guide this effort.
• The term curriculum generally refers to this
4. cont. …
• The specific definitions and views of curriculum
we have today reflect value judgment regarding
the nature of education.`
• The definitions, in turn, influence how curriculum
is to be planned, implemented, and evaluated.
• Some of the views prevailing currently are
briefly presented below.
5. The curriculum as subjects and subject
• This concept is dominant both historically and
• In high schools and colleges, the word
curriculum has been and is still used to refer to
the setoff subjects or courses offered, and also
to those required or recommended or grouped
for other purposes.
6. Cont. …
• Curriculum planning for a subject curriculum follows a
fairly a common formula.
1. Use expert judgment to determine what subjects to teach-
based on various social and educational factors
2. Use some criterion to the subject matter for particular
populations and subjects
1. Criterion could be- difficulty, interest, sequence, etc…
2. Populations could be – grouped for example, by state, district, age, or grade
3. Plan and implement appropriate methods of instruction to
insure mastery of the subject matter selected
7. Curriculum as planned learning experience
• This concept of curriculum is one of the most
prevalent concepts among the specialists in the
• Casewell and Campbell believe that “ the
school curriculum should be composed of all
the experiences children have under the
guidance of teachers.”
8. Cont. ….
• Krug refers to curriculum as all the means
employed by the school to provide students
with opportunities for desirable learning
9. Cont. …
• Doll says “ the commonly accepted definition
of curriculum has changed from content of
course of study and lists of courses and
subjects to all the experiences which are
offered to learners under the auspices or
direction of the school.”
10. Curriculum as experiences “had” under the
auspices of the school
• Sometimes refer to the “ invisible curriculum”
• Overlooked curriculum – those aspects of the
curriculum that are unplanned or unintended.
• Not functional at planning level of the curriculum.
• Good plan is the one with no much unintended
learning outcomes at the end.
11. Curriculum as objective
• This concept of the curriculum is the
consequence of the studies which separated
more definitely curriculum from instruction.
• Curriculum as consisting solely of objectives
or ends and instruction as the means of their
12. Cont. …
• Curriculum is concerned with what results, not
• A live classroom situation is regarded as
implementation of instructional plan, not of the
13. Curriculum as a written plan for action
• Curriculum is a plan that guides instruction
• Broader than Johnsons’ definition since it
contains, in addition to intended learning
outcomes, other ingredients such as content
and learning activities.
14. Sources of curriculum
• The so called sources or determinants of the
curriculum are those forces that influence the
content and organization of the curriculum
• The following are the basic ones
15. Sources of curriculum
• Philosophy and the nature of the knowledge
– Some say “ true knowledge exists out in the real
world” and others say true knowledge is located
internally with in the individual mind.
– Some believe that knowledge is acquired and
others consider it to be inherited or inborn
– Inquiring into the nature of knowledge is often
referred to as epistemology
16. Sources of curriculum
• Society and culture
– It is not surprising that society and its culture exert
an enormous influence on the curriculum.
– Traditional assumptions values and ideas about
what is important or unimportant , good or bad are
translated into curriculum objectives, content and
17. Sources of curriculum
• The individual
– Bio psychological nature of man places certain
limits on the content and organization of the
– Example - to learn Chinese in a week would be
doomed to failure.
18. Sources of curriculum
• Learning theory
– Notions about how human beings learn will affect
the shape of the curriculum.
• Example – 19th century “ faculty psychology” and
“learn by doing”
19. Forces affecting curriculum development in
• Knowledge explosion
• Technological explosion
• Political and economic forces
• The challenge of the traditional nursing