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By; mohammed karamyounus
ENZYME and coenzym
Co-factor
 A cofactor is a non-
protein chemical
compound that is required for
the protein's biological
activity. These p...
Coenzyme
 loosely bound cofactors termed coenzymes
 Any of a number of freely diffusing organic
compounds that function ...
Coenzymes as vitamins
 Many coenzymes are closely related to
vitamins. Some of them are important growth
factors.
 Coenz...
Role of coenzyme
 The function of coenzymes is to transport groups
between enzymes.
 Chemical groups include hydride ion...
Function of coenzyme
 The coenzyme is essential for the biological
activity of the enzyme.
 A coenzyme is a low molecula...
Important coenzyme
Alcohol dehydrogenase
Coenzyme A
Flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD)
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotid...
The effect of enzyme inhibition
1. Competitive: These
compete with the
substrate molecules
for the active site.
The inhibi...
The effect of enzyme inhibition
2. Non-competitive: These are not influenced
by the concentration of the substrate. It
inh...
Applications of inhibitors
 Negative feedback: end point or end
product inhibition
 Poisons snake bite, plant alkaloids ...
Thank you for your
attention
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enzyme and coenzym

enzyme and coenzym

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enzyme and coenzym

  1. 1. By; mohammed karamyounus ENZYME and coenzym
  2. 2. Co-factor  A cofactor is a non- protein chemical compound that is required for the protein's biological activity. These proteins are commonly enzymes, and cofactors can be considered "helper molecules" that assist in biochemical transformations.  Cofactors can be divided into two broad groups: organic cofactors, such as flavin or heme, and inorganic cofactors, such as the metal ions Mg2+, + 2+
  3. 3. Coenzyme  loosely bound cofactors termed coenzymes  Any of a number of freely diffusing organic compounds that function as cofactors with enzymes in promoting a variety of metabolic reactions.  Coenzymes are a type of cofactor and they are bound to enzyme’s active sites to aid with their proper functioning.  Coenzymes which are directly involved and altered in the course of chemical reactions are considered to be a type of secondary substrate.
  4. 4. Coenzymes as vitamins  Many coenzymes are closely related to vitamins. Some of them are important growth factors.  Coenzymes are the precursors of vitamins.  A vitamin is a main component of an coenzyme endowed with bio catalytic functions.  Coenzymes involved in transfer of hydrogens are called hydrogen transferring enzymes and those which transfer a specific group are known as group transferring coenzymes.
  5. 5. Role of coenzyme  The function of coenzymes is to transport groups between enzymes.  Chemical groups include hydride ions which are carried by coenzymes such as NAD,  phosphate groups which are carried by coenzymes such as ATP  acetyl groups which are carried by coenzymes such as coenzyme A.  Coenzymes which lose or gain these chemical groups in the course of the reaction are often reformed in the same metabolic pathway. For example NAD+ used in glycolysis and the citric acid cycle is replaced in the electron transport
  6. 6. Function of coenzyme  The coenzyme is essential for the biological activity of the enzyme.  A coenzyme is a low molecular weight organic substance, without which the enzyme cannot exhibit any reaction.  One molecule of the coenzyme is able to convert a large number of substrate molecules with the help of enzyme.
  7. 7. Important coenzyme Alcohol dehydrogenase Coenzyme A Flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) Adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
  8. 8. The effect of enzyme inhibition 1. Competitive: These compete with the substrate molecules for the active site. The inhibitor’s action is proportional to its concentration. Resembles the substrate’s structure closely. Enzyme inhibitor complex Reversibl e reaction E + I EI
  9. 9. The effect of enzyme inhibition 2. Non-competitive: These are not influenced by the concentration of the substrate. It inhibits by binding irreversibly to the enzyme but not at the active site. Examples  Cyanide combines with the Iron in the enzymes cytochrome oxidase.  Heavy metals, Ag or Hg, combine with –SH groups. These can be removed by using a chelating agent such as EDTA.
  10. 10. Applications of inhibitors  Negative feedback: end point or end product inhibition  Poisons snake bite, plant alkaloids and nerve gases.  Medicine antibiotics, sulphonamides, sedatives and stimulants
  11. 11. Thank you for your attention

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