3. DEFINITION OF COMMUNICATION
The act or process of using words, sounds, signs, or
behaviours to express or exchange information or to
express your ideas, thoughts, feelings, etc., to another
person or persons.
4. DEFINITION OF COMMUNICATION
Communication is the process of passing
information/idea/message from one person to another.
It involves a source (sender) of message, channel used to
pass the message and a receiver.
Communication can be verbal or non-verbal
There are barriers to communication which should be
overcome before effective communication is ensured
5. THEORIES OF COMMUNICATION
The study of communication and mass media has led to the
formulation of many theories: (Siebert, Paterson & Schramm,1956).
Structural and functional theories - believe that social
structures are real and function in ways that can be
Cognitive and behavioural theories - tend to focus on
psychology of individuals.
6. THEORIES OF COMMUNICATION
Interactionist theories - view social life as a process of
Interpretive theories - uncover the ways people actually
understand their own experience.
Critical theories - are concerned with the conflict of
interests in society and the way communication
perpetuates domination of one group over another .
7. IMPORTANCE OF COMMUNICATION
Establishment of working relationships
Maintains working relationships/Partnership
Facilitates group development
Brings about change in action/ behavior
8. IMPORTANCE OF COMMUNICATION
Essential marketing tool
Tool for conflict resolution and management
Tool for management and leadership
Explains changes in feelings and thoughts
Expression of desires/expectations
9. TYPES OF COMMUNICATION
Involves the use of words.
It could be spoken or written.
Involves the use gestures, body movement, facial
expression, sound inflection and other forms of relaying
information without the use of word.
Very important because it reveals the individual’s hidden
thoughts, feelings than spoken words
10. PRINCIPLES OF COMMUNICATION
For effective communication to have taken place there must
13. THE SENDER
This is the source of information.
For communication to be effective, it is required that the
sender has experience and adequate knowledge of the
The sender must have thorough knowledge of the audience or
Use clear and simple language that is understood by the
The sender must show interest to his audience.
14. THE MESSAGE
It is the actual information or idea being passed.
For communication to be effective, the message needs to
be clear, short, precise, timely, meaningful or relevant to
15. THE CHANNEL
It is the means, methods or modes of relaying messages from
the sender to the receiver.
The sender needs to select the appropriate/right channel for
the right audience e.g., electronic media, print media, folk
media, social media, formal/informal talk, and lectures.
A combination of two or more channels helps to improve
communication for example audio-visual aids.
16. THE RECEIVER
Refers to the individual or the audience listening or
receiving the message.
It is important the receiver is prepared for the message.
The receiver should be able to understand the language in
The message should be relevant to the needs of the
For communication to be effective, it is always important
for the sender to allow for feedback where he becomes
the receiver and the audience the sender.
Feedback can be in the form of questions, comments,
gestures, facial expressions, body movements etc.
18. QUALITIES OF A GOOD COMMUNICATOR
Keeps the audience
19. GUIDELINES FOR GOOD LISTENING
Listen actively, not passively
Listen objectively, not emotionally
Listen for ideas, not just facts
Don’t let the status of the speaker affect comprehension
20. EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION TIPS
Select the right channel
Think before you talk
Leave out irrelevant details/facts
Watch your listener for non-verbal signs indicating interest
or lack of interest
21. EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION TIPS
Studies show that people remember:
10% of they hear
20% of what they read
80% of what they see
And this is because the human brain process visual cues
better rather than the written language.
The opinions of people in a group
are influenced by what they hear
from opinion leader.
Definition of Opinion Leaders
Is an individual who is a member
of a group manifests certain
characteristics in his thinking and
behaviour that contribute to the
formation of "public opinion".
The opinion of the leader is based
on rational thinking due to
education and experience.
They weigh the pros and cons of
the information they receive and
then give their judgement on it.
29. COMMUNICATION CHANNELS
The environment for communicating about health has
These changes include dramatic increases in the number
of communication channels and the number of health
issues vying for public attention.
There are several ways of communicating messages and
some of these can also be used to communicate health
These can be divided into five categories:
30. MEDIA TYPES AND APPLICATION IN HEALTH
Example of Communication Medium
1. Intrapersonal Internal communication (e.g., what we think, when we listen to an
2. Interpersonal One to one, small group, emails, telephone calls and other activities
activities that allow personal listening and response
3. Organizational Lectures, seminars, debates, meetings, memos, intranets,
newsletter, workshops, displays
4. Community Local radio, talks, seminars, folk media, local newspapers,
billboards, puppets, health fairs, social media, television
5. Public/Media Newspapers, television, radio, internet, cell phones, social media
32. COMMUNICATION - CHALLENGES
Fundamental problems have been identified concerning
health messages: making healthier choices is easier, it is
not about the lack of information about health, but that it
Out of step
33. COMMUNICATION - CHALLENGES
Population could be poorly educated, ill-in-formed,
suspicious of innovations, traditional in outlook, and
backward rather than forward in orientation (Hyman and
Sheatsley, 1947; Rogers and Shoemaker, 1971).
Beliefs, attitudes and motives which underlie poor health practices may be deeply-root-ed, intransigent
and emotion-laden, whereas the beliefs, attitudes and motives which support good health may be
absent or lacking in saliency (Rosenstock, 1960).
Smoking, high cholesterol diets and inadequate exercise are examples of unhealthy habits which can be
the firmly established results of years of learning and reinforcement.
34. ETHICAL ISSUES IN HEALTH PROMOTION AND
Health promotion communication often entails the
articulation, development, testing, and dissemination of
practical suggestions, claims, and persuasive messages
Using various communication formats and media channels
(including social networks) for the purpose of promoting
the health of individuals and the public as a whole.
35. ETHICAL ISSUES IN HEALTH PROMOTION AND
Process aims to influence people’s views, beliefs,
preferences, relationships, social norms, and lifestyles
It is likely to raise a variety of ethical issues and dilemmas
related to the persuasive and influence strategies used.
36. ETHICAL ISSUES IN HEALTH PROMOTION AND
Ethical issues regarding advertising can be raised in health
promotion communication when it applies techniques
Highly emotional appeals,
The use of children
37. ETHICAL ISSUES IN HEALTH PROMOTION AND
Key ethical concerns relate to:
Infringing on people’s privacy
Interfering with their right to freedom of choice and
Equity (such as by widening social gaps, where mainly
those who are better off benefit from the interventions)
38. ETHICAL ISSUES IN HEALTH PROMOTION AND
Use of digital media may raise ethical issues regarding the
digital divide and privacy.
It may have unintended adverse effects on the
psychological well-being of individuals or groups (e.g., by
unintentionally stigmatizing or labelling people portrayed
as negative models).
39. ETHICAL ISSUES IN HEALTH PROMOTION AND
They can also have an effect on cultural aspects of society
(e.g., by idealizing particular lifestyles or turning health
into a value) and raise concerns regarding democratic
processes and citizens’ consent to the interventions.
Interventions can have repercussions in multicultural
settings since members of diverse populations may hold
beliefs or engage in practices considered by health
promoters as “unhealthy,” but which have important
40. ETHICAL ISSUES IN HEALTH PROMOTION AND
Ethical concerns regarding collaborations between health
promoters and for-profit organizations promoting
unhealthy products or services.