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  1. HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF PHILIPPINE POLITICS Presented by:Shella may C. Cabrido Christian Andres
  2. • First president of the 4th Republic of the Philippines • Born on September 11,1917 • Studied Law at University of the Philippines • member of Philippine Senate(1959- (1965) • Member House of the Representatives (1949-1959) • died on September 28,1989 due to kidney failure
  3. In 1965,Ferdinand Edralin Marcos was elected to presidency and his administration National plans are: •AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTIVITY •SOLID INFRASTRACTURES •ENERGY •EDUCATION
  4. • Irrigational canals to improve rice production • the MASAGANA 99 RICE PROGRAM • LAND REFORMS • FOLK ARTS THEATER • North Luzon Express Way • National Kidney and Transplant Institute • Philippine Heart Center • San Juanico Bridge • Mactan-Mandaue Bridge • Pantabangan Hydro Electric Power Plant • BLISS Housing Project • Angat Hydro Electric Power Plant • Leyte Geothermal Power Plant • Educational Assistance Act of 1976 • Created the system of State Universities • Philippine International Convention Center • Cultural Center Of the Philippines • Nayong Pilipino National Art's Center in Makiling • People's Park in the Sky in Tagaytay source:
  5. The National Manpower and Yout Council was founded in 1976 and is now the TESDA or Technical Education and Skills Development President Marcos' Presidential Decree 27,which called for the "emancipation of tenants from the bondage of the soil",was also among his notable contributions to social justice.In the field of diplomacy,Marcos initiated the formation of ASEAN in 1966 - together with the heads of state of Singapore,Indonesia,Malaysia and Thailand - that has grown to 10 member-state, source:
  6. • His term was marked with increased industrialization and the creation of solid infrastracture nationwide. • Marcos also increased the funding of the Armed Forces,to help modernize Philippines capability to defend itself from foreign or internal threats. • Marcos also established schools ang learning institution nationwide. • Under Marcos administrationa new constitution was adopted in 1973 • The 1973 Constitution provided that the Philippines will have a Parliamentary form of government. • During the Martial Law,the political rights of the people as well as their human rights were suppresed and violated.
  7. On August 21,1971,the Liberal party held campaign rally at the Plaza Miranda to proclaim their Senatorial bet and their candidate for the Mayoralty of Manila.Two grenades were reportedly tossed on stage.Injuring almost everybody present.As a result Mracos suspended the Writ of Habeas Corpus.In order to arrest those behind the attack.Marcos and his allies took an ivestigation and which it turnout - coning from the opposition.The writ was briefly restored on January 11,1972 amidst widespread protest.Decades later,the CPP under Jose Maria Sison admitted that they were responsible for the Plaza Miranda attack,though Marcos was blamed for it.
  8. In 1969,he ran for re-election and succeeded making him the only president under 1935 Constitution to be elected for the second term. That time the country was undergoing worsening economic condition,detoriating peace and order,social discontent,and a growing communist insurgency.Marcos second term was marked by economic turmoil brought about by factors both external and internal,
  9. PROCLAMATION NO. 1081 • Proclamation No. 1081 was the declaration of Martial Law in the Philippines by President Ferdinand Marcos.It became effective throughout the entire country on September 21,1972,and was announced to public two days later.It was formally lifted on January 17,1981- six month later before the presidential election in the Philippines in twelve years • Under the pretext of assassination of then-Defense Secretary Juan Ponce Enrile and and ensuing Communist insurgency. • He initially signed the Proclamation on September 17,1972,but it was posdated to 21 Of September because of Marcos superstitions and numerological beliefs.Marcos formally announced the Proclamation in a live television and a radio broadcast from Malacañang Palace a further two days later on the evening of 23 September 1972
  10. • December 12,1980,when the President declared "We must erase once and for all from the public mind any doubts as to resolve to bring martial law to an end and to minister to an orderly transition to parliamentary government" • December 22,1980 when the president proclaimed "A few days ago,following extensive consultationswith a broad representation of various sectors of the nation and in keeping with the pledge made a year ago during the seventh anniversary of the New Society,I came to firm decision that martial law should be lifted before the end of january 1981,and that only in a few areas were grave problems of public order and national security continue to exist will martial law continue to remain in force".
  11. During the early years of martial law,the Philippine economy grew a significant amount,spurred by heavy borrowing from transnational banking companies and government-to government loans.By 1980,however,the heavy burden of foreign debt servicing took its toll in the economy,and mismanagement of important industries due to crony capitalism led the economy to downturn.The assassination of popular opposition leader Benigno Aquino in 1983 led the pull-out of foreign capital from the country resulting to negative GDP growth in 1983 and 1984.
  12. • The first formal election since 1969 for an interim BATASANG PAMBANSA(NATIONAL ASSEMBLY) were held on April 7,1978.Senator Aquino,then in jail,decided to run as a leader of his party,the LAKAS NG BAYAN party,but they did not win any seats in the BATASAN,despite public support and their apprent victory.The night before the elections,supporters of the LABAN party showed their solidarity by setting up an "noise barrage" in Manila,creating noise the whole night until dawn.
  13. • The opposition boycotted the June 16,1981 presidential election,which pitted Marcos and his KILUSANG BAGONG LIPUNAN against retired general Alejo Santos of the NATIONALISTA PARTY.Marcos won over a margin of 16 million votes,which constitutionally allowed him to another 6 year term.Finance Minister Cesar Virata was elected as Prime Minister of BATASANG PAMBANSA. • In 1983,opposition leader Benigno "Ninoy" Aquino Jr. was assasinated at Manila International Airport upon his return to the Philippines after a long period of excile in the United States.This coalesced to popular dissatisfaction with Marcos and began series of events,including pressure from the United States,that culminated in a snap presidential election on Febuary 7,1986. • This election was marred by widespread of violence and tampering of results by the Marcos side.
  14. The official election canvasser,the COMMISION on ELECTION (COMELEC),declared Marcos the winner,despite a walk-out staged by disenfranchised computer technicians of February 9.According to the COMELEC's final tally,Marcos won over 10,807,197 votes to Aquino's 9,291,761 votes.By contrast,the final tally of NAMFREL an accreditted poll watcher said Aquino won with 7,835,070 votes to Marcos's 7,053,068. However,the complete NAMFRELcount done in 1987 revealed that Marcos would still have won with 10,635,458 against Aquino's 9,853,456 .A peaceful civilian-military uprising forced Marcos into excile and installed Corazon Aquino as president on February 7,1986.
  15. • The fraudulent result was not accepted by Aquino and her supporters international observers,including U.S delegation led by Senator Richard Lugar,denounced the official results .General Fidel V. Ramos and Defense Minister Juan Ponce Enrile then withdrew their support for the administration defecting and barricading themselves within Camp Crame. • This resulted in the peaceful 1986 EDSA REVOLUTION that forced Marcos into excile in Hawaii while Corazon Aquino become the president,ending the Fourth Republic and ushering the beginning of the FIFTH REPUBLIC
  17. •The presidency of Corazon Aquino began following the triumph of the peaceful PEOPLE POWER REVOLUTION when Corazon Aquino became President of the Philippines,and spanned a six-year period from February 25,1986,to June 30,1992.The triumph of peaceful People Power Revolutionand the ascension of Corazon Aquino to the presidency signaled the end of authoritarian rule in the Philippines and the dawning of a new era for the nation.The relatively peaceful manner by which Aquino came into power drew international acclaim and admiration for her and the Filipino people.During the first months of Aquino's presidency,the country experienced radical changes and sweeping democratic reforms.One of Aquino's first and boldest moves was the creation of Presidential Commission on Good Government (PCCG),which was tasked to go after Marcos ill-gotten wealth,But,after her presidency ,the PCCG itself was also implicated by corruption scandals when it was alleged that officials were "milking" sequestered assets.
  18. Aquino,as a revolutionary president,repealed and abolished repressive laws under her predecessor,restored civil rights,civil liberties, and abolished the 1973 "Marcos Constution".Aquino issued Proclamation No. 3,which established a revolutionary government.She abolished 1973 Constitution and instead promulgated the provisional 1986 Freedom Constitution,pending the ratification of a new Constitution.Tjis allows Aquino to exercise both executive and legislative powers until tha ratification of the new Philippine Constitution and establishment of a new Congress in 1987.Aquino's government met criticism from Defense Minister Juan Ponce Enrile and Vice President Salvador Laurel as well as constitutionalist amd retired Supreme Court Justice Cecilia Muñoz-Palma. Palma said "To declare her government "revolutionary" and abolished the Batasan Pambansa was to behave no better than dictator Marcos"Homobono Adaza also said "when the United Democratic Opposition (UNIDO) decided to support Cory for president,the agreement with Cory was the type of government of Marcos would be continued,with Cory as ceremonial president,since everyone knew that Cory had no knowledge of how to run a country,and Cory admitted this".Enrile and Laurel resigned from Aquino's government.
  19. In response for agrarian reform,Aquino issued Presidential Proclamation 131 and Executive Order 229 on July 22,1987,which outlined her land reform program which included sugar land.In 1988,with the backing of Aquino,the new Congress of the Philippines passed Republic Act No. 6657,known as the Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Law (CARP).The Law paved the way for the redistribution of agricultural land from landowners to tenant-farmers.The landowners were paid in exchange by the government through just compensation and were also not allowed to retain more than 5 hectares of land.The law also allowed corporate landowners to "voluntarily divest a propoportion of their capital stock,equity or participation in favor of their workers or other qualified benificiaries",in lieu of turning over their land to government for redistribution.despite the flaws in the law,the Supreme Court upheld its constitutionality in 1989,declaring that the implementation of CARP was "a revolutionary kind of expropriation".
  20. Corazon Aquino herself was subjected to a contoversy that centered on HACIENDA LUISITA,a 6,453-hectare estate located in Tarlac,which she and her siblings inherited from their father José Cojuangco.Instead of Land distribution,Hacienda Luisita reorganized itself into a corporation and distributed stock,As such,ownership of agricultural portions of the hacienda was transferred to the corporation which in turn,gave its shares of stocks to the farmers.Critic argued that Aquino bowed to pressure from relatives by allowing stock redistribution in lieu of land redistribution under CARP.The stock scheme was revoked in 2006 when the Department of Agrarian Reform ordered the mandatory redistibution of land to tenant- farmers of Hacienda Luisita.The Department of Agrarian Reformhad looked into its revocation since 2004,when violence erupted in the hacienda over the retrenchment of workes,leaving seven (7) people dead.
  21. Luis Beltran a Filipino journalist became notorious after mentioning in a column about the 1987 coup attempt that then-president Corazon Aquino had been hiding under her bed during the coup.He was sued by the President for libel.Aquino went so far as to show the journalists that she cannot fit under her bed.Beltran,who openly expressed his belief that the president was lacking in competence,countered that his words were not meant to be taken literally.The court ruled in Aquino's favor,sentencing the columnist and the STAR's editor-in chief Max Soliven to 2 years imprisontment and ordering to pay 2 million pesos in moral damages.The Court of Appeals later reversed the decision of the trial court and aquitted Beltran.
  22. • 1990 Luzon earthquake-1600 people died • Mt. Pinatubo Eruption 1991-2nd largest terrestrial eruption of 20th century,300 people died,long term agricultural land devastation. • Tropical Storm Thelma (typhoon Uring)-causes massive flooding in Ormoc City in November 1991,around 6,000 people died,and considered as the deadliest typhoon in Philippine History. • 1989-1993,a long El Niño phenomenon caused severe draught in the archipelago,destroyed crops and livestock led to nationwide food and water shortage
  23. Metro Manila experienced seven to 12 hours power outages associated with el Niño became common.Numerous businesses were brought to a halt.By the departure of Aquino in June 1992,businesses in Manila and nearby provinces had lost nearly $800 million since March 1992.According to one writer,the Aquino administration knew for years that country's power plants were failing but did not act to solve the problem.It was only during the time of his successoe,Fidel Ramos,that the government decisively solved the severe power outages that were common during her term.
  24. As the end of her presidency drew near,she was told that since she was not inaugurated under the 1987 constitution,she was still eligible to seek the presidency again in the upcoming 1992 elections.But she stongly declined the request for her reelecetion and wanted to set an example to both citizen and politicians that the presidency is not for a lifetime position.Initially,she named Ramon V. Mitra then Speaker of the House of Representatives,as her candidate for the presidential race in 1992,She instead threw her support behind the candidacy of her Defence Secretary and EDSA Revolution Hero,General Fidel V. Ramos,who stood by and defended her government from the various coup attempts and rebellions against her.
  25. Her sudden withdrawal of support for Mitra drew criticisms not only from her supporters in the Liberal and social democratic sectors,but from the Roman Catholi Church,as well,which questioned her anointing of Ramos since he was a Protestant.Nevertheless,Aquino's candidate eventually won the 1992 elections,albeit by margin of 23.58% and the total votes only,and was sworn in as the 12th president of the Philippines on June 30,1992.Aquino attended the swearing-in of her succesor at the Quirino Grandstand in Manila.As final gesture as president,she rode the presidential limousine to the event and later left the venue aboard a Toyota sedan,a gift from her siblings,which was a strong symbol of her return to private life as "Citizen Cory".
  26. Don't hesitate to ask any questions!