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Ivanda presentation Serbia.pptx

  1. 1. 1 SUSTAINABLE ECONOMICAL ADVANCING IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES BY SCIENCE DEVELOPMENT Dr. Mile Ivanda President of Croatian Humboldt Club Ruđer Bošković Institute Zagreb CROATIA
  2. 2. http://www.humboldt-club.hr/
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  4. 4. 4 1. TRANSPORTATION TECHNOLOGY Containers for transport of goods: have led to huge reduction in port handling costs, increased the speed with which goods can reach markets. Airlines: the cost of air transport has fallen, this has enabled much greater volumes of goods being transported by airlines. FACTORS THAT HAVE ENABLED GLOBALISATION
  5. 5. 5 Telecommunications: facilitated by the satellite communication devices, facilities as telegraph, telephone including mobiles, fax are used to contact around the world, to access the information instantly,& to communicate in the remote areas. Computer and internet: computers have entered in almost all the fields. Internet allows one to share information on almost everything, we can send instant e-mail and talk through voice-mail across the world at almost negligible cost. 2. INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY
  6. 6. 6  Globalization lets countries do what they can do best. If, for example, you buy cheap steel from another country you don’t have to make your own steel.  You can focus on computers or other things.  Globalization gives you a larger market. You can sell more goods and make more money. You can create more jobs.  Consumers also profit from globalization.  Products become cheaper and you can get new goods more quickly.
  7. 7. In a globalizing, knowledge driven world with increasing importance of service industries and technological competitiveness, this contribution can only become higher. S & T as an engine for development in global science ? Consensus is emerging among policy makers and economists that at least half, if not more, of the economic growth in countries is directly attributable to science and technology.
  8. 8. Corelation: GDP-PPP vs. citable documents per 1 M heads, 2014 GDP per capita based on PPP (purchasing power parity)
  9. 9. 9 Technology Achievement Index - TAI The Technology Achievement Index it is used by the UNDP (United Nations Development Programme) to measure how well a country is creating and diffusing technology and building a human skill base, reflecting capacity to participate in the technological innovations of the network age. The TAI focuses on four dimensions of technological capacity: creation of technology, diffusion of recent innovations, diffusion of old innovations, human skills.
  10. 10. 10 51 Croatia 75 Serbia
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  14. 14. 14 Contribution of Manufacturing in GDP: 12,5 % GDP in Croatia Sectors in GDP: Agriculture Construction Manufacturing Public Administration Services
  15. 15. 15 Contribution of Manufacturing in GDP: 16,5 % For comparison in China it is 34,6 %. GDP in Serbia
  16. 16. 16 The Global Innovation Index 2018 provides detailed metrics about the innovation performance of 126 countries and economies around the world. Its 80 indicators explore a broad vision of innovation, including political environment, education, infrastructure and business sophistication. The Global Innovation Index (GII) is an annual ranking of countries by their capacity for, and success in, innovation. It is published by Cornell University, INSEAD, and the World Intellectual Property Organization
  17. 17. 17 GII
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  26. 26. 26 The economical advancing by science has to be established through three mutually strongly interconnected phases: a)basic research b)technological development c)production and marketing ECONOMICAL ADVANCING
  27. 27. 27 The such goals could be achieved by special governmental programs dedicated: 1) to recognize, adapt and further develop of high added value technological products already present on the world market, 2) to develop areas in which the country is significantly better than their competitors because of a better trained work force, favorable natural resources, or scientific and technological capabilities, 3) to strengthen education and 4) to expand the role of science as advisers in both government and industry. ECONOMICAL ADVANCING
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  29. 29. 182 publicly funded research institutions, 13 centers of research excellence 15.000 staff in Research and Development, approx.11.500 scientists and researchers Gross Domestic Expenditure on Research and Development: 374,8 million euro (in 2015) = 0.85 % of GDP
  30. 30. Source: UNESCO SCIENCE REPORT, http://uis.unesco.org R&D SPENDING
  31. 31. Croatia Co-citation networks by Subject Areas 2011-2012
  32. 32. Slovenia Co-citation networks by Subject Areas 2011-2012
  33. 33. China Co-citation networks by Subject Areas 2011-2012
  34. 34. 587,7 500 413,5 400 300 155,1 153,3 88,7 60,1 39,4 0 100 600 700 Slovenia invest 4.7 times more than Croatia. EU (28) Slovenia Greece Hungary Croatia Bulgaria Romania $
  35. 35. 78 69 40 6 0.5 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 Researchers and Engineers per 10,000 workers THE POWER OF HUMAN CAPITAL JAPAN USA EU China LDCs Non-Asia HR 1 paper in 5 years
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  37. 37.  an autonomous, bottom-up, funding body set up by the Croatian Parliament in December 2001 and led by scientists serves all branches of science and the humanities by funding research projects at research universities and other publicly funded research institutions in Croatia Mandate: to promote technological development in Croatia in order to ensure the development of economy and to support employment  Budget in 2016: approx. 13 million € Croatian Science Foundation (HRZZ) www.hrzz.hr
  38. 38. Installation grants Starters (2-7 years after PhD) up to € 267.000 for 5 years Research grants track-record of significant research achievements in the last 5 years up to € 134.000 for 2-4 years Partnership in research cooperation of industry and science up to € 200.000 for 3 years Training of new doctoral students annual gross salary during 4 year period Specific calls financed from private and other sources
  39. 39.  Before 2013 HRZZ was not fully responsible for funding of research activities Before 2013 After 2013 Success rate % 75 30 - 40 Number of financed projects per year 2308 193 Grant value € 10.000 80.000 - 267.000 On average each HRZZ project team has nine members.
  40. 40.  5 000 researchers involved in projects  Grants located in more than 60 different institutions in Croatia  Benchmarking effect: impact on national programmes and agencies;  Efficient and fast grant management
  41. 41. www.hrzz.hr
  42. 42.  Every country needs the capacity to understand and adapt global technologies for local needs  That small countries need only relevant technologies is a ‘myth’  There is urgent need in small countries for S & T Capacity Building for transition to the knowledge society  Capacity building has to be continuum  Strengthening science education at all levels  Integration of immediate needs and long term vision CONCLUSIONS
  43. 43. Croatian Humboldt Club wish Serbian Humboldt Club successful future activities in science promotion. Thank you!
  44. 44. S & T Capacities -The Road Ahead “…it is more appropriate to view innovations as the fusion of different types of technology rather than as a series of technical breakthroughs. Fusion means more than a combination of different technologies: it invokes an arithmetic in which one plus one makes three” F. Kodama  That small countries need only relevant technologies is a ‘myth’  Every country needs the capacity to understand and adapt global technologies for local needs  Capacity building is a continuum  Strengthening science education at all levels  Integration of immediate needs and long term vision There is urgent need in small countries for S & T Capacity Building for transition to the knowledge society
  45. 45. Impact to Science - the Dawn of Knowledge Era 21st century will be the century of knowledge societies  that uses knowledge holistically to empower and enrich people – and is an integral driver of sustainable development (societal transformation)  a life-long learning society committed to innovation  has the capacity to generate, diffuse, utilize and protect knowledge - creates economic wealth and social equity  enlightens people towards an integrated view of life as a fusion of mind, body and spirit
  46. 46. Horizon 2020 € 37.5 million 193 grants 11.23% success rate largest financial support to area n9. (Food security, sustainable agriculture and forestry…) ERC € 5.4 million 4% success rate 15 Croatian researchers are implementing an ERC grant abroad (DE, CH, UK, SI, AT…) Source: http://www.obzor2020.hr; PARTICIPATION IN HORIZON 2020 AND ERC PROGRAMS
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  48. 48.  Competitive evaluation of projects proposals  International Peer Review: evaluation of project proposals includes Croatian and international experts  Principles of quality, transparency, equality of treatment, efficiency and speed, confidentiality, and respect for ethical principles
  49. 49. Biomedical sciences 19% Biotechnology 9% Social sciences 12% Humanities 14% Natural sciences 29% Technical sciences 17%
  50. 50.  stable funding of research in regular long-term and foreseeable multi-year cycles.  special emphasis on the training of doctoral students and early career researchers  promotes close ties between research and industry as well as with researchers abroad  promotes Involvement of the Croatian Scientific Community in the European Research Area (ERA)
  51. 51.  Evaluation of progress every 12 months  Two-stage evaluation procedure done by more than 430 Croatian scientists 67 workshops organized 3122 published scientific papers 10 patent Applications 3069 presentations at conferences
  52. 52.  Strengthening mentoring capacities by evaluating mentors scientific qualities  Young scientists are directly involved in scientific research Biomedical sciences 16% Biotechnolog y and Technical sciences 36% Social sciences and Humanities 15% Natural sciences 33% 335 PhD students and 68 post-docs were employed