Presented by: Dr. Mohamed Yousef Atifah
Resident of G.surgery, orthopedic Arabic board
48 modern hospital
Under the supervision of:
Dr. Ali Mohamed Saleh
Dr. Abdo Shamsan
Dr. Mohamed Essa
Dr. Raidan Al-Eryani
DVT occurs when a blood clot forms deep inside a part of the body.
Deep vein thrombosis can typically form in the thigh and lower leg, but
sometimes it can form in the arm and pelvis area.
Deep vein thrombosis itself is not dangerous, but it can be life-
threatening when the piece of the blood clot breaks off and travel
through the circulating system known as an embolism reaching the
heart and pulmonary artery and getting lodged there.
This can prevent blood from flowing properly through the lung and
decrease the amount of oxygen absorbed and distributed back to the body
which is known as pulmonary embolism.
Embolisms can travel and get lodged in any part of the body the heart,
lungs, brain, or any other area.
Prolonged travel or sitting, such as long airplanes, cars, or
Thrombophilia-An abnormality in blood coagulation that
increases the risk of blood thrombosis.
Venous stasis-An condition of slow blood flow in the vein,
usually in the legs, which can cause thrombosis in the legs.
Surgery can lead to a high risk of deep vein thrombosis and
mainly surgery in the lower extremist such as that knee
Pregnancy -Changes in the level of hormones, and slower
blood flow as the uterus expands increase the risk of DVT.
Adults above the age of 60 are mostly at the highest risk of
Having an injury that damages the veins
Being overweight, which puts more pressure on the veins of
the legs and pelvis
Having a family history of DVT
Having a catheter placed in a vein
Taking birth control bills or undergoing hormone therapy
Smoking (especially heavy usage)
8. Symptoms ofDVT:
Swelling of foot, ankle, or leg, usually on one side
Cramping pain in the affected leg
Severe, unexplained pain in your foot and ankle
An area of skin that feels warmer than the skin in the
The skin over the affected area turning pale or a reddish or
The primary test for the diagnosis is done by a physical test.
The two foremost techniques needed for the diagnosis of DVT are:
D-dimer blood tests-D-dimer is a blood test that may be used as a screening
test to determine if a blood clot exists. A positive test may not mean a DVT is
present. Any blood clot will give positive results.
Ultrasonography-It is the standard method to determine DVT.USG would be
able to show different DVT in any part of the body. But a clot in the chest or
pelvis may not be identified by Ultrasound.
There are other certain blood tests that can show an increased chance of
blood clots. They are-
Activated protein C resistance (checks for the Factor V Leiden mutation)
Complete blood count (CBC)
Genetic testing to look for mutations that make you more likely to develop
blood clots, such as the prothrombin G20210A mutation
Protein C and protein S levels
Medication-Anticoagulants prevent further formation of blood clots and
can stop an embolus to reach to lungs or other parts of the body.
-Heparin-It is an anticoagulant and it may be given
depending on the history and severity of the patient
-Warfarin-A blood-thinning drug is given with
heparin, which blocks blood clotting factors
Filters-If any patient is not able to take blood thinners, the filters can
be placed inside the vena cava, this prevents pulmonary embolism by
preventing the blood from entering into the lungs. This is often placed
Pressure stocking- A pressure stocking improves blood flow in your legs
and reduces your risk for complications from blood clots.