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Grammar and lexis tkt

  1. TKT MODULE 1 Describing language and language skills Galora Toapanta Mishel Estefania
  2. A winner is a dreamer who never gives up Nelson Mandela
  3. Make a definition about grammar using these words. ● Combine. ● Change. ● Organize . ● Unconsciously ● Forms ● Uses ● Words and groups of words make meaning GRAMMAR
  4. What is grammar? I It refers to how we combine, change and organize parts of the words, words and groups of words to make meaning. 2 We use grammar unconsciously ( write speak, read and listen). 3 Teachers use grammar to describe language. 4 Teachers explain the use and form of grammar.
  5. Grammatical forms How words are made up and presented. There are gramatical forms in :  Parts of the speech.  Grammatical structures.  Words with prefixes and suffixes. Prefixes: a group of letters added at the beginning of a base word. Suffixes : a group of letters added at the end of a base word.
  6. Examples Form of the plural of regular nouns. Form of the gerund. Word base + s CARS Word base + ING LISTENING
  7. How many parts of the speech are there?
  8. Nouns Verbs Adjectives Adverbs Determiners Prepositions Pronouns Conjunctions Exclamations Part of the speech It describes how words behave in sentences. How they operate and combine. The form of some parts of speech varies ( FUNTIONS). 9 parts of speech
  9. Grammatical structures It is the arregement of words into patterns which have meaning. There are gramatical structures in sentences, phrases and clauses.
  10. English forms words by affixes These give grammatical information. They are used to make new words. Affixes are a group of letters added at the beginning or end of the base word These change the part of speech and adding a meaning to the base word. Prefixes Suffixes Misunderstanding
  11. Grammatical uses How grammatical structures are used to convey meaning. The meaning comes from the context.For example: He is cooking rice. Present progressive o He is cooking right now in the moment he is speaking. o Cooking for him is a temporary actions happening around the time of speaking. o Cooking would be a future plan or intention. Convey meaning : To show, express or communicate meaning.
  12. Language teaching classroom
  13. Learners need to develop accuracy. Learners can speak and write very well without knowing any grammatical rules. Teachers have to consider three things while they are teaching grammar. Language teaching classroom are focused on funtions, language skills, fluency and communication. (form and use). Grammar rules describe the way that language works.
  14. LEXIS
  15. Make a definition about lexis using these words. SET OF WORDS WORDS INDIVIDUAL WORDS LEXIS MEANING
  16. Individual words or sets of words which have a specific meaning. Get upTREE Fisrt of all What is lexis ?
  17. What kind of meaning can words have ?
  18. Meaning that describes the thing or idea behind the vocabulary . “Family tree” and the tree of life” Words have different kind of meaning Denotative meaning Figurative meaning Imaginative meaning
  19. Context Meaning of some vocabulary items. We couldn’t see the house because of the tall trees in front of it. Click here Form Suffixes, prefixes and compounds . Oppositive meaning : unsafe Comparative meaning: easy – easier Superlative meaning: big – biggest Change the part of speech: quick – quickly
  20. There are words that get their meaning from being together There are many words which collocate in a language so the degree can vary. Get their meaning from being together. Bookshop. Their meaning is different from the combination of the meaning of the individual words. They cannot be changed. To tell you the truth. XXXX XXXX XXXX XXXX Compound nouns. Collocations Fixed expressions Idioms Chunks Click here
  21. Chunks Chunks involve phrases, set phrases and fixed phrases. Set of words and they work together in a language. People use their knowledge of chunks to help them to predict meaning. Have a good trip
  22. Words have different relationships with one another. Synonyms Antonyms o Both are part of the same lexical set. o They belong to the same word family. Similar meanings Opposite meanings
  23. Words can relate to one another False Friends Homophones Homonyms Varieties of English They have the same DECORATE DISCREET DECADENCE CONDECORATE DECATHLON DECKER DECALITER DECIPHER DECAMETER DESCEND DECATHLETE False friends, homophones, homonyms and varieties of English. They have the same and similar form in two languages but a different meaning. They have the same pronunciation, but different meaning or spelling. . They have the same spelling and pronunciation, but different meaning . There are different kinds of English spoken around the world. Embarazado There- their Mother
  24. Lexis in the language teaching classroom. o Firstly, students need to learn about denotative meaning of words and its spelling and pronunciation. o Students need to consolidate the knowledge of a word. o Context help students to know the meaning of a word. o At first teachers explain students only the important words ( key words) and she or he exposes them to many time. Students pick up the words but only their meaning after that students will be able to combine the base word in different ways. o Teachers can use the relationships in meaning between words to extend the knowledge of students. o At the beginners levels teachers have to explain students about categories of words. General words.
  25. THANKS! Spratt, M., Pulverness, A., & Williams, M. (2011). The TKT course. Ernst Klett Sprachen. Bibliography
  26. The situation in which language is used or presented. RETURN
  27. Nouns made from two or more separate words. RETURN
  28. o Watch out. o Watch a video. o Watch the postmen. Strong collocation. Less strong. Is not a collocation. RETURN