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By – Mohit Patel
Introduction
• Non-volatile
– Information is saved even when there is no power
• Immediate boot up
– No need to wait for y...
• DRAM
– Advantages: cheap
– Disadvantages: Comparatively slow and loses data when
power is off
• SRAM
– Advantages: fast
...
• Power efficiency
– MRAM can be the most efficient memory device in power
consumption
• Ferro-magnet
– Ferro-magnet is th...
Historical Overview
Why MRAM Became an Important Research Topic
◦ Universal Memory (Computing & Electronics)
◦ “Instant-On...
What is MRAM?
• Magnetic RAM is a methods of storing data bits
using magnetic charges instead of the electrical
charges .
...
History of MRAM
• 􀂀 1988 – Giant magneto resistive effect is discovered
• 􀂀 1989 - IBM makes breakthroughs in the giant ma...
How its work internally?
• The 2 Possible Magnetization States of a
Ferromagnetic Element can be Described by a
Hysteresis...
MRAM Device
Bit cells arranged in array:
• Reading: Transistor of the
selected bit cell turned
‘on’ + current applied in
t...
MRAM Reading & Writing Process
• MRAM Utilizes a Wire
Directly Over &
Magnetically Coupled to
the Magnetic Element
• A Cur...
Reading A Bit :
• Measurement of the bit cell resistance by applying a
current in the ‘bit line’
• Comparison with a refer...
DRAM
• DYNAMIC random access memory
• Slow
• Needs to be refreshed, hence dynamic
FRAM
• Structurally similar to DRAM
• Ferroelectric film made of PZT
• Nonvolatile
• Fast read/write times
SRAM
• STATIC random access memory
• Faster, more reliable than DRAM
• Need not be refreshed, hence static
• Expensive, us...
FLASH MEMORY
• Non-volatile
• NOR and NAND
• Does not need to be refreshed
Advantages & Disadvantages
Advantages :
• MRAM will eliminate the boot up time
• Electronic devices will be more power eff...
Advantages comparing with other RAMs
fast speed cheap dense
non-
volatile
consume
low
power
no need to
refresh
FLASH √ √
S...
Disadvantages :
• Heat Problem
• EMI Problem
• Bit Flip
Applications
• Digital camera
• Cellular phones
• PDA
• Palm pilot
• MP3
• HDTV
• Laptops
• PCs
References
• http://www.mram-info.com/companies.html
• Http://computer.howstuffworks.com/ram.htm
• http://www.williams-adv...
YOU MAY ASK…..
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Mram (magneticRAM)

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have fun:) keep remember that this is basic concepts so i preffer it for MCA andCE students only. thank you.

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Mram (magneticRAM)

  1. 1. By – Mohit Patel
  2. 2. Introduction • Non-volatile – Information is saved even when there is no power • Immediate boot up – No need to wait for your computer to boot up • MRAM, SRAM and DRAM – MRAM is potentially capable of replacing both DRAM, SRAM and many advantages over technology currently used in electronic devices
  3. 3. • DRAM – Advantages: cheap – Disadvantages: Comparatively slow and loses data when power is off • SRAM – Advantages: fast – Disadvantages: cost up to 4 times as much as DRAM and loses data when power is off • Flash memory – Advantages: save data when power is off – Disadvantages: saving data is slow and use lot of power
  4. 4. • Power efficiency – MRAM can be the most efficient memory device in power consumption • Ferro-magnet – Ferro-magnet is the type of material used to create a MTJ to develop MRAM
  5. 5. Historical Overview Why MRAM Became an Important Research Topic ◦ Universal Memory (Computing & Electronics) ◦ “Instant-On” Computing ◦ Read & Write to Memory Faster ◦ Reduced Power Consumption ◦ Save Data in Case of a Power Failure Modern MRAM Technology Emerged from Several Technologies : ◦ Magnetic Core Memory ◦ Magneto resistive RAM ◦ Giant Magneto resistance
  6. 6. What is MRAM? • Magnetic RAM is a methods of storing data bits using magnetic charges instead of the electrical charges . • MRAM is a memory (RAM) technology that uses electron spin to store information. MRAM has been called "the ideal memory", potentially combining the density of DRAM with the speed of SRAM and non- volatility of FLASH memory or hard disk, and all this while consuming a very low amount of power. • MRAM can resist high radiation, and can operate in extreme temperature conditions, very suited for military and space applications.
  7. 7. History of MRAM • 􀂀 1988 – Giant magneto resistive effect is discovered • 􀂀 1989 - IBM makes breakthroughs in the giant magneto resistive effect in thin-film • structures • 􀂀 1995 – Free scale creates first MRAM chip as part of a DARPA initiative • 􀂀 1997 – IBM releases first commercially available spin valve in hard drive read head • 􀂀 2000 – IBM and Infineon form join MRAM development program • 􀂀 2003 – an initial 128Kbit MRAM chip is made with 180nm lithographic process • 􀂀 2004 – 16Mbit prototype manufactured by Infineon • 􀂀 Sept 2004 – Free scale begins offering MRAM • 􀂀 Nov 2005 – Rennes's Tech and Grandis develop 65 nm MRAM using spin torque • transfer • 􀂀 Dec 2005 – Free scale demos MRAM which uses magnesium oxide which reduces • required write currents • 􀂀 Feb 2006 – Toshiba and NEC announce 16Mbit chip with 200 MB/s transfer rate, 34ns • cycle time, 78.5 mm2 size, and low 1.8V requirement • 􀂀 Nov 2007 – NEC makes SRAM compatible MRAM with 250MHz speed • 􀂀 Aug 2008 – German scientists develop MRAM with write cycles under 1ns • 􀂀 Mar 2011 – PTB announces write cycles under 500ps (2GBit/s)
  8. 8. How its work internally? • The 2 Possible Magnetization States of a Ferromagnetic Element can be Described by a Hysteresis Loop • Magnetization of Film vs. Magnetic Field • A magnetic field, with magnitude greater than the switching field, sets magnetization in direction of applied field
  9. 9. MRAM Device Bit cells arranged in array: • Reading: Transistor of the selected bit cell turned ‘on’ + current applied in the bit line • Writing: Transistor of the selected bit cell turned ‘off’ + currents applied in the bit and word lines
  10. 10. MRAM Reading & Writing Process • MRAM Utilizes a Wire Directly Over & Magnetically Coupled to the Magnetic Element • A Current Pulse Traveling Down the Wire Creates a Magnetic Field Parallel to the Wire • Each Cell is Inductively Coupled with a Write Wire From a Row & a Column
  11. 11. Reading A Bit : • Measurement of the bit cell resistance by applying a current in the ‘bit line’ • Comparison with a reference value mid-way between the bit high and low resistance values Writing A Bit : • Currents applied in both lines 2 magnetic fields Polarity of current in the bit lines decides value stored
  12. 12. DRAM • DYNAMIC random access memory • Slow • Needs to be refreshed, hence dynamic
  13. 13. FRAM • Structurally similar to DRAM • Ferroelectric film made of PZT • Nonvolatile • Fast read/write times
  14. 14. SRAM • STATIC random access memory • Faster, more reliable than DRAM • Need not be refreshed, hence static • Expensive, used in CPU cache
  15. 15. FLASH MEMORY • Non-volatile • NOR and NAND • Does not need to be refreshed
  16. 16. Advantages & Disadvantages Advantages : • MRAM will eliminate the boot up time • Electronic devices will be more power efficient • It could enable wireless video in cell phones • More accurate speech recognition • MP3, instead of hundred on songs, MRAM will enable thousand of songs and movies • No worry for unsaved document when power goes out • In the powerful computer servers that will run the web it could mean faster surfing, and easier download • More memory space will be available to us • More reliable electronics will be available to us • high bandwidth and low latency
  17. 17. Advantages comparing with other RAMs fast speed cheap dense non- volatile consume low power no need to refresh FLASH √ √ SRAM √ √ DRAM √ √ MRAM √ √ √ √ √ √
  18. 18. Disadvantages : • Heat Problem • EMI Problem • Bit Flip
  19. 19. Applications • Digital camera • Cellular phones • PDA • Palm pilot • MP3 • HDTV • Laptops • PCs
  20. 20. References • http://www.mram-info.com/companies.html • Http://computer.howstuffworks.com/ram.htm • http://www.williams-adv.com/tools/mram- technology-review.php • https://www.futureelectronics.com/en/memo ry/mram.aspx
  21. 21. YOU MAY ASK…..

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