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Sociology Unit 2: Culture and Society

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Sociology Unit 2: Culture and Society

  1. 1. Sociology Unit 2: Culture and Society
  2. 2. Unit 2 Overview Unit EQ: How are culture and society related to human interaction? You will need to be able to “Do” the following: • Define the key components of a culture. • Explain the difference between culture and society. • Differentiate between the types of societies and analyze societies through this understanding. • Generate examples of cultures and societies, and various subtypes of groups and formal organizations.
  3. 3. You will need to be able to “Understand” the following: • Culture consists of all the shared products of human groups. • All cultures are made up of the same five basics components. (technology, symbols, language, values, and norms) • There are certain core values that the vast majority of Americans Share • Social structure is the network of interrelated statuses and roles that guides human interaction.
  4. 4. You will need to be able to “Understand” the following: • There are five common forms of social interaction. (exchange, competition, conflict, cooperation , and accommodation) • Sociologists identify three types of societies. (preindustrial, industrial, postindustrial) • Groups are the foundation of social life and they differ in terms of size, organization, and purpose.
  5. 5. Unit 2 Outline Unit EQ: How are culture and society related to human interaction? • • • • • • • • Culture – Lesson 1 2 3 Value Systems – Lesson 4 Social Structure – Lesson 5 Social Interaction – Lesson 6 Types of Societies – Lesson 7 Groups – Lesson 8 9 Formal Organizations – Lesson 10 Exam – 11
  6. 6. Culture EQ: 1. What are the basic components of culture? 2. How does cultural change occur? Vocabulary • • • • • • • Culture Society Values Norms Folkways Mores Laws • • • • • • Cultural universals Subculture Counterculture Ethnocentrism Cultural relativism Cultural diffusion Lessons
  7. 7. Lesson 1: Components of Culture Activator: 1. What is culture? 2. What are the different components of culture?
  8. 8. Culture • Society and Culture NOT interchangeable • Society consists of people • Culture: consists of shared products of human groups. • Material Culture: physical objects that a culture creates • Nonmaterial Culture: Abstract human creations. Assignment: In pairs, come up with 5 examples of each type of culture. Write your responses and raise your hand when you are finished.
  9. 9. Material Culture •Automobiles •Books •Buildings •Clothing
  10. 10. Nonmaterial Culture • Beliefs • Family patterns • Ideas • Language • Political and economic systems
  11. 11. Assignment: Use p. 35 to describe these four components of culture. In addition, relate the term to your own culture through examples. Symbols Technology Language 4 Components of Culture Values
  12. 12. Lesson 2: Components of Culture Activator: 1. Difference between society and culture 2. Which four components were discussed yesterday?
  13. 13. Norms Values Technology The Five Components of Culture Language Symbols
  14. 14. Norms • Norms are shared rules of conduct that tell people how to act in specific situations. • Groups use Norms to enforce cultural values • Norms are expectations for behavior, not actual behavior • Some norms apply to everyone in society, others to select groups Assignment: In groups, come up with 5 examples of a norm. Write your responses on the board.
  15. 15. Types of Norms • Folkways • Norms that describe socially acceptable behavior but do not have moral significance attached to them. • Failure to follow results in minor punishment or reprimand • Some non-conformity to Folkways is permitted because it does not endanger society. • Mores • Great moral significance is attached to them • Societies establish punishments for violating in order to protect social well-being • Serious mores are formalized as laws Assignment: Classify your examples as folkways or mores
  16. 16. Group Assignment • Your group should pick a situations, place, or event and identify the norms. • Create a 1-2 minute skit which shows a violation of norms (both folkways and mores) • Perform the skit
  17. 17. Lesson 2: Components of Culture Summarizer: 1. Questions Remaining
  18. 18. Lesson 3: Culture • Activator: Components of Culture
  19. 19. Cultural Variation EQ: 1. What are the basic components of culture? Vocabulary • • • • • • Cultural universals Subculture Counterculture Ethnocentrism Cultural relativism Cultural diffusion Lessons
  20. 20. Cultural Universals •Cultural Universals: features evident in all cultures •What are some features that all cultures have? •(Try and Guess 7)
  21. 21. Cultural Universals Cultural Universal Examples Arts and Leisure Athletic sports, dancing, decorative art, games, music Basic Needs Clothing, cooking, housing Beliefs Body adornment, folklore, funeral rites, religious ritual Communication and Education Education, language, greetings Family Courtship, kin groups, marriage Government and Economy Calendar, division of labor, government, law, property rights, status differentiation, trade Technology Medicine, toolmaking
  22. 22. Cultural Variations: Assignment • Read with a Purpose: Using the material on p. 39-40 in your textbook, answer the following question: What is the difference between a subculture and counter culture? • Identify and example of each. (In addition, to what can be found in the reading) • Share in cooperative groups
  23. 23. Cultural Variations: Subculture • Subculture: Groups that share values, norms, and behaviors that are not shared by the entire population.
  24. 24. Cultural Variations: Counterculture • Counterculture: Groups that rejects the major values, norms, and behaviors that is practiced by larger society
  25. 25. Response to Variation • Ethnocentrism: the tendency to view one's own culture and group as superior to all other cultures and groups • Cultural relativism: a belief that cultures should be judged by their own standards
  26. 26. How is this political cartoon a reflection of ethnocentrism?
  27. 27. Cultural Change • Cultural diffusion: the process of spreading cultural traits from one society to another • Cultural leveling: the process through which cultures become more and more alike How does globalization contribute to this trend?
  28. 28. Lesson 4: Value System ACTIVATOR: One of the 5 components of culture discussed was that of values. Values are defined as shared beliefs about what is good or bad, right or wrong, desirable or undesirable. Brainstorm and record American values.
  29. 29. Value Systems EQ: How have our values changed? Vocabulary • Self-fulfillment • Narcissism 2 Lessons
  30. 30. American Values: A Pictorial What values are reflected in these images?
  31. 31. The American Value System American Values Personal Achievement Progress and Material Comfort Work Individualism Efficiency and Practicality Morality and Humanitarianism Equality and Democracy Freedom Descriptions/Examples
  32. 32. Personal Achievement Doing Well at school and at work is important. Gaining wealth and prestige is a sign of success.
  33. 33. Progress and Material Comfort History is marked by ongoing progress, and this progress improves people’s lives.
  34. 34. Work • Discipline, dedication, and hard work are signs of virtue
  35. 35. Individualism Hard work, initiative, and individual effort are the keys to personal achievement.
  36. 36. Efficiency and Practicality Every problem can be solved through efficiency and practicality. Getting things done well in the shortest time is very important.
  37. 37. Morality and Humanitarianism Judgments should be based on a sense of right and wrong. This sense of morality also involves helping the less fortunate.
  38. 38. Equality and Democracy Everyone should have an equal chance at success and the right to participate freely in government.
  39. 39. Freedom Personal freedoms, such as freedom of religion, speech, and the press, are central to the American way of life
  40. 40. American Values: Assignment Using your notes on the values of American society and a graphic organizer like this one, decide whether each value reflects practical concerns, idealistic goals, or a little of both
  41. 41. New Values: Narcissism Narcissism: the feeling of extreme self-centeredness
  42. 42. Values: Assignment 1. In a written response, explain how YOLO is a reflection of a value system based in narcissism and self fulfillment. 2. When directed, discuss your responses in assigned groups.
  43. 43. Lesson 5: Social Structure ACTIVATOR: What is the difference between ROLE and STATUS?
  44. 44. Social Structure EQ: How are status and roles related? Vocabulary • • • • • Social structure Status Role Ascribed status Achieved status • Master status • Role conflict • Social institutions 2 Lessons
  45. 45. Status: a socially defined position in a group or in a society. Ascribed Status: a status assigned according to qualities beyond a person’s control. Achieved Status: a status acquired through their own direct efforts. Master Status: The status that plays the greatest role in shaping a person’s life and determining his or her social identity.
  46. 46. Status: Ascribed and Achieved
  47. 47. Status: Activity Brainstorm: Your ascribed and achieved statuses Identify your master status. Write a paragraph that explains why this status is characterized as a master status in your life.
  48. 48. Roles • Statuses serve simply as social categories. Roles are the components of social structure that bring statuses to life. • Most of the roles that you perform have reciprocal roles. These are corresponding roles that define the patterns of interaction between related statuses. • EX. doctor-patient, teacher-student, or coach-athlete Role Play Activity: Obtain an index card with a role. Without speaking, act out the interaction between you and your reciprocal role.
  49. 49. Role Conflict, Strain, and Exit • Role Conflict: a situation that occurs when fulfilling the expectations of one status makes it difficult to fulfill the expectations of another status • Role Strain: a situation that occurs when a person has difficulty meeting the expectations of a single status • Role Exit: the process that people go through to detach from a role that has been central to their self-identity
  50. 50. Social Institutions Definition: a system of statuses, roles, values, and norms that is organized to satisfy one or more of the basic needs of society • The family, the most universal social institution, takes responsibility for raising the young and teaching them accepted norms and values. • The economic institution organizes the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services. • The political institution is the system of norms that governs the exercise and distribution of power in society. • Education ensures the transmission of values, patterns of behavior, and certain skills and knowledge. • Religion provides a shared, collective explanation of the meaning of life.
  51. 51. Social Structure: Summarizer QUESTIONS REMAINING
  52. 52. Lesson Activator Any questions prior to the culture quiz?
  53. 53. Lesson 6: Social Interaction ACTIVATOR: What motivates you in your actions with others? Think of 3 separate interactions with individuals or groups. What was your motivation for interacting with them?
  54. 54. Social Interaction Unit EQ: How are culture and society related to human interaction? EQ: How do individuals and groups use accommodation to settle disputes? Vocabulary • • • • Exchange • Conflict Reciprocity • Cooperation Exchange theory • Accommodation Competition
  55. 55. Exchange • Most basic and common form of social interaction. • Dating, family life, friendship, and politics all involve exchanges. • Reciprocity is the basis for exchange • the idea that if you do something for someone, that person owes you something in return.
  56. 56. Exchange Theory • Definition: a theory that holds that people are motivated by self-interests in their interactions with others . • People do things primarily for rewards. Behavior that is rewarded tends to be repeated. exchange theory appears to run counter to some social norms such as altruism.
  57. 57. Why is this an example of Exchange Theory?
  58. 58. Social Interaction Assignment Read p. 59 in the text and identify the Difference Between Conflict and Competition
  59. 59. Competition • Definition: an interaction that occurs when two or more • • • • people or groups oppose each other to achieve a goal that only one can attain. A common feature in Western society. Basis behind capitalism and democracy If it follows accepted rules of conduct, most sociologists view it as a positive means of motivating people to perform the roles society asks of them. Negatively, competition can lead to psychological stress, a lack of cooperation in social relationships, inequality, and even conflict.
  60. 60. Conflict • Definition: The deliberate attempt to control a person by force, to oppose someone, or to harm another person. • Few rules of accepted conduct, and even these often are ignored. • May range from the deliberate snubbing of a classmate to the killing of an enemy. • Four sources of conflict: wars, disagreements within groups, legal disputes, and clashes over ideology (religion or politics) • Can be useful • Reinforces group boundaries • Strengthen group loyalty • Bring about social change
  61. 61. Cooperation • Definition: interaction that occurs when two or more persons or groups work together to achieve a goal that will benefit many people • No group can complete its tasks or achieve its goals without cooperation from its members. • Competition may be used along with cooperation to motivate members to work harder for the group. ASSIGNMENT: Think of groups with which you have been involved. Have they ever used competition along with cooperation? What are some examples?
  62. 62. Accommodation • Definition: a state of balance between cooperation and conflict • Accommodation helps to ensure social stability. • It can take a number of different forms • Compromise • Truce • Mediation • Arbitration
  63. 63. Social Interaction Assignment Using p. 60-61 and a graphic organizer like the one below, sequence the four forms of accommodation in terms of their ease of achievement. Explain your placements with annotations.
  64. 64. Lesson: Social Interaction SUMMARIZER: 3 types of interaction 2 types of accommodation 1 explain exchange theory
  65. 65. Lesson 7: Types of Societies ACTIVATOR: As time goes on, societies advance and change. Using your knowledge of world history, identity and describe 3 different types of societies. In groups, discuss and write your consensus on the board.
  66. 66. Social Interaction Unit EQ: How are culture and society related to human interaction? EQ: How does sociology classify societies? Vocabulary • • • • Preindustrial society Industrial society Postindustrial society Division of labor • • • • Mechanical solidarity Organic solidarity Gemeinschaft Gesellschaft
  67. 67. Types of Societies Assignment • Separate into groups of 3. Each member should take one of the 3 types of societies and identify the key characteristics of the society. • Reconvene as a group and share the key characteristics. When discussing each societal type, identify real world examples of that type of society. • ENRICHMENT: Following the directions on p. 66 question 7, Sequence the 6 types of societies. (4 of the types are found in preindustrial societies)
  68. 68. Preindustrial Societies • Food production through the use of human and animal labor is the main economic activity • Subdivided according to technology and method of food production • Hunter-Gatherer • Pastoral • Horticultural • Agricultural
  69. 69. Hunter-Gatherer • Constantly moving searching for food • Do not build permanent villages • Limited artifacts • Rarely exceed 100 people • Status fairly equal • Family is the main social unit
  70. 70. Pastoral • Rely on domesticated herds • Nomadic: moving herds from pasture to pasture • Larger populations due to food reliability Food surpluses result in division of labor • Trade and inequality emerge • Property is passed between generation
  71. 71. Horticultural • Food grown in garden plots • Slash and burn techniques • Simple tools • Move to new land when land becomes barren • 30-2,000 people • Similar in technology and social structure to Pastoral
  72. 72. Agricultural • Animals are used to cultivate land • Increased technology allows to plant more crops • Irrigation increases crop yield • Large crop yield support large/permanent societies • Increased specialization leads to cities • Wealth becomes more concentrated • Barter system emerges
  73. 73. The Affects of Industrialization Preindustrial Society Industrial Society • Emphasis is food production • Economic activities in the home • Produced entire product • Family is the primary socialization and education agent • Social status fairly fixed • Emphasis is manufactured goods • Economic activities in the factory • Division of labor • Education and socialization take place outside the family • Increased potential to change status
  74. 74. Postindustrial society • Emphasis in on the provision of information and services • Standard of living for much of the population as wages increase • Strong emphasis on roles of science and education • Technological advances are viewed as the key to future prosperity
  75. 75. Sociology and Society Preindustrial Societies • Mechanical Solidarity: when people share values and tasks they become united • Gemeinshaft: most people know each other. Activities center on the family and community. Strong sense of solidarity Industrial Societies • Organic Solidarity: with increased specialization, relationships become less personal and people are less able to provide for their own need. • Gesellschaft: Relationships are impersonal, temporary, and based on need rather than emotion. Values are weak and individual goals are more important than group goals
  76. 76. Types of Societies: Summarizer QUESTIONS REMAINING
  77. 77. Lesson 8: Groups ACTIVATOR: Define “group”
  78. 78. Groups Within Society Unit: How are culture and society related to human interaction? How do sociologists define the term group? Vocabulary • • • • • • Dyad Triad Formal group Informal group Primary group Secondary group • • • • • Reference group In-group Out-group Electronic community Social network
  79. 79. What is a group? Definition: A set of people who interact on the basis of shared expectations and who possess some degree of common identity. The Four Features of a Group 1. Two or more people 2. Interaction among members 3. Shared expectations 4. Sense of common identity Assignment: Identify different 5 examples of groups
  80. 80. Aggregates (Not A Group) Definition: When people gather in the same place at the same time but lack organization or lasting patterns of interaction.
  81. 81. Varying Features of a Group SIZE TIME ORGANIZATION
  82. 82. Dyad Triad • Two members • Each member has direct control over the group’s existence • Decision making can be difficult if they don’t agree • Three member • Group takes on life of its own • Can’t be disbanded by one member • Tie breaker make decisions easier
  83. 83. Formal Group Structure, goals, and activities are clearly defined Informal Group There is not official structure or established rules of conduct
  84. 84. Primary Group • Small group that interacts over a long period • Communication deep and intense • Intimate/ face-to-face • Entire self shared Secondary Group • Interaction is temporary and impersonal • Casual and limited in personal involvement • Personal importance based on function performed • Individual easily replace • Partial self shared
  85. 85. In-group • A group that a person belongs to & identifies with • Separate themselves through use of symbols • See themselves as (+) and out-groups as (-) • Compete with outgroups Out-group • A group that a person does not belong to or identify with
  86. 86. Reference Group Definition: Any group with whom individuals identify and whose attitudes and values they adopt. • Groups chosen are important because they can have positive and negative effects • As a person grows older, reference groups change.
  87. 87. Assignment: Using the different types of groups, label each of these pictures using as many applicable terms as possible.
  88. 88. Electronic Communities & Social Networks Electronic Communities demonstrate behaviors similar to primary groups – argue, engage in intellectual discussions, share intimate details, gossip, play games, and flirt. Social Networks: A web of relationships formed by the sum total of a person’s interactions with others. • Unlike a group there is not a common identity • Provide interaction and career advancement • Can provide support during stressful periods
  89. 89. Group Functions 1. 2. 3. 4. Must define boundaries for belonging Need to set goals, assign tasks, and make decisions Need to control members’ behavior - Conformity Must select leaders (People who influence the attitudes and opinions of others) • Instrumental leaders: Task-oriented • Expressive leaders: emotion-oriented • Groups need both to be successful
  90. 90. Assignment: Simulation Are You In or Are You Out? Textbook p. 80-81
  91. 91. Groups Within Society: Summarizer QUESTIONS REMAINING
  92. 92. Lesson 10: Formal Organizations ACTIVATOR: “Bureaucracy”
  93. 93. Lesson 10: Formal Organizations Unit: How are culture and society related to human interaction? How do sociologists view formal organizations? Vocabulary • • • • • • Formal organization Bureaucracy Rationality Voluntary association Alienation Iron law of oligarchy
  94. 94. Formal Organizations Definition: a large, complex secondary group that has been established to achieve specific goals Formal organizations include: Schools youth organizations businesses political organizations government agencies volunteer associations religious organizations labor unions Most formal organizations are structured in a form that is known as a bureaucracy
  95. 95. Bureaucracy Definition: a ranked authority structure that operates according to specific rules and procedures 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Weber’s Model Division of Labor Ranking of Authority Employment based on formal qualifications Written rules and regulations Specific lines of promotion and advancement
  96. 96. Effects of Bureaucracy Positives • Creates order through clearly defined job tasks and rewards • Provide stability and are not reliant upon an individual Negatives • Can undergo goal displacement – abandon the original purpose and replace with self continuation. • Encourage the development of bureaucratic personalities • Employees feel alienated • Power concentrates at the top – iron law of oligarchy
  97. 97. Exam Review EQ: What do I need to study for the exam? • Take practice exam and use answer key to correct • Use Culture and Society Unit Map vocabulary and practice exam results to identify areas of weakness • Prepare questions related to areas of weakness • Review as class
  98. 98. Study for the Culture and Society Exam
  99. 99. Lesson Activator Any questions prior to the Culture and Society Exam?