This study offers an overview of the technologies for hydrogen production especially alkaline water electrolysis using solar energy. Solar Energy and Hydrogen (energy carrier) are possible replacement options for fossil fuel and its associated problems of availability and high prices which are devastating small, developing, oil-importing economies. But a major drawback to the full implementation of solar energy, in particular photovoltaic (PV), is the lowering of conversion efficiency of PV cells due to elevated cell temperatures while in operation. Also, hydrogen as an energy carrier must be produced in gaseous or liquid form before it can be used as fuel; but its‟ present major conversion process produces an abundance of carbon dioxide which is harming the environment through global warming. Alkaline water electrolysis is considered to be a basic technique for hydrogen production. In the present study, the effects of electrolyte concentration, solar insolation and space between the pair of electrodes on the amount of hydrogen produced and consequently on the overall electrolysis efficiency are experimentally investigated. The water electrolysis of potassium hydroxide aqueous solution was conducted under atmospheric pressure using stainless steel 316 as electrodes. The experimental results showed that the performance of alkaline water electrolysis unit is dominated by operational parameters like the electrolyte concentration and the gap between the electrodes. Smaller gaps between the pair of electrodes and was demonstrated to produce higher rates of hydrogen at higher system efficiency This study shows some attempts to product pure Hydrogen and pure Oxygen as both Hydrogen and Oxygen have there commercial demands.