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  1. 1. SDLC 1: Systems Planning and Selection Dania Bilal IS 582 Spring 2008
  2. 2. Today’s Session <ul><li>SDLC 1: System Selection </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss business and library environments </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Project identification and selection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Project initiation and planning </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Do class activity from last week </li></ul>
  3. 3. SDLC Phase 1: Project Identification <ul><li>(Runs parallel with planning) </li></ul><ul><li>Identify potential projects </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reasons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Replace or improve an existing system </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Make system more efficient, less costly to operate, and/or use an existing system in a new </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Top-down (e.g., CEO) & bottom-up sources (senior IS manager) </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Project Identification <ul><li>Rank projects based on merit </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use criteria and ask questions such as </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>To what extent does project X provide benefits or value or help the organization meet its strategic objectives and long-term goals? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Select project with highest rating, delay project with lower rating, and/or reject project. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Project Identification <ul><li>In libraries, preparing or planning for automation is a similar process. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Automation committee assesses need for new system, upgrade existing system, or use a third party module to run with an existing system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Refer to Bilal, chapter 2 and class notes </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Project Initiation <ul><li>Definition of tasks and who will perform them </li></ul><ul><li>Size, scope, complexity of project </li></ul><ul><li>Make assumptions about </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Potential problems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Resource availability </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Project Initiation <ul><li>Assessment of tangible benefits </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be measured in dollars and with certainty </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples: error reduction, increased productivity, increased efficiency </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Assessment of intangible benefits </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cannot be measured in dollars </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples: Convenient access from remote locations, better access to resources </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Project Initiation <ul><li>Project costs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tangible cost </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intangible costs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Students: provide an example of each. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Project Initiation <ul><li>Feasibility assessment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Technical </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Schedule </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Legal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Political </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Project Initiation <ul><li>Documents </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To Justify need for information system (Business Case document) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Benefits, costs, feasibility, etc. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Baseline Project Plan (BPP) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>System description, feasibility assessment, management issues (see Valacich et al, p. 97) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Project Initiation <ul><li>Business vs. library environment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Business </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Activities performed to design and develop a system </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Library </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Activities performed to acquire a system if outsourcing or an open system is the option. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Library Environment: Selection Process <ul><li>After reviewing LJ article, LTR, and other sources, and after consulting with colleagues, etc. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify six most suitable software packages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Find evaluation of each package in Library Technology Reports (latest issues) and other sources </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Library Environment: Selection Process <ul><ul><li>Acquire the latest demo for each package from software vendor to preview, or review package on the Web, if provided. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use each module in package </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Take notes and/or use a checklist and indicate features you like, dislike. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify lacking features </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Write down questions to ask of vendor or software representative. </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Library Environment: Selection Process <ul><li>Invite a sales rep. from each company for a presentation of software. </li></ul><ul><li>Again, take notes about strengths and weaknesses of software. </li></ul><ul><li>Ask questions and don’t be intimidated! </li></ul>
  15. 15. Library Environment: Selection Process <ul><li>Read literature (e.g., brochures) from each company and identify further features supported, hardware requirements, cost, other services provided, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Meet as a Committee to discuss each rep.’s presentation and compare notes. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Library Environment: Selection Process <ul><li>Explore types of software available </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Developed by vendor (turnkey) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Open source </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Locally developed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A mix of options </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Assess benefits & pitfalls of each </li></ul>
  17. 17. Library Environment: Selection Process <ul><ul><li>If outsourcing is the option </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Narrow choices to 3 software packages </li></ul><ul><li>Class activity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How will you narrow the packages to 3? </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Library Environment: Selection Process <ul><li>Strengths of each module provided: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Overall software capabilities (Web-based, Windows-based, expandability, etc.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Compliance with latest standards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Architecture and operating systems supported (e.g., NT, Unix, Linux) </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Library Environment: Selection Process <ul><li>Software update, documentation, training and cost, maintenance and technical support </li></ul><ul><li>After gathering all information, develop a Request for Information (RFI). </li></ul><ul><li>Develop a Request for Proposal RFP). </li></ul>
  20. 20. Request for Proposal (RFP) <ul><li>Develop one RFP with required and desired specifications for the software. </li></ul><ul><li>RFP describes needs and priorities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Each vendor’s response to RFP provides basis for comparing specifications and other services software company provides </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Organization of the RFP <ul><li>Instructions to Vendor </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction to the library </li></ul><ul><li>Software specifications </li></ul><ul><li>Hardware specifications </li></ul><ul><li>Request for price quotation </li></ul><ul><li>Notice of intent to respond </li></ul>
  22. 22. Organization of the RFP <ul><li>Review the RFP before sending it </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluate responses to the RFP from each of the three vendors </li></ul><ul><li>Rank RFPs </li></ul><ul><li>Negotiate purchase of top-rated RFP </li></ul>
  23. 23. Legal/Contractual Agreement <ul><li>Work (administrator higher in rank does this) with an attorney about contract for securing software selected </li></ul><ul><li>Agreement details </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Schedule for software delivery, installation, testing, and implementation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Schedule for training personnel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vendor’s promise to deliver the package that meets the specifications stipulated in the final RFP </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Legal/Contractual Agreement <ul><ul><li>Vendor’s comments or explanations about certain specifications, rating of features, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Payment plan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Consider paying in three installations: 1/3 upon signing contract, 1/3 upon successful installation and performance testing, and the rest upon successful performance over time. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  25. 25. DO and Not DO! <ul><li>See Bilal, pp. 43-44 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Do Not Do List </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Do List (key things to remember) </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Sample RFPs and RFIs <ul><li>Visit </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.ilsr.com/sample.htm (Integrated Library Systems Reports) </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Vendors and Products <ul><li>Visit these sites </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.libinfo.com/vendors-systems.html </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.librarytechnology.org/VEND-search.pl?SID =20060215455505371&UID=&auth= </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Business Environment <ul><li>Create a Statement of Work </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Outlines goals, objectives, requirements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Describes deliverables </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Indicates timeline for project completion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Describes tasks and responsibilities and who will perform them </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other </li></ul></ul>