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Definition of curriculum• A Curriculum is a judiciously organised subject matter (Static)• Set of process, programmes and the like, which are applied to learners in order to achieve certain kind of objectives (Dynamic)• A curriculum is those aspects of education and training which have been planned to comprise a course (Descriptive)• A curriculum is a sequence of content units arranged in such a way that the learning of such a unit may be accomplished as a single act, provided the capabilities described by specified prior units in the sequence have already been mastered (Prescriptive)In summary CBT Curriculum......• CBT Curriculum is purely and simply a teaching strategy.• A teaching and learning strategy is in turn conceived as being a series of goal-oriented activities of procedures to be carried out by instructors with respect to trainees and in the context of a syllabus or a body of subject matter.
Phases of CD Listing of module titles Identification of Learning Outcomes Development of learning strategies Development of practical exercises Listing of related knowledge Listing of tools and equipment Organisation of teaching and learning environment Development Selection of instructionalPrerequisites to the phase strategiestraining Analysis of studentTraining needs Preparation performance with respect toJob descriptions Implementati phase set objectives and competencyOccupational profile on phase standardsTask analysis Identify deficiencies on theEducational and training curriculumobjectives Evaluation Recommendation of phase changes Comparison of trainee performance to competency standards Conduct internal evaluation of programme by trainees Obtain views from trainers/instructors Obtain confidential reviews from experts and employers Collate inputs and synthesize them
Curriculum revision• Every curriculum has a shelve life and it is necessary to review curriculum in order to realign it to the changing demands and dev. (Omission of key information, Changes in technology, Changes in approach of the content)• Curriculum review should be an organised process in order to yield the intended result. It is important to have a committee: (Teachers that have taught the module, Other teachers in the same occupational area, Occupational job experts, CD expert)• Review Process: Duration of Module, Aim of the module, Learning Outcomes, Outcome assessment criteria. Module content
CBT definitionThere is no uniform understanding and definition of the terms“competence” and “competency” – “Competence is the ability to perform activities within an occupation or function to the standards expected in employment” . NVQ-UK – “Competence is the possession and development of sufficient skills, knowledge and appropriate attitudes and experience for successful performance of life roles” K. G. Marsh University of Greenwich What does it mean to be competent? – Being able to do the job. – Knowing how and why things are done. – Knowing what to do if things go wrong. – Having the right approach to do a job properly and safely. – Being able to adapt to similar but different situations in work.
Why is competency important? Employers Employees• Improve quality of products • Employment opportunities and services – new entrants• Improve productivity – existing workers• Reduce cost and minimise • Job satisfaction waste • Promotion• Workforce that is able to adapt • Recognition to new work practices and technologies • Wages• International competition and • Mobility investment • Adapt to new work practices and technologies 6
CBT implementation Job profiling Job Development mapping of standards Development Development of training of curricula materials Development of assessment materials
Proposed Qualifications on the NQF 10 Doctoral DegreeNQFLevels 9 Masters Degree D 8 I Bachelor Honours Professional Bachelor P Bachelor Degree 7 C L E O 6 R M T A 5 I S 4 F I 3 C A 2 T E 1 S
SYSTEMATIC CURRICULUM & SCID INSTRUCTIONAL DEVELOPMENT Phases Major Components A-1 A-2 A-3 A-4 A-5 A-6A - ANALYSIS Conduct Conduct Conduct Select Conduct Develop Needs Job Task Tasks Standard Competency Analysis Analysis Verification for Training Task Analysis Profile B-1 B-2 B-3 B-4B - DESIGN Determine Develop Develop Develop Training Learning Performance Training Approach Objectives Measures Plan C-1 C-2 C-3 C-4 C-5C - DEVELOPMENT Develop Develop Develop Develop Pilot-Test/ Learning Learning Lesson Supportive Revise Guides/Modules Plans/Job Aids Plans Media MaterialsD - IMPLEMENTATION D-1 D-2 D-3 D-4 Implement Conduct Conduct Document Training Plan Training Formative Evaluation Training E-1 E-2 E-3E - EVALUATION Conduct Analyze Initiate Summative Evaluation Information Collected Corrective Actions
Components of curriculum Module title Module aim Learning Outcomes Outcome assessment criteria Module content Delivery strategy Tools and equipment Resources
DACUM OrientationWhat is DACUM?It is an acronym for : Develop A CurriculumWhy DACUM?DACUM is a unique, quick, innovative and low cost method of job and /or occupational, process and functional analysis.DACUM process advantages: Encourages group interaction and brainstorming Builds group synergy and consensus Gives future orientation Maximizes input from industry Facilitates employee/employer/learner buy-in Provides effective way to meet industry needs for job-specific training Gives comprehensive outcomes with superior quality at low cost
Three major assumptions of DACUM •Expert workers can describe and define their job more accurately than anyone else. •An effective way to define a job/occupation is to precisely describe the tasks that expert worker perform. •All the tasks, in order to be performed correctly, demand the use of certain knowledge, skill, tools and positive worker behavior.
The process…. (duties) Occupation ? PrepareThe whole job meat Bake pastry Prepare COOK saladsThe whole job PromoteDivided into hygiene6 to 12 duties ?
The process…. (tasks) The whole job Each duty divided into 6 to 20 tasks
Guidelines for:A- Duty statements B- Task statements Describe large areas of work in Concisely describe a task in performance terms performance terms Serve as cluster for a cluster of Should have a single action verb related tasks and an object that receives the action (usually 6 – 20 per duty) Usually contain one or more Consist of one verb, an object and relevant qualifiers usually a qualifier. Are explicitly stated (crystal clear) Are general, not specific Are meaningful by themselves ( statements of the work that is not dependent upon the duty of performed ( usually 6 to 12 per other tasks) occupation) Avoid references to worker behavior Stand alone (are meaningful Avoid references to tools and without reference to the job) equipment that merely support Avoid reference to workers’ task performances behavior, tools and knowledge Avoid references to knowledge needed. needed.
Blooms Taxonomy Application Analysis Definition: Understands both S ynthesis Definition: Formulates new structures from existing Evaluati on Definition: Judges the value of material for a given purpose. Comprehension Definition: Uses learning the content and structure of knowledge and skills. alleviate Knowledge Definition: Grasps the in a new and concrete material. arrange assess meaning of material situation (higher level analyze assemble communicateDefinition: Remembers (lowest level of understanding). break down budget concludepreviously learned material. understanding) ascertain categorize code consider cite approximate adapt compare combine counsel define articulate apply contrast compile criticize describe associate assign correlate construct critique numerate characterize calculate deduce create decide identify clarify classify detect cultivate defend indicate classify complete differentiate design detect label contrast compute discriminate develop elicit list convert conduct examine enhance estimate locate differentiate construct figure out explain evaluate match delineate contract group facilitate grade name describe demonstrate manage formulate interpret outline discuss determine maximize generalize judge point explain discover minimize generate justify recall give example establish optimize improve measure recognize locate estimate order integrate predict reproduce paraphrase employ outline organize prescribe select predict explore select plan rank state review expose separate prepare rate tabulate summarize factor train produce recommend write translate illustrate transform propose reinforce investigate relate release make revise review manipulate sequence select maintain specify score modify write support orient test perform validate practice verify predict prepare produce provide relate set simulate solve use
What is a task? Represent the smallest unit of job activity with a meaningful outcome Result in a product, service or decision Represent an assignable unit of work Has a definite starting and ending point Can be observed and measured Can be performed over a short period of time Can be performed independent of other tasks Consist of two or more steps.
Introduction to Standards developmentImagine a world without standards .......(Measurability, Compatibility, Universality, MarketabilityPortability, Conformity ...)Standards are used as a system of measurement(Mass , Length, Speed, Temperature , Etc....)
Key questionWhat is the difference between competence and competency?• Competence = ability (in general)• Competency = test to assess knowledge, skill and attitude (Potential to perform vs Actual performance)Definition of standards A unit standard is a registered statement of desired education and training outcomes and its associated assessment criteria together with administrative and other information as specified in the regulations A technical standard is an established norm or requirement. It is usually a formal document that establishes uniform engineering or technical criteria, methods, processes and practices. ...What are performance standards? Performance standards provide clear statements of the kinds of performances that constitute evidence that students had met the content standards. They answer the question, how well must a student perform? ...
Unit standards The intended audience is: the “informed assessor” – a subject expert (or someone who has access to expertise) who is qualified as an Assessor a candidate who has completed learning and has the capacity to determine readiness for formal assessment Specify outcomes of learning or work performance Provide the basis for the design of assessment and making an assessment judgment They are not directly concerned with delivery of learning or trainingBUT programs As they describe required performance, they inform the design of such programs
Headings on a Unit Standard Title The outcome of learning attained and awarded – the person is able to … Element An assessed sub-outcome of learning to give clarity to the Title – the person is able to … Performance The FORM, AMOUNT, and QUALITY of evidence that is required to be considered by the Assessor if credit is to be awarded – Criteria what is “performance worthy of credit”? Range The context, or parameters in which the performances are required or are relevant statement Special Information to improve clarity of meaning and scope of the Notes performances expected
Components of a Unit Standard Performance Criteria TITLE ELEMENTS (RANGE) OUTCOMES EVIDENCE
Unit standards and qualifications• Unit standards outline a level or measure of achievement. It can be viewed as a statement of performance and outcome criteria.• A cluster of unit standards make up a qualificationStandards development procedure 1. Task analysis 2. Clustering of tasks 3. Identification of unit titles 4. Development of elements 5. Generation of range statements 6. Development of performance criteria
Task Analysis criteria: Identification of Unit titles:1. Importance form cluster headings of clustered tasks:2. Frequency of operation Perform basic engineering drawing3. Complexity Apply mathematical principles4. Criticality Repair exhaust system Install security systemClustering of Tasks: Prepare lessons1. Process – Sequence Development of Elements title and – Procedural steps Performance criteria:2. Systems Elements are sub-elements of a unit title – Digestive system They give clarity to the unit title – Transmission system In giving clarity to the unit titles the title is sub-divided – Solar system Performance criteria3. Relationship They further break down the elements – Teaching and learning into smaller objectives – Assessment and certification The smaller objectives add up to the – Monitoring and evaluation whole unit objective
Credit allocation & value Credits allocated to a unit standard must reflect the notional learning time it is expected to take candidates to repeatedly meet the outcome and performance requirements in the unit standard. Notional learning time includes time: • Spent in structured tuition and self-directed learning and practice • Taken to gather and provide evidence for assessment purposes • Taken for assessment in all the outcomes and contexts One credit represents a notional 10 hours of learning, practice and assessment time with respect to the outcomes and contexts of the unit. Credits allocated must: • Be whole numbers and no more than 120 • Be consistent with unit standards comparable outcomes, evidence demands and contexts.
Develop of Performance criteriaWhat is performance criteria?• It is the FORM, AMOUNT, and QUALITY of evidence that is required to be considered by the assessor if credit is to be awarded• It helps assessors maintain objectivity and provide students with important information about expectations, giving them a target or goal to strive for.
Elements from Unit titleOccupation: TVET TrainerUnit title: Design learning programmeElements 1. Confirm scope of learning 2. Design the learning programme 3. Develop the learning programme content 4. Structure learning programme
PC from elementElement: Design the learning programmePerformance criteria 1. Relevant learning strategy documentation is accessed and used to guide the learning program development. 2. The competency and learning styles of the target group learners are investigated to inform the learning program design. 3. Research is conducted to identify existing learning programs, learning resources and learning materials which could be used and customised. 4. A range of options for the learning program content is generated in collaboration with other persons and based on research findings and application of learning principles. 5. Design options for the learning program content are identified and applied.
Photo: ( General knowledge and Skill and attitude of Teacher)
SyllabusSyllabus consist of information and details of Task Profile.Basically syllabus describes: 1. WHAT TO TEACH ? 2. HOW TO TEACH ?Basic Elements 1. Topic 2. Theory 3. Performance 4. Time 5. Delivery mode 6. Assessment mode 7. Selected references & audiovisual materials 8. Tools, equipment and supplies
SYLLABUSOCCUPATION:CARPENTERDUTY/TASK: TOPIC THEORY PERFORMANCE HRS DELIVERY MODE ASSESSMENT MODESelected Refrenceces and Audiovisual MaterialsTools, Equipment Supplies and Facilities