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Gamification in MOOCs: a Review of the State of the Art

A Massive Open Online Course (MOOC) is a type of online learning environment that has the potential to increase students’ access to education. However, the low completion rates in MOOCs suggest that student engagement and progression in the courses are problematic. Following the increasing adoption of gamification in education, it is possible that gamification can also be effectively adopted in MOOCs to enhance students’ motivation and increase completion rates. Yet at present, the extent to which gamification has been examined in MOOCs is not known. Considering the myriad gamification elements that can be adopted in MOOCs (e.g., leaderboards and digital badges), this theoretical research study reviews scholarly publications examining gamification of MOOCs. The main purpose is to provide an overview of studies on gamification in MOOCs, types of research studies, theories applied, gamification elements implemented, methods of implementation, the overall impact of gamification in MOOCs, and the challenges faced by researchers and practitioners when implementing gamification in MOOCs. The results of the literature study indicate that research on gamification in MOOCs is in its early stages. While there are only a handful of empirical research studies, results of the experiments generally showed a positive relation between gamification and student motivation and engagement. It is concluded that there is a need for further studies using educational theories to account for the effects of employing gamification in MOOCs.

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Gamification in MOOCs: a Review of the State of the Art

  1. 1. Gamification in MOOCs: A Review of the State of the Art EDUCON 2018, Santa Cruz de Tenerife 19.04.2018 Mohammad Khalil, Jacqueline Wong, Bjorn de Koning, Martin Ebner & Fred Paas
  2. 2. I am Mohammad Khalil Hello! @TUMohdKhalil http://mohdkhalil.wordpress.com
  3. 3. The MOOCs Hype Image from: Vlad Mihaescu
  4. 4. 9,400MOOCs 81,000,000Online students Based on Class Central 2017 statistics
  5. 5. http://www.takepart.com/sites/default/files/styles/tp_gallery_slide/public/RTR33X5C-itok=5W4E1ycQ.jpg
  6. 6. Research Questions What is/are • The state of research on gamification in MOOCs • Research methods used in the studies? • Reasons for implementing gamification in MOOCs? • Theoritical frameworks used? • Gamification elements? • Challenges faced? • Effectiveness?
  7. 7. Methodology
  8. 8. Machi & Mcevoy (2016) way
  9. 9. 51 papersGamification AND (“MOOC(s)” OR “Massive Open Online”) 2008 - 2017 Filtering • Non-English • Abstracts & proposals • Not-accessible • Outside MOOCs scope 18
  10. 10. Followed research methods Method # Empirical/quantitative 3 papers Empirical/qualitative 2 papers Empirical/mixed 5 papers Conceptual/theoretical 8 papers
  11. 11. Venues & publications year
  12. 12. Citation Analysis Based on Google Scholar Nov. 2017
  13. 13. Implementation environments 5 Hybrid 11 Web Image cut from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IInVQvWEChE
  14. 14. Reasons for gamification Reason # Enhance motivation 8 papers Enhance engagement 7 papers Entertainment 2 papers Recommendation/personalization 2 papers Build up loyalty 2 papers Deepen learning 1 paper Support collaboration 1 paper Improve autonomy 1 paper
  15. 15. Gamification Elements Badges (12) Leaderboards (6) Progress (4) Challenges (4) Ranking (3) Levels (3) Points (3) Reward (3)
  16. 16. Gamification Impact 9 1 -Positive
  17. 17. Limitations & Challenges • Specialized group (4) • Pilot study/beta testing (3) • Complicated structure (3) • Testing environment shortage (2) • Ineffective sample size (2)
  18. 18. Future Directions Pressing needs to empirically test the effectiveness of gamification elements in MOOCs Researchers/practition ers to take a multidisciplinary approach for gamification implementation Gamification elements design and integration should be grounded on theories
  19. 19. Any questions ? Thank You! @TUMohdKhalil http://mohdkhalil.wordpress.com