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SHARDA SCHOOL OF DESIGN, ARCHITECTURE & PLANNING
Course Title: BDC326 Research Methodology
UNIT 1
Program:B. Design, Semester:VI
Batch: 2020-24
Faculty
Prof. (Ar.) Pramod Kumar Jain
SHARDA SCHOOL OF DESIGN, ARCHITECTURE & PLANNING
Faculty
Prof. (Ar.) Pramod Kumar Jain
Course Objective
The focus of this course is not on mastery of
statistics but on the ability to use research in the
Design environment.
Course Title: Research Methodology
SHARDA SCHOOL OF DESIGN, ARCHITECTURE & PLANNING
Faculty
Prof. (Ar.) Pramod Kumar Jain
What is Design?
1. A plan or drawing produced to show the look and
function or workings of a building, garment, or
other object before it is made.
2. a decorative pattern.
Course Title: Research Methodology
SHARDA SCHOOL OF DESIGN, ARCHITECTURE & PLANNING
Faculty
Prof. (Ar.) Pramod Kumar Jain
Design
A design is a plan or specification for the construction of an
object or system or for the implementation of an activity or
process or the result of that plan or specification in the
form of a prototype, product, or process. The verb to design
expresses the process of developing a design.
Course Title: Research Methodology
SHARDA SCHOOL OF DESIGN, ARCHITECTURE & PLANNING
Faculty
Prof. (Ar.) Pramod Kumar Jain
What is a design in art?
an outline, sketch, or plan, as of the form and
structure of a work of art, an edifice, or a machine
to be executed or constructed. organization or
structure of formal elements in a work of art;
composition.
Course Title: Research Methodology
SHARDA SCHOOL OF DESIGN, ARCHITECTURE & PLANNING
Faculty
Prof. (Ar.) Pramod Kumar Jain
Design research
Design research was originally constituted as primarily research into
the process of design, developing from work in design methods, but
the concept has been expanded to include research embedded within
the process of design, including work concerned with the context of
designing and research-based design practice.
Course Title: Research Methodology
SHARDA SCHOOL OF DESIGN, ARCHITECTURE & PLANNING
Faculty
Prof. (Ar.) Pramod Kumar Jain
Design Program
B. Design (Fashion Design)
B. Design (Communication Design)
B. Design (Digital & Communication Design)
B. Design (Interior & Space Design)
B. Design (Industrial & Product Design)
Course Title: Research Methodology
SHARDA SCHOOL OF DESIGN, ARCHITECTURE & PLANNING
Faculty
Prof. (Ar.) Pramod Kumar Jain
Your Introduction
1. Your Name
2.Why are you doing your respectives programs?
B. Design (Fashion Design)
B. Design (Communication Design)
B. Design (Digital & Communication Design)
B. Design (Interior & Space Design)
B. Design (Industrial & Product Design)
3. What you want to do in your life?
4. What are the research challenge in your programs?
Course Title: Research Methodology
SHARDA SCHOOL OF DESIGN, ARCHITECTURE & PLANNING
Faculty
Prof. (Ar.) Pramod Kumar Jain
Course Outcomes
After completion of this course, student will able to:
CO1:Develop a hypothesis, a research problem and
related questions
CO2: Frame the problem with the correct research methodology
CO3:Collect accurate data to addresses the research problem
CO4: Use the data to make decisions
CO5: Create a effective research proposals
CO6: analyse the data collected from various sources.
Course Title: Research Methodology
SHARDA SCHOOL OF DESIGN, ARCHITECTURE & PLANNING
Faculty
Prof. (Ar.) Pramod Kumar Jain
Course Description
To develop an understanding among students about
an overview of the important concepts of research
design, data collection, statistical and interpretative
analysis, and final report presentation.
Course Title: Research Methodology
SHARDA SCHOOL OF DESIGN, ARCHITECTURE & PLANNING
Faculty
Prof. (Ar.) Pramod Kumar Jain
Unit 1
INTRODUCTION
A
Foundations of Research: Meaning, Objectives,
Motivation, Utility
Course Title: Research Methodology
SHARDA SCHOOL OF DESIGN, ARCHITECTURE & PLANNING
Faculty
Prof. (Ar.) Pramod Kumar Jain
Research: Meaning
Dictionary Meaning of Research
the systematic investigation into and study of materials and sources in
order to establish facts and reach new conclusions.
Course Title: Research Methodology
We all possess the vital instinct of inquisitiveness for, when the unknown confronts us, we
wonder and our inquisitiveness makes us probe and attain full and fuller understanding of
the unknown.
This inquisitiveness is the mother of all knowledge and the method, which man employs for
obtaining the knowledge of whatever the unknown, can be termed as research.
SHARDA SCHOOL OF DESIGN, ARCHITECTURE & PLANNING
Faculty
Prof. (Ar.) Pramod Kumar Jain
1. Research in common parlance refers to a search for
knowledge.
2. One can also define research as a scientific and systematic
search for pertinent information on a specific topic.
In fact, research is an art of scientific investigation.
3. The Advanced Learner’s Dictionary of Current English lays
down the meaning of research as “a careful investigation or
inquiry specially through search for new facts in any branch of
knowledge.”
4. Redman and Mory define research as a “systematized
effort to gain new knowledge.”
Some people consider research as a movement, a movement
from the known to the unknown. It is actually a voyage of
discovery.
Course Title: Research Methodology
SHARDA SCHOOL OF DESIGN, ARCHITECTURE & PLANNING
Faculty
Prof. (Ar.) Pramod Kumar Jain
Research is an academic activity and as such the term should
be used in a technical sense.
5. According to Clifford Woody research comprises defining
and redefining problems, formulating hypothesis or suggested
solutions; collecting, organising and evaluating data; making
deductions and reaching conclusions; and at last carefully
testing the conclusions to determine whether they fit the
formulating hypothesis.
6. D. Slesinger and M. Stephenson in the Encyclopaedia of
Social Sciences define research as “the manipulation of things,
concepts or symbols for the purpose of generalising to extend,
correct or verify knowledge, whether that knowledge aids in
construction of theory or in the practice of an art.”
Course Title: Research Methodology
SHARDA SCHOOL OF DESIGN, ARCHITECTURE & PLANNING
Faculty
Prof. (Ar.) Pramod Kumar Jain
Research is, thus, an original contribution to the
existing stock of knowledge making for its
advancement.
It is the pursuit of truth with the help of study,
observation, comparison and experiment.
In short, the search for knowledge through objective
and systematic method of finding solution to a
problem is research.
The systematic approach concerning generalisation
and the formulation of a theory is also research.
Course Title: Research Methodology
SHARDA SCHOOL OF DESIGN, ARCHITECTURE & PLANNING
Faculty
Prof. (Ar.) Pramod Kumar Jain
As such the term ‘research’ refers to the systematic
method consisting of
enunciating the problem, formulating a hypothesis,
collecting the facts or data, analyzing the facts
and
reaching certain conclusions either in the form of
solutions(s) towards the concerned problem or in
certain generalisations for some theoretical
formulation.
Course Title: Research Methodology
SHARDA SCHOOL OF DESIGN, ARCHITECTURE & PLANNING
Faculty
Prof. (Ar.) Pramod Kumar Jain
Assignment 2
Difference between data, information and
knowledge?
What Is Data?
Data is defined as a collection of individual facts or statistics.
Data can come in the form of text, observations, figures, images,
numbers, graphs, or symbols. For example, data might include
individual prices, weights, addresses, ages, names, temperatures,
dates, or distances.
Data is a raw form of knowledge and, on its own, doesn’t carry any
significance or purpose. In other words, you have to interpret data for
it to have meaning. Data can be simple—and may even seem useless
until it is analyzed, organized, and interpreted.
Course Title: Research Methodology
SHARDA SCHOOL OF DESIGN, ARCHITECTURE & PLANNING
Faculty
Prof. (Ar.) Pramod Kumar Jain
There are two main types of data:
Quantitative data is provided in numerical form, like the weight,
volume, or cost of an item.
Qualitative data is descriptive, but non-numerical, like the name, sex,
or eye color of a person.
Course Title: Research Methodology
SHARDA SCHOOL OF DESIGN, ARCHITECTURE & PLANNING
Faculty
Prof. (Ar.) Pramod Kumar Jain
What Is Information?
Information is defined as knowledge gained through study,
communication, research, or instruction. Essentially, information is
the result of analyzing and interpreting pieces of data. Whereas data
is the individual figures, numbers, or graphs, information is the
perception of those pieces of knowledge.
For example, a set of data could include temperature readings in a
location over several years. Without any additional context, those
temperatures have no meaning. However, when you analyze and
organize that information, you could determine seasonal temperature
patterns or even broader climate trends. Only when the data is
organized and compiled in a useful way can it provide information
that is beneficial to others.
Course Title: Research Methodology
SHARDA SCHOOL OF DESIGN, ARCHITECTURE & PLANNING
Faculty
Prof. (Ar.) Pramod Kumar Jain
The Key Differences Between Data vs Information
Data is a collection of facts, while information puts those facts into context.
While data is raw and unorganized, information is organized.
Data points are individual and sometimes unrelated. Information maps out that
data to provide a big-picture view of how it all fits together.
Data, on its own, is meaningless. When it’s analyzed and interpreted, it becomes
meaningful information.
Data does not depend on information; however, information depends on data.
Data typically comes in the form of graphs, numbers, figures, or statistics.
Information is typically presented through words, language, thoughts, and ideas.
Data isn’t sufficient for decision-making, but you can make decisions based on
information.
Information is created when data are processed, organized, or structured to
provide context and meaning.
Information is essentially processed data.
Course Title: Research Methodology
SHARDA SCHOOL OF DESIGN, ARCHITECTURE & PLANNING
Faculty
Prof. (Ar.) Pramod Kumar Jain
Examples of Data vs Information
To further explore the differences between data and information,
consider these examples of how to turn data into insights:
At a restaurant, a single customer’s bill amount is data. However,
when the restaurant owners collect and interpret multiple bills over a
range of time, they can produce valuable information, such as what
menu items are most popular and whether the prices are sufficient to
cover supplies, overhead, and wages.
A customer’s response to an individual customer service survey is a
point of data. But when you compile that customer’s responses over
time—and, on a grander scheme, multiple customers’ responses over
time—you can develop insights around areas for improvement within
your customer service team.
Course Title: Research Methodology
SHARDA SCHOOL OF DESIGN, ARCHITECTURE & PLANNING
Faculty
Prof. (Ar.) Pramod Kumar Jain
The number of likes on a social media post is a single element of data.
When that’s combined with other social media engagement statistics,
like followers, comments, and shares, a company can intuit which
social media platforms perform the best and which platforms they
should focus on to more effectively engage their audience.
On their own, inventory levels are data. However, when companies
analyze and interpret that data over a range of time, they can pinpoint
supply chain issues and enhance the efficiency of their systems.
Competitors’ prices are individual data elements, but processing that
data can reveal where competitors have an advantage, where there
may be gaps in the market, and how a company can rise above its
competition.
Course Title: Research Methodology
SHARDA SCHOOL OF DESIGN, ARCHITECTURE & PLANNING
Faculty
Prof. (Ar.) Pramod Kumar Jain Course Title: Research Methodology
Assignment 3
Give Examples of Data vs Information wrt your respective
Design Program?
SHARDA SCHOOL OF DESIGN, ARCHITECTURE & PLANNING
Faculty
Prof. (Ar.) Pramod Kumar Jain
Knowledge: Meaning
Dictionary Meaning of Knowledge
facts, information, and skills acquired through experience or
education; the theoretical or practical understanding of a subject.
Course Title: Research Methodology
SHARDA SCHOOL OF DESIGN, ARCHITECTURE & PLANNING
Faculty
Prof. (Ar.) Pramod Kumar Jain
Objectives: Meaning
Dictionary Meaning of Objectives
a thing aimed at or sought; a goal.
Course Title: Research Methodology
SHARDA SCHOOL OF DESIGN, ARCHITECTURE & PLANNING
Faculty
Prof. (Ar.) Pramod Kumar Jain
OBJECTIVES OF RESEARCH
The purpose of research is to discover answers to
questions through the application of scientific
procedures. The main aim of research is to find out the
truth which is hidden and which has not been
discovered as yet.
Though each research study has its own specific
purpose, we may think of research objectives as falling
into a number of following broad groupings:
1. To gain familiarity with a phenomenon or to achieve
new insights into it (studies with this object in view are
termed as exploratory or formulative research studies);
Course Title: Research Methodology
SHARDA SCHOOL OF DESIGN, ARCHITECTURE & PLANNING
Faculty
Prof. (Ar.) Pramod Kumar Jain
2. To portray accurately the characteristics of a
particular individual, situation or a group (studies
with this object in view are known as descriptive
research studies);
3. To determine the frequency with which
something occurs or with which it is associated with
something else (studies with this object in view are
known as diagnostic research studies);
4. To test a hypothesis of a causal relationship
between variables (such studies are known as
hypothesis-testing research studies).
Course Title: Research Methodology
SHARDA SCHOOL OF DESIGN, ARCHITECTURE & PLANNING
Faculty
Prof. (Ar.) Pramod Kumar Jain
MOTIVATION IN RESEARCH
What makes people to undertake research? This is a question
of fundamental importance. The possible motives for doing
research may be either one or more of the following:
1. Desire to get a research degree along with its
consequential benefits;
2. Desire to face the challenge in solving the unsolved
problems, i.e., concern over practical problems initiates
research;
3. Desire to get intellectual joy of doing some creative work;
4. Desire to be of service to society;
5. Desire to get respectability.
Course Title: Research Methodology
SHARDA SCHOOL OF DESIGN, ARCHITECTURE & PLANNING
Faculty
Prof. (Ar.) Pramod Kumar Jain
However, this is not an exhaustive list of factors
motivating people to undertake research studies.
Many more factors such as directives of
government, employment conditions, curiosity
about new things, desire to understand causal
relationships, social thinking and awakening, and
the like may as well motivate (or at times compel)
people to perform research operations.
Course Title: Research Methodology
SHARDA SCHOOL OF DESIGN, ARCHITECTURE & PLANNING
Faculty
Prof. (Ar.) Pramod Kumar Jain
Utility of Research
“All progress is born of inquiry. Doubt is often better than
overconfidence, for it leads to inquiry, and inquiry leads to
invention” is a famous Hudson Maxim in context of which the
significance of research can well be understood.
Increased amounts of research make progress possible.
Research inculcates scientific and inductive thinking and it
promotes the development of logical habits of thinking and
organisation.
The role of research in several fields of applied economics,
whether related to business or to the economy as a whole,
has greatly increased in modern times. The increasingly
complex nature of business and government has focused
attention on the use of research in solving operational
problems.
Course Title: Research Methodology
SHARDA SCHOOL OF DESIGN, ARCHITECTURE & PLANNING
Faculty
Prof. (Ar.) Pramod Kumar Jain
Research, as an aid to economic policy, has gained added
importance, both for government and business. Research
provides the basis for nearly all government policies in our
economic system. For instance, government’s budgets rest in
part on an analysis of the needs and desires of the people and
on the availability of revenues to meet these needs. The cost
of needs has to be equated to probable revenues and this is a
field where research is most needed. Through research we can
devise alternative policies and can as well examine the
consequences of each of these alternatives
However, this is not an exhaustive list of factors motivating
people to undertake research studies. Many more factors such
as directives of government, employment conditions, curiosity
about new things, desire to understand causal relationships,
social thinking and awakening, and the like may as well
motivate (or at times compel) people to perform research
operations.
Course Title: Research Methodology
SHARDA SCHOOL OF DESIGN, ARCHITECTURE & PLANNING
Faculty
Prof. (Ar.) Pramod Kumar Jain
Decision-making may not be a part of research, but research
certainly facilitates the decisions of the policy maker. Government
has also to chalk out programmes for dealing with all facets of the
country’s existence and most of these will be related directly or
indirectly to economic conditions.
The plight of cultivators, the problems of big and small business
and industry, working conditions, trade union activities, the
problems of distribution, even the size and nature of defence
services are matters requiring research. Thus, research is
considered necessary with regard to the allocation of nation’s
resources.
Another area in government, where research is necessary, is
collecting information on the economic and social structure of the
nation. Such information indicates what is happening in the
economy and what changes are taking place. Collecting such
statistical information is by no means a routine task, but it involves
a variety of research problems.
Course Title: Research Methodology
SHARDA SCHOOL OF DESIGN, ARCHITECTURE & PLANNING
Faculty
Prof. (Ar.) Pramod Kumar Jain
These day nearly all governments maintain large staff of
research technicians or experts to carry on this work. Thus, in
the context of government, research as a tool to economic
policy has three distinct phases of operation, viz.,
(i) investigation of economic structure through continual
compilation of facts;
(ii) diagnosis of events that are taking place and the analysis of
the forces underlying them; and
(iii) the prognosis, i.e., the prediction of future developments.
Research has its special significance in solving various
operational and planning problems of business and industry.
Operations research and market research, along with
motivational research, are considered crucial and their results
assist, in more than one way, in taking business decisions.
Course Title: Research Methodology
SHARDA SCHOOL OF DESIGN, ARCHITECTURE & PLANNING
Faculty
Prof. (Ar.) Pramod Kumar Jain
Market research is the investigation of the structure and development of a
market for the purpose of formulating efficient policies for purchasing,
production and sales.
Operations research refers to the application of mathematical, logical and
analytical techniques to the solution of business problems of cost
minimisation or of profit maximisation or what can be termed as
optimisation problems. Motivational research of determining why people
behave as they do is mainly concerned with market characteristics. In other
words, it is concerned with the determination of motivations underlying the
consumer (market) behaviour.
All these are of great help to people in business and industry who are
responsible for taking business decisions. Research with regard to demand
and market factors has great utility in business.
Given knowledge of future demand, it is generally not difficult for a firm, or
for an industry to adjust its supply schedule within the limits of its projected
capacity. Market analysis has become an integral tool of business policy
these days.
Course Title: Research Methodology
SHARDA SCHOOL OF DESIGN, ARCHITECTURE & PLANNING
Faculty
Prof. (Ar.) Pramod Kumar Jain
Business budgeting, which ultimately results in a
projected profit and loss account, is based mainly on
sales estimates which in turn depends on business
research.
Once sales forecasting is done, efficient production and
investment programmes can be set up around which
are grouped the purchasing and financing plans.
Research, thus, replaces intuitive business decisions by
more logical and scientific decisions.
Research is equally important for social scientists in
studying social relationships and in seeking answers to
various social problems.
Course Title: Research Methodology
SHARDA SCHOOL OF DESIGN, ARCHITECTURE & PLANNING
Faculty
Prof. (Ar.) Pramod Kumar Jain
It provides the intellectual satisfaction of knowing a few things
just for the sake of knowledge and also has practical utility for
the social scientist to know for the sake of being able to do
something better or in a more efficient manner.
Research in social sciences is concerned both with knowledge
for its own sake and with knowledge for what it can contribute
to practical concerns. “This double emphasis is perhaps
especially appropriate in the case of social science. On the one
hand, its responsibility as a science is to develop a body of
principles that make possible the understanding and
prediction of the whole range of human interactions. On the
other hand, because of its social orientation, it is increasingly
being looked to for practical guidance in solving immediate
problems of human relations.”
Course Title: Research Methodology
SHARDA SCHOOL OF DESIGN, ARCHITECTURE & PLANNING
Faculty
Prof. (Ar.) Pramod Kumar Jain
In addition to what has been stated above, the
significance of research can also be understood
keeping in view the following points:
(a) To those students who are to write a master’s or
Ph.D. thesis, research may mean a careerism or a
way to attain a high position in the social
structure;
(b) To professionals in research methodology,
research may mean a source of livelihood;
(c) To philosophers and thinkers, research may mean
the outlet for new ideas and insights;
Course Title: Research Methodology
SHARDA SCHOOL OF DESIGN, ARCHITECTURE & PLANNING
Faculty
Prof. (Ar.) Pramod Kumar Jain
(d) To literary men and women, research may mean
the development of new styles and creative work;
(e) To analysts and intellectuals, research may mean
the generalisations of new theories.
Thus, research is the fountain of knowledge for the
sake of knowledge and an important source of
providing guidelines for solving different business,
governmental and social problems. It is a sort of
formal training which enables one to understand
the new developments in one’s field in a better way.
Course Title: Research Methodology

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BDC 326_Research Methodology Unit 1A.pdf

  • 1. SHARDA SCHOOL OF DESIGN, ARCHITECTURE & PLANNING Course Title: BDC326 Research Methodology UNIT 1 Program:B. Design, Semester:VI Batch: 2020-24 Faculty Prof. (Ar.) Pramod Kumar Jain
  • 2. SHARDA SCHOOL OF DESIGN, ARCHITECTURE & PLANNING Faculty Prof. (Ar.) Pramod Kumar Jain Course Objective The focus of this course is not on mastery of statistics but on the ability to use research in the Design environment. Course Title: Research Methodology
  • 3. SHARDA SCHOOL OF DESIGN, ARCHITECTURE & PLANNING Faculty Prof. (Ar.) Pramod Kumar Jain What is Design? 1. A plan or drawing produced to show the look and function or workings of a building, garment, or other object before it is made. 2. a decorative pattern. Course Title: Research Methodology
  • 4. SHARDA SCHOOL OF DESIGN, ARCHITECTURE & PLANNING Faculty Prof. (Ar.) Pramod Kumar Jain Design A design is a plan or specification for the construction of an object or system or for the implementation of an activity or process or the result of that plan or specification in the form of a prototype, product, or process. The verb to design expresses the process of developing a design. Course Title: Research Methodology
  • 5. SHARDA SCHOOL OF DESIGN, ARCHITECTURE & PLANNING Faculty Prof. (Ar.) Pramod Kumar Jain What is a design in art? an outline, sketch, or plan, as of the form and structure of a work of art, an edifice, or a machine to be executed or constructed. organization or structure of formal elements in a work of art; composition. Course Title: Research Methodology
  • 6. SHARDA SCHOOL OF DESIGN, ARCHITECTURE & PLANNING Faculty Prof. (Ar.) Pramod Kumar Jain Design research Design research was originally constituted as primarily research into the process of design, developing from work in design methods, but the concept has been expanded to include research embedded within the process of design, including work concerned with the context of designing and research-based design practice. Course Title: Research Methodology
  • 7. SHARDA SCHOOL OF DESIGN, ARCHITECTURE & PLANNING Faculty Prof. (Ar.) Pramod Kumar Jain Design Program B. Design (Fashion Design) B. Design (Communication Design) B. Design (Digital & Communication Design) B. Design (Interior & Space Design) B. Design (Industrial & Product Design) Course Title: Research Methodology
  • 8. SHARDA SCHOOL OF DESIGN, ARCHITECTURE & PLANNING Faculty Prof. (Ar.) Pramod Kumar Jain Your Introduction 1. Your Name 2.Why are you doing your respectives programs? B. Design (Fashion Design) B. Design (Communication Design) B. Design (Digital & Communication Design) B. Design (Interior & Space Design) B. Design (Industrial & Product Design) 3. What you want to do in your life? 4. What are the research challenge in your programs? Course Title: Research Methodology
  • 9. SHARDA SCHOOL OF DESIGN, ARCHITECTURE & PLANNING Faculty Prof. (Ar.) Pramod Kumar Jain Course Outcomes After completion of this course, student will able to: CO1:Develop a hypothesis, a research problem and related questions CO2: Frame the problem with the correct research methodology CO3:Collect accurate data to addresses the research problem CO4: Use the data to make decisions CO5: Create a effective research proposals CO6: analyse the data collected from various sources. Course Title: Research Methodology
  • 10. SHARDA SCHOOL OF DESIGN, ARCHITECTURE & PLANNING Faculty Prof. (Ar.) Pramod Kumar Jain Course Description To develop an understanding among students about an overview of the important concepts of research design, data collection, statistical and interpretative analysis, and final report presentation. Course Title: Research Methodology
  • 11. SHARDA SCHOOL OF DESIGN, ARCHITECTURE & PLANNING Faculty Prof. (Ar.) Pramod Kumar Jain Unit 1 INTRODUCTION A Foundations of Research: Meaning, Objectives, Motivation, Utility Course Title: Research Methodology
  • 12. SHARDA SCHOOL OF DESIGN, ARCHITECTURE & PLANNING Faculty Prof. (Ar.) Pramod Kumar Jain Research: Meaning Dictionary Meaning of Research the systematic investigation into and study of materials and sources in order to establish facts and reach new conclusions. Course Title: Research Methodology We all possess the vital instinct of inquisitiveness for, when the unknown confronts us, we wonder and our inquisitiveness makes us probe and attain full and fuller understanding of the unknown. This inquisitiveness is the mother of all knowledge and the method, which man employs for obtaining the knowledge of whatever the unknown, can be termed as research.
  • 13. SHARDA SCHOOL OF DESIGN, ARCHITECTURE & PLANNING Faculty Prof. (Ar.) Pramod Kumar Jain 1. Research in common parlance refers to a search for knowledge. 2. One can also define research as a scientific and systematic search for pertinent information on a specific topic. In fact, research is an art of scientific investigation. 3. The Advanced Learner’s Dictionary of Current English lays down the meaning of research as “a careful investigation or inquiry specially through search for new facts in any branch of knowledge.” 4. Redman and Mory define research as a “systematized effort to gain new knowledge.” Some people consider research as a movement, a movement from the known to the unknown. It is actually a voyage of discovery. Course Title: Research Methodology
  • 14. SHARDA SCHOOL OF DESIGN, ARCHITECTURE & PLANNING Faculty Prof. (Ar.) Pramod Kumar Jain Research is an academic activity and as such the term should be used in a technical sense. 5. According to Clifford Woody research comprises defining and redefining problems, formulating hypothesis or suggested solutions; collecting, organising and evaluating data; making deductions and reaching conclusions; and at last carefully testing the conclusions to determine whether they fit the formulating hypothesis. 6. D. Slesinger and M. Stephenson in the Encyclopaedia of Social Sciences define research as “the manipulation of things, concepts or symbols for the purpose of generalising to extend, correct or verify knowledge, whether that knowledge aids in construction of theory or in the practice of an art.” Course Title: Research Methodology
  • 15. SHARDA SCHOOL OF DESIGN, ARCHITECTURE & PLANNING Faculty Prof. (Ar.) Pramod Kumar Jain Research is, thus, an original contribution to the existing stock of knowledge making for its advancement. It is the pursuit of truth with the help of study, observation, comparison and experiment. In short, the search for knowledge through objective and systematic method of finding solution to a problem is research. The systematic approach concerning generalisation and the formulation of a theory is also research. Course Title: Research Methodology
  • 16. SHARDA SCHOOL OF DESIGN, ARCHITECTURE & PLANNING Faculty Prof. (Ar.) Pramod Kumar Jain As such the term ‘research’ refers to the systematic method consisting of enunciating the problem, formulating a hypothesis, collecting the facts or data, analyzing the facts and reaching certain conclusions either in the form of solutions(s) towards the concerned problem or in certain generalisations for some theoretical formulation. Course Title: Research Methodology
  • 17. SHARDA SCHOOL OF DESIGN, ARCHITECTURE & PLANNING Faculty Prof. (Ar.) Pramod Kumar Jain Assignment 2 Difference between data, information and knowledge? What Is Data? Data is defined as a collection of individual facts or statistics. Data can come in the form of text, observations, figures, images, numbers, graphs, or symbols. For example, data might include individual prices, weights, addresses, ages, names, temperatures, dates, or distances. Data is a raw form of knowledge and, on its own, doesn’t carry any significance or purpose. In other words, you have to interpret data for it to have meaning. Data can be simple—and may even seem useless until it is analyzed, organized, and interpreted. Course Title: Research Methodology
  • 18. SHARDA SCHOOL OF DESIGN, ARCHITECTURE & PLANNING Faculty Prof. (Ar.) Pramod Kumar Jain There are two main types of data: Quantitative data is provided in numerical form, like the weight, volume, or cost of an item. Qualitative data is descriptive, but non-numerical, like the name, sex, or eye color of a person. Course Title: Research Methodology
  • 19. SHARDA SCHOOL OF DESIGN, ARCHITECTURE & PLANNING Faculty Prof. (Ar.) Pramod Kumar Jain What Is Information? Information is defined as knowledge gained through study, communication, research, or instruction. Essentially, information is the result of analyzing and interpreting pieces of data. Whereas data is the individual figures, numbers, or graphs, information is the perception of those pieces of knowledge. For example, a set of data could include temperature readings in a location over several years. Without any additional context, those temperatures have no meaning. However, when you analyze and organize that information, you could determine seasonal temperature patterns or even broader climate trends. Only when the data is organized and compiled in a useful way can it provide information that is beneficial to others. Course Title: Research Methodology
  • 20. SHARDA SCHOOL OF DESIGN, ARCHITECTURE & PLANNING Faculty Prof. (Ar.) Pramod Kumar Jain The Key Differences Between Data vs Information Data is a collection of facts, while information puts those facts into context. While data is raw and unorganized, information is organized. Data points are individual and sometimes unrelated. Information maps out that data to provide a big-picture view of how it all fits together. Data, on its own, is meaningless. When it’s analyzed and interpreted, it becomes meaningful information. Data does not depend on information; however, information depends on data. Data typically comes in the form of graphs, numbers, figures, or statistics. Information is typically presented through words, language, thoughts, and ideas. Data isn’t sufficient for decision-making, but you can make decisions based on information. Information is created when data are processed, organized, or structured to provide context and meaning. Information is essentially processed data. Course Title: Research Methodology
  • 21. SHARDA SCHOOL OF DESIGN, ARCHITECTURE & PLANNING Faculty Prof. (Ar.) Pramod Kumar Jain Examples of Data vs Information To further explore the differences between data and information, consider these examples of how to turn data into insights: At a restaurant, a single customer’s bill amount is data. However, when the restaurant owners collect and interpret multiple bills over a range of time, they can produce valuable information, such as what menu items are most popular and whether the prices are sufficient to cover supplies, overhead, and wages. A customer’s response to an individual customer service survey is a point of data. But when you compile that customer’s responses over time—and, on a grander scheme, multiple customers’ responses over time—you can develop insights around areas for improvement within your customer service team. Course Title: Research Methodology
  • 22. SHARDA SCHOOL OF DESIGN, ARCHITECTURE & PLANNING Faculty Prof. (Ar.) Pramod Kumar Jain The number of likes on a social media post is a single element of data. When that’s combined with other social media engagement statistics, like followers, comments, and shares, a company can intuit which social media platforms perform the best and which platforms they should focus on to more effectively engage their audience. On their own, inventory levels are data. However, when companies analyze and interpret that data over a range of time, they can pinpoint supply chain issues and enhance the efficiency of their systems. Competitors’ prices are individual data elements, but processing that data can reveal where competitors have an advantage, where there may be gaps in the market, and how a company can rise above its competition. Course Title: Research Methodology
  • 23. SHARDA SCHOOL OF DESIGN, ARCHITECTURE & PLANNING Faculty Prof. (Ar.) Pramod Kumar Jain Course Title: Research Methodology Assignment 3 Give Examples of Data vs Information wrt your respective Design Program?
  • 24. SHARDA SCHOOL OF DESIGN, ARCHITECTURE & PLANNING Faculty Prof. (Ar.) Pramod Kumar Jain Knowledge: Meaning Dictionary Meaning of Knowledge facts, information, and skills acquired through experience or education; the theoretical or practical understanding of a subject. Course Title: Research Methodology
  • 25. SHARDA SCHOOL OF DESIGN, ARCHITECTURE & PLANNING Faculty Prof. (Ar.) Pramod Kumar Jain Objectives: Meaning Dictionary Meaning of Objectives a thing aimed at or sought; a goal. Course Title: Research Methodology
  • 26. SHARDA SCHOOL OF DESIGN, ARCHITECTURE & PLANNING Faculty Prof. (Ar.) Pramod Kumar Jain OBJECTIVES OF RESEARCH The purpose of research is to discover answers to questions through the application of scientific procedures. The main aim of research is to find out the truth which is hidden and which has not been discovered as yet. Though each research study has its own specific purpose, we may think of research objectives as falling into a number of following broad groupings: 1. To gain familiarity with a phenomenon or to achieve new insights into it (studies with this object in view are termed as exploratory or formulative research studies); Course Title: Research Methodology
  • 27. SHARDA SCHOOL OF DESIGN, ARCHITECTURE & PLANNING Faculty Prof. (Ar.) Pramod Kumar Jain 2. To portray accurately the characteristics of a particular individual, situation or a group (studies with this object in view are known as descriptive research studies); 3. To determine the frequency with which something occurs or with which it is associated with something else (studies with this object in view are known as diagnostic research studies); 4. To test a hypothesis of a causal relationship between variables (such studies are known as hypothesis-testing research studies). Course Title: Research Methodology
  • 28. SHARDA SCHOOL OF DESIGN, ARCHITECTURE & PLANNING Faculty Prof. (Ar.) Pramod Kumar Jain MOTIVATION IN RESEARCH What makes people to undertake research? This is a question of fundamental importance. The possible motives for doing research may be either one or more of the following: 1. Desire to get a research degree along with its consequential benefits; 2. Desire to face the challenge in solving the unsolved problems, i.e., concern over practical problems initiates research; 3. Desire to get intellectual joy of doing some creative work; 4. Desire to be of service to society; 5. Desire to get respectability. Course Title: Research Methodology
  • 29. SHARDA SCHOOL OF DESIGN, ARCHITECTURE & PLANNING Faculty Prof. (Ar.) Pramod Kumar Jain However, this is not an exhaustive list of factors motivating people to undertake research studies. Many more factors such as directives of government, employment conditions, curiosity about new things, desire to understand causal relationships, social thinking and awakening, and the like may as well motivate (or at times compel) people to perform research operations. Course Title: Research Methodology
  • 30. SHARDA SCHOOL OF DESIGN, ARCHITECTURE & PLANNING Faculty Prof. (Ar.) Pramod Kumar Jain Utility of Research “All progress is born of inquiry. Doubt is often better than overconfidence, for it leads to inquiry, and inquiry leads to invention” is a famous Hudson Maxim in context of which the significance of research can well be understood. Increased amounts of research make progress possible. Research inculcates scientific and inductive thinking and it promotes the development of logical habits of thinking and organisation. The role of research in several fields of applied economics, whether related to business or to the economy as a whole, has greatly increased in modern times. The increasingly complex nature of business and government has focused attention on the use of research in solving operational problems. Course Title: Research Methodology
  • 31. SHARDA SCHOOL OF DESIGN, ARCHITECTURE & PLANNING Faculty Prof. (Ar.) Pramod Kumar Jain Research, as an aid to economic policy, has gained added importance, both for government and business. Research provides the basis for nearly all government policies in our economic system. For instance, government’s budgets rest in part on an analysis of the needs and desires of the people and on the availability of revenues to meet these needs. The cost of needs has to be equated to probable revenues and this is a field where research is most needed. Through research we can devise alternative policies and can as well examine the consequences of each of these alternatives However, this is not an exhaustive list of factors motivating people to undertake research studies. Many more factors such as directives of government, employment conditions, curiosity about new things, desire to understand causal relationships, social thinking and awakening, and the like may as well motivate (or at times compel) people to perform research operations. Course Title: Research Methodology
  • 32. SHARDA SCHOOL OF DESIGN, ARCHITECTURE & PLANNING Faculty Prof. (Ar.) Pramod Kumar Jain Decision-making may not be a part of research, but research certainly facilitates the decisions of the policy maker. Government has also to chalk out programmes for dealing with all facets of the country’s existence and most of these will be related directly or indirectly to economic conditions. The plight of cultivators, the problems of big and small business and industry, working conditions, trade union activities, the problems of distribution, even the size and nature of defence services are matters requiring research. Thus, research is considered necessary with regard to the allocation of nation’s resources. Another area in government, where research is necessary, is collecting information on the economic and social structure of the nation. Such information indicates what is happening in the economy and what changes are taking place. Collecting such statistical information is by no means a routine task, but it involves a variety of research problems. Course Title: Research Methodology
  • 33. SHARDA SCHOOL OF DESIGN, ARCHITECTURE & PLANNING Faculty Prof. (Ar.) Pramod Kumar Jain These day nearly all governments maintain large staff of research technicians or experts to carry on this work. Thus, in the context of government, research as a tool to economic policy has three distinct phases of operation, viz., (i) investigation of economic structure through continual compilation of facts; (ii) diagnosis of events that are taking place and the analysis of the forces underlying them; and (iii) the prognosis, i.e., the prediction of future developments. Research has its special significance in solving various operational and planning problems of business and industry. Operations research and market research, along with motivational research, are considered crucial and their results assist, in more than one way, in taking business decisions. Course Title: Research Methodology
  • 34. SHARDA SCHOOL OF DESIGN, ARCHITECTURE & PLANNING Faculty Prof. (Ar.) Pramod Kumar Jain Market research is the investigation of the structure and development of a market for the purpose of formulating efficient policies for purchasing, production and sales. Operations research refers to the application of mathematical, logical and analytical techniques to the solution of business problems of cost minimisation or of profit maximisation or what can be termed as optimisation problems. Motivational research of determining why people behave as they do is mainly concerned with market characteristics. In other words, it is concerned with the determination of motivations underlying the consumer (market) behaviour. All these are of great help to people in business and industry who are responsible for taking business decisions. Research with regard to demand and market factors has great utility in business. Given knowledge of future demand, it is generally not difficult for a firm, or for an industry to adjust its supply schedule within the limits of its projected capacity. Market analysis has become an integral tool of business policy these days. Course Title: Research Methodology
  • 35. SHARDA SCHOOL OF DESIGN, ARCHITECTURE & PLANNING Faculty Prof. (Ar.) Pramod Kumar Jain Business budgeting, which ultimately results in a projected profit and loss account, is based mainly on sales estimates which in turn depends on business research. Once sales forecasting is done, efficient production and investment programmes can be set up around which are grouped the purchasing and financing plans. Research, thus, replaces intuitive business decisions by more logical and scientific decisions. Research is equally important for social scientists in studying social relationships and in seeking answers to various social problems. Course Title: Research Methodology
  • 36. SHARDA SCHOOL OF DESIGN, ARCHITECTURE & PLANNING Faculty Prof. (Ar.) Pramod Kumar Jain It provides the intellectual satisfaction of knowing a few things just for the sake of knowledge and also has practical utility for the social scientist to know for the sake of being able to do something better or in a more efficient manner. Research in social sciences is concerned both with knowledge for its own sake and with knowledge for what it can contribute to practical concerns. “This double emphasis is perhaps especially appropriate in the case of social science. On the one hand, its responsibility as a science is to develop a body of principles that make possible the understanding and prediction of the whole range of human interactions. On the other hand, because of its social orientation, it is increasingly being looked to for practical guidance in solving immediate problems of human relations.” Course Title: Research Methodology
  • 37. SHARDA SCHOOL OF DESIGN, ARCHITECTURE & PLANNING Faculty Prof. (Ar.) Pramod Kumar Jain In addition to what has been stated above, the significance of research can also be understood keeping in view the following points: (a) To those students who are to write a master’s or Ph.D. thesis, research may mean a careerism or a way to attain a high position in the social structure; (b) To professionals in research methodology, research may mean a source of livelihood; (c) To philosophers and thinkers, research may mean the outlet for new ideas and insights; Course Title: Research Methodology
  • 38. SHARDA SCHOOL OF DESIGN, ARCHITECTURE & PLANNING Faculty Prof. (Ar.) Pramod Kumar Jain (d) To literary men and women, research may mean the development of new styles and creative work; (e) To analysts and intellectuals, research may mean the generalisations of new theories. Thus, research is the fountain of knowledge for the sake of knowledge and an important source of providing guidelines for solving different business, governmental and social problems. It is a sort of formal training which enables one to understand the new developments in one’s field in a better way. Course Title: Research Methodology