# History and definition of statistics

Muhammad KamranLecturer at City University of Science & Information Technology Peshawar à CUSIT
1 sur 14

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### History and definition of statistics

• 1. HISTORY AND DEFINITION OF STATISTICS Lecture#01 By: Muhammad Kamran
• 2. INTRODUCTION In the modern world of computers and information technology, the importance of statistics is very well recognized by all the disciplines. Statistics has originated as a science of statehood and found applications slowly and steadily in Agriculture, Economics, Commerce, Biology, Medicine, Industry, planning, education and so on. As on date there is no other human walk of life, where statistics cannot be applied.
• 3. ORIGIN AND GROWTH OF STATISTICS The word ‘ Statistics’ and ‘ Statistical’ are all derived from the Latin word Status, means a political state. The theory of statistics as a distinct branch of scientific method is of comparatively recent growth. Research particularly into the mathematical theory of statistics is rapidly proceeding and fresh discoveries are being made all over the world.
• 4. MEANING OF STATISTICS Statistics is concerned with scientific methods for collecting, organizing, summarizing, presenting and analyzing data as well as deriving valid conclusions and making reasonable decisions on the basis of this analysis. Statistics is concerned with the systematic collection of numerical data and its interpretation. The word ‘ statistic’ is used to refer to 1. Numerical facts, such as the number of people living in particular area. 2. The study of ways of collecting, analyzing and interpreting the facts.
• 5. DEFINITIONS Statistics is defined differently by different authors over a period of time. In the olden days statistics was confined to only state affairs but in modern days it embraces almost every sphere of human activity. Therefore a number of old definitions, which was confined to narrow field of enquiry were replaced by more definitions, which are much more comprehensive and exhaustive. Secondly, statistics has been defined in two different ways Statistical data and statistical methods. The following are some of the definitions of statistics as numerical data.
• 6. CONT.. 1. Statistics are the classified facts representing the conditions of people in a state. In particular they are the facts, which can be stated in numbers or in tables of numbers or in any tabular or classified arrangement. 2. Statistics are measurements, enumerations or estimates of natural phenomenon usually systematically arranged, analyzed and presented as to exhibit important interrelationships among them.
• 7. DEFINITIONS BY A.L. BOWLEY Statistics are numerical statement of facts in any department of enquiry placed in relation to each other. - A.L. Bowley Statistics may be called the science of counting in one of the departments due to Bowley, obviously this is an incomplete definition as it takes into account only the aspect of collection and ignores other aspects such as analysis, presentation and interpretation.
• 8. CONT.… Bowley gives another definition for statistics, which states‘ statistics may be rightly called the scheme of averages’ . This definition is also incomplete, as averages play an important role in understanding and comparing data and statistics provide more measures.
• 9. DEFINITION BY CROXTON AND COWDEN Statistics may be defined as the science of collection, presentation analysis and interpretation of numerical data from the logical analysis. It is clear that the definition of statistics by Croxton and Cowden is the most scientific and realistic one. According to this definition there are four stages:
• 10. COLLECTION OF DATA It is the first step and this is the foundation upon which the entire data set. Careful planning is essential before collecting the data. There are different methods of collection of data such as census, sampling, primary, secondary, etc., and the investigator should make use of correct method.
• 11. PRESENTATION OF DATA The mass data collected should be presented in a suitable, concise form for further analysis. The collected data may be presented in the form of tabular or diagrammatic or graphic form.
• 12. ANALYSIS OF DATA: The data presented should be carefully analyzed for making inference from the presented data such as measures of central tendencies, dispersion, correlation, regression etc.,
• 13. INTERPRETATION OF DATA The final step is drawing conclusion from the data collected. A valid conclusion must be drawn on the basis of analysis. A high degree of skill and experience is necessary for the interpretation.
• 14. END
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