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Cloning Endangered Species By: Alice Tao & Jordan Zarzour Period 9
Basic Principles of Genetics <ul><li>A dominant allele’s traits always show up in the organism if it is present. A recessive allele shows up if there is no dominant allele. The recessive allele is masked if the dominant allele is present. </li></ul><ul><li>In the case of co-dominant alleles, neither allele is masked in the offspring. Both recessive and dominant alleles are shown in the offspring. </li></ul><ul><li>The alleles of two parents combining to make traits in offspring would be shown in a Punnet Square. A Punnet Square is the probability of what traits an offspring would show. It shows all the possible outcomes of a genetic cross. For example, if a couple were to have kids and the woman is heterozygous for her shortness in height, but the man is homozygous for his tallness. This Punnet Square will show the possibility of the offspring of this couple being tall. This child could either be tall or short. The heredity, or passing of traits from parent to offspring, of the child will take either the mother or father’s traits. (The woman’s alleles are on the vertical side.) </li></ul>-The uppercase letter represents a dominant allele, while the lower case letter represents a recessive allele. ss ss s Ss Ss S s s
Human Genome Project <ul><li>The human genome project started in 1990. Scientists hoped to use this information to take 15 years and cost $2 million per year. The major goals were to identify all the human genes; determine the sequence of all the base pairs in the human DNA, store the information in a database, develop tools for analyzing data, and address the ethical, legal and social issues that would arise from the project. </li></ul><ul><li>Legal - The president, George Bush, signed a law called GINA (Genetic information Nondiscrimination Act) on May 21 st . GINA prevents citizens from being discriminated against by insurance companies and other kind of companies, because of their genetic information. Social - There could be a large impact psychologically, because they could be discriminated against by friends, co-workers or families. Ethical - It is unfair to use the genetic information of another person, because it belongs to them, and should be private. The question is of who should have access to the personal genetic information, and how will it be used? </li></ul><ul><li>The human genome project changed the laws by enacting to address the prohibited discrimination against individuals with specific genetic traits or disorders. The Human Genome Project helped change current laws for state laws. One state law regulates both the use of genetic testing in employment decisions and the disclosure of genetic test results. Most state laws are basically prohibiting employers from requiring works to take a genetic test as a condition of employment. </li></ul>
Genetic Disorders <ul><li>Single gene disorders are caused by changes or mutations that occur in the DNA sequence of one single gene. The genetic protein code no longer carries out normal roles, like life functions. In this case, the single gene disorder can occur. However, chromosomal disabilities are caused by abnormalities of the chromosomes. Missing or extra copies, gross breaks or rejoinings can result in the chromosomal type of genetic disorder. Multifactorial disorders are caused by different combinations of environmental factors and also mutations in multiple genes. This type of genetic disorder is very complicated, and makes it much more difficult to analyze than the single-gene and chromosomal disorders. </li></ul><ul><li>Genetic counseling evaluates family history and medical record, orders genetic tests, evaluates the results of the investigation, and helps parents understand and reach decisions about what to do next. Genetic Counseling helps because the tests’ findings are very complexly written so you need a Genetic Counselor to be of service to decipher the findings. The tests that parents take reveal the presence or absence of the inherited disorder(s). </li></ul><ul><li>Scientists are able to predict if someone has a genetic disorder by searching for extra or missing chromosomes in a person’ karyotype. A karyotype is the appearance and number of chromosomes in a eukaryotic cell’s nucleus. </li></ul>
Scientific Advancements in Cloning <ul><li>There were no big advancements in cloning until November 1951. </li></ul><ul><li>A group of scientists in Philadelphia cloned a frog’s embryo. </li></ul><ul><li>The scientists took a nucleus out of a frog embryo cell and used it to replace the nucleus of an of an unfertilized frog egg cell, completing the experiment of almost 50 years before. </li></ul><ul><li>Once the egg knew that it had a full set of chromosomes, it began to divide and grow. This was the first time that this process, now known as Nuclear Transplant, was used. </li></ul><ul><li>It’s still in use today, even though the method has changed a little. </li></ul>
Issues to Cloning & Genetic Engineering <ul><li>Many people worry that the technology used to clone animals is the same that can be used to clone humans or produce transgenic animals. </li></ul><ul><li>Researchers in England and Australia have already been asked to create human-animal hybrids. People are asking them to fuse a human cell to an animal egg to create embryos that are 99.9 perfect human and 0.1 percent animal. </li></ul><ul><li>A lot of people are concerned that cloning represents a dangerous ‘transgression’ of science. </li></ul>
Argument 1: Pros <ul><li>Cloning helps the environment immensely against global warming. </li></ul><ul><li>The Archangel Ancient Tree Archive is a non-profit assembly of people who want to clone the endangered trees such as Redwoods, Sequoias, Cedars and Oaks. </li></ul><ul><li>Cloning these trees will help the environment by absorbing the carbon dioxide in the air. </li></ul><ul><li>Carbon dioxide is the greenhouse gas which is largely responsible for global warming. </li></ul><ul><li>This plan will also help restore and regenerate the world’s ancient forests. </li></ul><ul><li>According to Ontario scientist Diana Beresford-Kroeger, “rebuilding forests with champion clones could buy time for humanity by mitigating centuries of environmental abuse.” </li></ul>
Argument 2: Pros <ul><li>Cloning endangered animals is extremely important! </li></ul><ul><li>If we were able to successfully clone endangered species, we could take them from being close to extinction to being fully replenished. </li></ul><ul><li>For example, there is an endangered species called the “gaur”, which is the wild ox. If scientists were able to clone these again, after the failed cloning of Noah the gaur, we would be able to replenish this species, and it would no longer be endangered. </li></ul><ul><li>Noah was a cloned gaur who died 48 hours after birth, due to a disease completely nonrelated to the cloning process. This shows that there is definitely a change we could clone gaurs again, and we could succeed. </li></ul><ul><li>Dr. Jonathan Hill, from Cornell University, was directing the group of scientists, veterinarians and technicians who cloned Noah. They believe that cloning can “reverse the extinction of animals”. </li></ul>
Argument 3: Pros <ul><li>Saving endangered species could be a great pleasure to our future generations. </li></ul><ul><li>If we had cloning then and knew well enough to take advantage of it, we could have enjoyed many now extinct animals. </li></ul><ul><li>Animals like the Moeritherium, Cave Bear, Tasmanian wolf, Irish Bear Caspian Tiger, Golden Toad, Bali Tiger, etc. are now extinct. The Elephant’s pedigree was traced back all the way to the Moeritherium which lived around 50 million years ago. </li></ul><ul><li>According to Anthony Otsuka, professor of biological sciences, man-kind’s activities along with natural disasters has lead to the endangerment if not extinction to some species. </li></ul><ul><li>If material could be frozen for later, then we would not have to lose species that have been around for many, many years. </li></ul>
Argument 4: Pros <ul><li>According to Scientist/Professor Stephen Fong, what could happen when we clone endangered species isn’t like what could happen if we cloned extinct ones. </li></ul><ul><li>If we cloned extinct species then the concern between organisms and the environment would be unknown. </li></ul><ul><li>However, if we cloned endangered species, then there wouldn’t be any concern between the organisms and the environment because those endangered species still exist. So the proper concern would already be known. </li></ul>
Argument 1: Cons <ul><li>Many animals that are part of the cloning process suffer from diseases or health problems. </li></ul><ul><li>The cloned animals and surrogate mothers (the animals who carry the clone pregnancies), suffer painful and very serious diseases. They also suffer deformities in order to produce the “successful” clone. </li></ul><ul><li>A lot of times, the cloned animals seem healthy when they are first cloned. However, they are known to suddenly and unexpectedly develop different health problems later in their lives. </li></ul><ul><li>Dr. Ryuzo Yanagimachi, who works at the University of Hawaii, says that, “Cloned embryos have serious developmental and genetic problems.” </li></ul>
Argument 2: Cons <ul><li>Cloning animals, or anything for that matter, takes many attempts. </li></ul><ul><li>Despite scientists’ many years of research, more than 95 percent of all cloning attempts still fail. </li></ul><ul><li>According to Dr. Rob DeSalle, scientists have to make many, many attempts before successfully cloning an animal. Sometimes, it can take up to 300 attempts. </li></ul><ul><li>When Ian Wilmut was cloning Dolly the Sheep, they took many cloning attempts. One of Wilmut’s colleagues suggested that maybe the reason why so many of their attempts failed was because the cells weren’t in the compatible stages of life. </li></ul><ul><li>Typically, only zero to three percent of cloned embryos will be successfully delivered. </li></ul>
Argument 3: Cons <ul><li>Many people feel that cloning is not natural. </li></ul><ul><li>Cloning requires so much more involvement and much interference with the animal’s reproductive abilities and performance than regular production ways. </li></ul><ul><li>A lot of religious groups have rejected animal cloning on ethical grounds. </li></ul><ul><li>Cloning and genetic engineering are viewed by these groups as going against God. </li></ul><ul><li>According to Dr. Brigid Hogan, who is a professor of cell biology at the Vanderbilt University Medical Center in Nashville, “it would be morally indefensible.” </li></ul>
Argument 4: Cons <ul><li>According to Scientist/Professor Stephen Fong, the problem with cloning endangered species is if there were any differences between the original DNA and the copied DNA, then the cloned organism wouldn’t look identical to the original organism. </li></ul><ul><li>It is extremely difficult to perfectly and identically clone the entire DNA from an organism. </li></ul><ul><li>The consequences for releasing something that has been genetically modified into the wild could be tremendous. </li></ul>
Conclusion <ul><li>We learned so much from doing this project. </li></ul><ul><li>We learned all of the positive and negative sides of cloning animals, plants and endangered animals. </li></ul><ul><li>Along with what the human genome project is, and the different types of genetic disorders. </li></ul><ul><li>During our research, we got to hear scientists and people’s opinions on cloning endangered species and understand their thinking. </li></ul><ul><li>Cloning endangered species can be both positive and negative. </li></ul><ul><li>Cloning can be used to save organisms, however cloning an organism can give it numerous defects! </li></ul>
People’s Opinions on Cloning Endangered Species We created a survey on http://www.surveymonkey.com/ , asking people if they thought cloning endangered species overall, would be a good thing or a bad thing. In all, 36 people voted. 19 voted that it was a good thing; 17 voted that it was a bad thing. 52.7%- yes; 47.3%- no.
Successful/Failed Clones 12 Male Mice created by Ogura’s team New Zealand cow Five Cloned Piglets Dolly the Sheep Failed Clones 2 Twin Calves Noah the Gaur (death un-related to cloning) CC the Cat Idaho Gem the Mule Successful Clones
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