Effective Listeners make Effective
Why We Communicate ?????
Share our ideas and opinions
Provide feedback to others
Get information from others
Gain power and influence
Develop social relationships
Virtually vertical as per chain go
command within the hierarchy.
Free to move in any direction may
skip formal chain of
command. Likely to satisfy social
and emotional needs
and also can facilitate task
• Highly Directive, from Senior to subordinates, to
assign duties, give instructions, to inform to offer
feed back, approval to highlight problems etc.
• It is non directive in nature from down below, to
give feedback, to inform about
progress/problems, seeking approvals.
• Among colleagues, peers at same level for
information level for information sharing for
coordination, to save time.
In modern business environment communication extends beyond written or
words to listened word.
Visual dimension added by T.V., computers has given to new meaning to
• THE EXCHANGE OF INFORMATION, IDEAS,
THOUGHT, THROUGH THE USE OF VERBAL
OR SPOKEN WORDS.
• Communication Without Words.
communication by other means than by using words, e.g. through facial
expressions, hand gestures, and tone of voice.
Choose Your Medium to Communicate
Depending upon the situation, one method of communication may be better
In person: one-to-one
In person: meetings, small groups
In person: presentations, large groups
LEVELS OF COMMUNICATION
• Groups combined in such a way that large tasks may be accomplished.
• Goal of Providing adequate structure for groups to achieve their purposes.
Company or Organization
• The organizational reaching out to its public to achieve its goals.
• Goals of reaching many with the same message.
Media Advertise , website communication
•Non Verbal Difference
Legal & Ethical
•Code of Ethics
•Accuracy and security
•Shared Goals and
Process for planning, Preparing,
Speaking & Writing
5Cs for Writing Business Letters and
Clarity Make sure purpose and intent is clear to the reader
Include all the information that the reader needs to
Conciseness Avoid Wordiness
Courtesy Address the Reader Politely
Edit and Proofread your letter so that it has no
grammar, Spelling and punctuation errors
4Ps For Writing Success
Writing Persuasive Memos (cont.)
Create goodwill by being respectful
Demanding: Submit your answer within one week.
Respectful: I would appreciate your answer within one week.
Show “you” attitude by being positive and tactful
Your complaint about our fees is way off target. They are definitely not
higher than those of our competitors.
Thank you for your suggestion concerning our fees. We believe, however,
that our fees are competitive, and in some cases below, those of our
Memos: An Example
lnter Office Memo
To : All Employees
From :Mirza Abbas Director
Subject : New Health Scheme
The company is introducing a new health scheme called SCS Health Plan. You
will receive your
new medical card and a booklet outlining the terms and conditions of the
scheme by 20 July,2015.
The main features of the SCS Health Plan include:
• Medical reimbursement for treatment at private hospitals and clinic;
• Direct payment of medical expenses.
• Medical facilities for retired staff.
• Token system at SCS Hospital.
ScS Health Plan is compulsory for all the employees of the company. The use
of medical card is mandatory.
I am sure the new health scheme will improve the existing medical facilities
and would benefit
I our employees. We encourage you to use new medical card whenever you
visit the health
I centre or the SCS Hospital and followed the guidelines contained in the
brochure. Your cooperation in this regards will be highly appreciated.
Body explains and
support the main
"You will lose 40% of
your users on your
"Every year increases
the use of tablets and
smartphones by 30%
compared to previous
year. When users
browsing on their
new devices come to
your website they will
obsolete web site.
layout is very difficult
to read on the small
The problem reading
your good web site is
big for the visitors
and therefore you will
lose customers. But
the problem can be
We have the technical
design capabilities to
correct the problem
whatever web site
system you are using.
Contact us and we
make an analysis of
the task ahead and
give you a quotation
for solving the
"Please - Contact us
for free analysis of
the size of the
problem within 10
days. The cost of the
analysis is normally
Practicing Business Letters
1) You receive the following email from a customer:
"Hi! I am interested in purchasing exercise equipment from your shop. However, I live in
Karachi. Can we purchase your products online and get them delivered? Are there any
shipment charges? I look forward to a reply from your team.
Dear Moazzam Ali,
Thank you for your email.
We are the professional manufacturer of all kinds of Lab equipments, please check the
attached standard price lists and specification files for some popular products. Please let
me know which products you are interested and then I will quote you the best prices.
For any questions, please feel free to contact me.
Export Dept. Sales Manager
Laizhou Lyric Testing Equipment Co., Ltd.
232 Wanhao Business Building, East Guangzhou Road, Laizhou, Shandong, P.R. China
Web site: http://www.lyrictest.com
Item / Subject /
Details Of Discussion Action Plan
Owner /Executer of
Minutes Of the
Minutes of the last meeting held on 10th December
2015, were read by the MD and confirmed by all the
2.02 No. of Employees
2.03 No. of Employee
Title of the meeting : Performing Hujj / Umrah For ASL Employees
Description : Minutes of the 2nd meeting held at 10:00 a.m on Saturday, 8th May , 2015
In Training room , SMS Dhabeji Plant.
Present : Mr. ABC (Designation)
Mr. ABCD (Designation)
Mr. SFGH (Designation)
Absent : XYZ (Designation) with apology
MINUTES OF MEETING - A Brief Description
Contents of a Report
Title Page/ Cover
Table of Contents
When our words send one message and our nonverbal cues send another message,
people almost always believe our nonverbal cues
Fear Of Public Speaking
Butterflies in your Stomach
• Know the room- become familiar with the place of
• Know the audience- greet or chat with the audience before
hand. It’s easier to speak to friends than to strangers
• Know your material-increased nervousness is due to un-
• Relaxation- relax entire body by stretching and breathing so
as to ease the tension
• Visualize giving your speech-Visualize yourself giving your
speech from start to finish. By visualizing yourself
successful, you will be successful.
Butterflies in your Stomach
• People want you to succeed-the audience is there to see you
succeed not to fail
• Don’t apologize-by mentioning your nervousness or
apologizing, you’ll only be calling the audience’s attention to
• Concentrate on your message-not the medium. Focus on the
message you are trying to convey and not on your anxieties
• Turn nervousness into positive energy-nervousness
increases adrenaline, transform it into vitality and
• Gain experience-experience builds confidence, which is key
to effective public speaking
Effective Public Speaking
Things You Should Do
Can glance at notes
Always think ahead about what you are going to say.
Increase your knowledge on all subjects you are required to speak.
Speak clearly and audibly.
Check twice with the listener whether you have been understood accurately or not
In case of an interruption, always do a little recap of what has been already said.
Always pay undivided attention to the speaker while listening.
While listening, always make notes of important points.
Things You Shouldn’t Do
Do not instantly react and mutter something in anger.
Do not use technical terms & terminologies not understood by majority of people.
Do not speak too fast or too slow.
Do not speak in inaudible surroundings, as you won’t be heard.
Do not assume that every body understands you.
While listening do not glance here and there as it might distract the speaker.
Do not interrupt the speaker.
Do not jump to the conclusion that you have understood every thing.
Read directly from notes
Read directly from screen
Read directly from notes
Turn back on audience
Slouch, hands in pockets
No um, ah, you know
No nervous gestures
Talk too fast,
Talk too quietly
Understanding the Public Speaking Personality Type Quadrants
Fact Based Feeling Based
4 Types of
The word kinesics comes from the root word kinesis, which
means “movement,” and refers to the study of hand, arm,
body, and face movements.
• the use of gestures,
• head movements and
• eye contact, and
• facial expressions
• A set of rules that govern the expectations of social
and dining behavior in a workplace, group or
• Table manners are visible signs that you are a
polished and knowledgeable professional.
• Displaying manners is an act of kindness and
respect to your fellow human beings.
Hand Shake Etiquette
Visiting Card Etiquette
Email Etiquette etc…
Mehrabians Communication Study
• Verbal - Words Spoken
• Vocal - Intonation
• Body Language
Choices in Men’s Corporate Attire
Item Business Professional Item Business Casual
Suit Conservative well-pressed - black, navy, gray –
suit is best. Sleeves of the jacket should extent
to the hand. Suit pants should typically match
the jacket. Make sure to remove all exterior
Pants Conservative pressed suit pants, Dockers or
khakis are typical.
Shirt Neat, pressed and clean traditional long
sleeved button down collared shirt in
conservative and solid colors avoid bright
colors and patterns.
Shirt Well pressed button-down collared dress
shirt; stick to conservative colors. A sports
Tie Choose a good quality (often silk) tie in a
conservative color and / or pattern that is
properly tied. Avoid wearing flashy and bold
patterns or character prints that are distracting.
Sports Coat Wearing a Sports coat (suit jacket) is
sometimes appropriate for business casual;
if wearing a jacket, no tie is needed.
Shoes Clean and shined dress shoe, in a traditional
black or brown, coordinating with your suit.
Wear dress socks in a coordinated color with
Shoes Traditional black or brown leather clean
and shined dress shoe that coordinates
with your shirt and pants. Wear dress
socks in a coordinated color with your
pants and shoes.
Belts should always worn and also match your
suit and shoes. If wearing a watch, make sure
it is conservative. Avoid wearing facial/body
piercings, which can be distracting. Carry a
basic black or burgundy portfolio for resumes.
Wear minimal cologne and have a neat and
polished appearance. Fresh breath is always
appreciated; however, choose a mint versus
Keep things simple and tasteful. Have hair
controlled and wear minimal cologne.
Avoid wearing facial/body piercing, which
can be distracting. Belts should always be
worn and match your shoes. Carry a basic
black burgundy portfolio for resumes, etc.
The focus should be on your answers, not
your appearance. Fresh breath is always
appreciated; however , choose a mint
The act or process of using words, sounds, signs, or behaviors to express or exchange information or to express your ideas, thoughts, feelings, etc., to someone else A message that is given to someone : a letter, telephone call, etc. communications : the ways of sending information to people by using technology
Communication is defined as the interchange of thoughts or opinions through shared symbols; e.g. language, words, phrases
Every communicative act is based on something that conveys meaning, and that conveyance is the message.
The message may be either Verbal or Non-Verbal
In Old ages communication was done by smoke signals
In Old civilization symbols were also used for communication. As we seen Moen jo Daro and Pyramids of Egypt Heiroglyphics
a system for transmitting messages from a distance along a wire, especially one creating signals by making and breaking an electrical connection. "news came from the outside world by telegraph"
Not Concentrating Daydreaming, mind wandering, dozing Listening Too Hard Trying to remember every fact, no matter how minute Jumping To Conclusions Putting words into the speakers mouth; interrupting speaker, anticipating what speaker will say/do next Focusing On Delivery Instead Of Message Speakers accent, clothes, stuttering, presentation tools
In any communication: The Sender is the person trying to communicate a message The Receiver is the person at whom the message is directed A message is sent to convey information Information is meant to change behavior
The organizational reaching out to its public to achieve its goals. Goals of reaching many with the same message.
Media Adverise , website communication
Determine purpose of the message. Why do you Hope to accomplish with message. What should you learn about your audience Give them chance to share their thoughts
1. Completeness A) Provide All Necessary Information B) Answer All Questions Asked C) Give Something Extra, When Desirable 2. Conciseness A) Eliminate Wordy ExpressionB) Include Only Relevant MaterialC) Avoid Unnecessary Repetition 3. Consideration A) Focus on “You” Instead of “I” or “we”B) Show Audience Benefit or Interest in the Receiver C) Emphasize Positive, Pleasant Facts 4. Concreteness A) Use Specific Facts and FiguresB) Put Action in you VerbsC) Choose Vivid, Image-Building Words 5. Clarity A) Choose Precise, Concrete, and Familiar WordsB) Construct Effective Sentences and Paragraph 6. Courtesy A) Be Sincerely Tactful, Thoughtful, and AppreciativeB) Use Expression That Show RespectC) Choose Nondiscriminatory Expression 7. Correctness A) Use Right Level of Language B) Check Accuracy of Figures, Facts and WordsC) Maintain Acceptable Writing Mechanics
Heading Segment. ( To, From and Subject) Opening State point. ( Purpose of memo ) Summary / Body of Memo ( Main points of Memo) Closing (Courteous ending or required action)
Attention : Get the Receiver Attention Interest : Introduce the Product, Service, Or Idea and arouse interest in it. Desire : Creat Desire by presenting convincing evidence of the value of the product, services or idea Action : Encourage action
1. Know the purpose Before writing minutes, you must know the purpose of lt. First, a report of meeting minutes is a record. But it is just not the type of record you write, print out, file and then forever forget. it provides a historical account of official business and ciperational decisions, and involvement of people making the decisions. lt is used as a reference which is periodically or frequently referred to. 2. Keep it Concise Keep the key information in order and make sure you don't miss any imp'ortant information. You only have certain limited time and it will be impossible to write every single thing discussed during a meeting. So, keep it concise, i.e. compact and short. Take notes of the issues discussed, mijor points raised and decisions taken. Make sure what you write will be easily understood, and usable in the future. Many of the meetings require the attendees looking back at the previous meeting's minutes. So if people can't read them, they'll go for your head instead. 3. Get right information, follow right format To keep it short, here is a list of information that should be in your minutes of meeting: . Time, date and venue of meeting . List of attendance (and their position) . Agenda of meeting - key agenda, details, and specific action plan, and owner/executor of the plan . Name of person taking minutes (youl) As for the format, there is no school of thought that says there is this specific format that you need to follow. What you need is a simple and user friendly format like the following: lName of companyl IDate, Time and Venue] lMinutes prepared byl [Agenda]: 1. 2. 3. Attendies 1. 2. 3. Details of Meeting Table 4. Keep a record Normally, minutes are hand-written that are transferred into a prpper computerized document (e.g. Microsoft Word), properly restructured, save and printed out. Good and fast typists can immediately record conversation into the computer/laptop, where this requires less time for fine tuning later on. The minutes are then distributed among the attendees of the meeting, or those who will be responsible to take actions as per discussed during the meeting.
A person usually makes a lot of hand gestures when telling a true story. When telling a lie, a person’s hands will stay noticeably still. ges·ture (jĕs′chər)n.1.a. A motion of the limbs or body made to express or help express thought or to emphasize speech. b. The action of making such a motion or motions: communicated solely by gesture. 2. An act or a remark made as a formality or as a sign of intention or attitude: sent flowers as a gesture of sympathy. v. ges·tured, ges·tur·ing, ges·tures v.intr.To make gestures.
What are Yours fears ?
1.Preparation research -non-research format -speak on what you know -Notes- outline main points -note cards vs. full sized paper
2. Practice - practice makes perfect - revision get time right 3.Presence -nervousness- fright is common -Body language -voice tone -gestures -eye contact -positive attitude
Professor Albert Mehrabian has pioneered the understanding of communications since the 1960s. He received his PhD from Clark University and in l964 commenced an extended career of teaching and research at the University of California, Los Angeles. He currently devotes his time to research, writing, and consulting as Professor Emeritus of Psychology, UCLA. Mehrabian's work featured strongly (mid-late 1900s) in establishing early understanding of body language and non-verbal communications.
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