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1
Petroleum department
3rd stage
Group (A)
Drilling Lab
4th
Experiment:
Yield Point & Viscosity
Date of experiment: Decemb...
2
Aim of experiment:
The aim of this experiment is to find the properties such as
plastic viscosity, apparent viscosity an...
3
Theory:
The most common instrument used for measuring actual rheological
parameters (rather than ranking slurries, for e...
4
Introduction:
A Fann viscometer (rheometer) is a laboratory device used to
measure the way in which a liquid, suspension...
5
It measures the rheology of the fluid.
The following apparatuses and materials are used in this
experiment.
Fann
Viscome...
6
Apparatus:
Mud balance Electronic balance Beaker
Syringe Electric mixer & steel vessels
Water Bentonite
7
Procedures:
1. Weigh 27.065 gm of bentonite on the electric balance.
2. Pour 489.1 cc of water into a 500 ml beaker.
3. ...
8
Q1) before the test begins, why we have to make sure that the mud
doesn’t contain large particles and what should be don...
9
Doran, D. & Cather, B., 2013. Construction
Materials Reference Book. NewYork: Routledge.
Newman, J. & Choo, B., 2003. Ad...
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yield point and viscosity

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yield point and viscosity

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yield point and viscosity

  1. 1. 1 Petroleum department 3rd stage Group (A) Drilling Lab 4th Experiment: Yield Point & Viscosity Date of experiment: December 17th 2015 Supervised by: Mr. Pshtiwan Jaf Prepared by: Muhammad Faisal
  2. 2. 2 Aim of experiment: The aim of this experiment is to find the properties such as plastic viscosity, apparent viscosity and yield point using the Fann V- G viscometer.
  3. 3. 3 Theory: The most common instrument used for measuring actual rheological parameters (rather than ranking slurries, for example, by flow time from a funnel) is the Fann viscometer. The Fann viscometer (sometimes referred to as a rheometer) is a co-axial cylinders viscometer specially designed for testing oil well drilling fluids. Two general versions of the instrument arc available: an electrically driven instrument and a hand cranked instrument. All versions of the instrument can be operated at 600 and 300 rpm and have a hand wheel so that the outer cylinder (the sleeve) can be rotated slowly for gel strength measurements. Some have additional speeds of 3, 6, 100 and 200 rpm. For all versions of the instrument there is a central bob connected to a torque measuring system and outer rotating sleeve. (Doran & Cather, 2013) A wide range of shear rates is made possible through selective gearing and by interchangeable rotors and bobs of various diameters. The instrument may be operated with open end rotor sleeves, which permit a gentle recirculation of material through the annulus, thereby minimizing settling of heavy particles. Optional closed end rotor cups are available for testing of smaller sample volumes. The torsion springs are designed for ease of interchangeability, which permits the shear stress range of the instrument and, hence, the viscosity measuring range to be optimized for a given testing problem. (Newman & Choo, 2003)
  4. 4. 4 Introduction: A Fann viscometer (rheometer) is a laboratory device used to measure the way in which a liquid, suspension or slurry flows in response to applied forces. It is used for those fluids which cannot be defined by a single value of viscosity and therefore require more parameters to be set and measured than is the case for a viscometer.
  5. 5. 5 It measures the rheology of the fluid. The following apparatuses and materials are used in this experiment. Fann Viscometer
  6. 6. 6 Apparatus: Mud balance Electronic balance Beaker Syringe Electric mixer & steel vessels Water Bentonite
  7. 7. 7 Procedures: 1. Weigh 27.065 gm of bentonite on the electric balance. 2. Pour 489.1 cc of water into a 500 ml beaker. 3. Pour the water into two vessels and stir the water with the mixer. 4. Slowly add the bentonite to the stirring water. 5. Leave the mixer running for few minutes till we have a good mixed mud. 6. Mix the mud in one of the vessels with the mud in the other. 7. Place the mud balance base (preferably in carrying case) on a flat level surface. 8. Fill the clean, dry cup to the top with the freshly obtained mud sample to be weighted. 9. Place the lid on the cup and set it with a gentle twisting motion. Be sure that some mud is expelled through the hole in the cap as this will ensure the cup is full and also will free any trapped air or gas. 10. Cover the hole in the lid with a finger and wash all mud from outside of the cup and arm. Then thoroughly dry the entire balance. 11. Place the balance on the knife edge and move the rider along the outside of the arm and leave it on 8.58 ppg (the expected mud density) and wait till the cup and arm are balanced as indicated by the bubble. 12. Place a recently agitated sample in the cup, tilt back the upper housing of the rheometer, locate the cup under the sleeve (the pins on the bottom of the cup fit into the holes in the base plate), and lower the upper housing to its normal position. 13. Turn the knurled knob between the rear support posts to raise or lower the rotor sleeve until it is immersed in the sample to the scribed line. 14. Stir the sample for about 5 seconds at 600 RPM, then select the RPM desired for the best. 15. Wait for the dial reading to stabilize (the time depends on the sample's characteristics). 16. Record the dial reading and RPM. Discussion:
  8. 8. 8 Q1) before the test begins, why we have to make sure that the mud doesn’t contain large particles and what should be done in that case? A1) because the gap between the bob and the sleeve is very small thus any large particles may cause the sleeve to get stuck, that’s why any mud with large particles should be screened first. Q2) what does the drilling mud viscosity affects? A2) it affects Hole cleaning, drilling rate, hole stability, cuttings settling rate, circulating pressure. Q3) what are the materials used for enhancing viscosity? A3) bentonite, asbestos, attapulgite and polymer (such as starch and carboxymethylcellulose). Q4) what are the materials used for reducing viscosity? A4) commonly used viscosity reducers are phosphates, tannates and lignites. Q5) what does the yield point show? A5) Shows a minimum level of stress must be provided before mud flow. References:
  9. 9. 9 Doran, D. & Cather, B., 2013. Construction Materials Reference Book. NewYork: Routledge. Newman, J. & Choo, B., 2003. Advanced Concrete Technology 3: Processes. Burlington: Butterworth- Heinemann.

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