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Soc studies #22 madison and the war of 1812

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James Madison and the War of 1812

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Soc studies #22 madison and the war of 1812

  1. 1. President James Madison and The War of 1812
  2. 2. 1. Frigate – an armed warship 2. War Hawks – members of Congress who wanted to declare war against Great Britain 3. Nationalism – a sense of pride and loyalty to one’s country
  3. 3. • Republican James Madison was elected president in 1808 • When he took office in March 1809, Britain was still halting American ships; Madison saw Britain as a threat to the U.S. • Meanwhile, conflicts in the West increased
  4. 4. • Shawnee chief Tecumseh warned Native Americans about the dangers they faces from settlers forcing them off their lands • Along with his brother, called “The Prophet”, Tecumseh urged Native Americans to unite. They believed that unity and an alliance with the British in Canada would stop the movement of American settlers into Native lands
  5. 5. • The American governor of the Indian Territory General William Henry Harrison, feared the combined power of Tecumseh and the British • In 1811, Harrison attacked Prophetsown, the village founded by Tecumseh’s brother on the Tippacanoe River. • In the Battle of Tippacanoe, Prophetstown was destroyed and the Americans were victorious • Tecumseh fled to Canada, fully joining with the British troops
  6. 6. • In Washington, members of Congress known as War Hawks pressured Pres. Madison to declare war against Britain • Leading War Hawks included Henry Clay and John Calhoun • Many Federalist Congressmen such as Daniel Webster were opposed to war, fearing that the U.S. was not ready to fight a powerful nation • The War Hawks won the debate, and on June 18, 1812, Congress declared war on Great Britain – the first time the U.S. ever declared war
  7. 7. FYI - In U.S. politics, the Great Triumvirate refers to three statesmen who dominated American politics for much of the first half of the 19th century: Henry Clay of Kentucky, Daniel Webster of Massachusetts, and John C. Calhoun of South Carolina.
  8. 8. • Fighting began in July 1812, when General William Hull led the American army into Canada, where he was met by Tecumseh and his warriors. • After Hull surrendered, Gen. Harrison realized that the Americans could not will any battles in Canada as long as the British controlled Lake Erie • In 1813, Commodore Oliver Hazard Perry was given the task of breaking Britain’s control of Lake Erie • Perry defeated the British naval force in the Battle of Lake Erie, giving the U.S. control of the Lake
  9. 9. • Harrison then led his troops into Canada • In the Battle of the Thames (pronounced tems), he defeated a force of British and Native American troops. Tecumseh was killed in battle.
  10. 10. • Though small, the U.S. navy had three fast frigates. • One, the USS Constitution, destroyed two British vessels • When a shot bounced off the hull of the Constitution during a battle, a sailor nicknamed the ship “Old Ironsides”
  11. 11. • In the South, war was taking place between the Creek Indians and the Americans • Commander Andrew Jackson defeated the Creeks at the Battle of Horseshoe Bend • The Treaty of Fort Jackson in 1814 ended the Creek War and forced the Creeks to give up most of their land to the U.S.
  12. 12. • By April 1814 the British had defeated France in Europe, and sent more troops to America • They attacked Washington DC, setting fire to the White House and the Capitol
  13. 13. • Next, the British troops sailed to Baltimore, which was guarded by Fort McHenry - The Americans would not surrender, and the British retreated - On September 14, 1814 during the Battle of Baltimore, young lawyer and amateur poet Francis Scott Key was so moved by the sight of the American flag still flying over Fort McHenry that he wrote a poem called “Defence of Fort McHenry” - This poem would become our National Anthem, today called “The Star- Spangled Banner”
  14. 14. • On December 24, the Treaty of Ghent was signed in Belgium. This treaty officially ended the War of 1812 • However, communication was slow, and no one knew about the treaty • In mid-December, a group of Federalists who opposed the war met in Hartford, Connecticut. At the Hartford Convention, they agreed to send delegates to meet with Congress
  15. 15. • In January 1815 the British hoped to capture New Orleans and take control of the Mississippi River • Andrew Jackson commanded the U.S. forces at the Battle of New Orleans • The British were quickly defeated, and the battle became the last major conflict in the War of 1812
  16. 16. • The War of 1812: - Gave Americans a feeling of nationalism - Diminished the power of the Native Americans - Boosted American manufacturing • Having proved that the U.S. could stand up to enemies, the country was now ready for growth and expansion.