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  2. APPROACHES TO COUNSELLING an “approach” in psychology refers to “perspective or view” having certain “assumptions and beliefs” about the behavior of human beings. To deal with the diverse nature of human behavior the approaches would be different. Three counseling approaches that are fall under humanistic and behavioral approaches of psychology: 1. Client-centered approach 2. Behavioral approach 3. Gestalt approach
  3. 1-CLIENT CENTERED COUNSELING INTRODUCTION  The client-centered approach also called as person-centered counseling is humanistic in nature.  The core emphasis of this approach is on the client’s “self- exploration "and “self-direction” to overcome the difficulties and controlling their own destiny by seeking assistance.  The basic assumption of the approach is that people are trustworthy and capable of resolving their problems without the direct intervention provided by the counselor or therapist.  It is assumed that under adverse conditions person may not develop fully. So, favorable conditions are necessary to grow.  Aim of this approach is to strengthen and developing an accurate self-concept of the client to increase client’s self-esteem and openness to experiences.
  4. 1-CLIENT CENTERED COUNSELING • Strength • 1. Clients feel more comfortable and satisfied because they are listened not judge. • 2. Clients feel more enlightened in client-centered counseling because, they make their own decisions because it is the client who knows which need to be changed. • 3. Strong client and therapist interpersonal relationship based on trust, genuineness and empathy. • 4. Approach is more optimistic than other approaches focuses on internal capacities to deal with the problem. • 5. Have multi-cultural perspectives and implications.
  5. 1-CLIENT CENTERED COUNSELING • Weaknesses • 1. Counselor’s role is as a facilitator and supporter without challenging the client or making their own interpretation. • 2. Just listening and caring is not enough to diagnose and solve the problem. • 3. Sometimes counselor is passive. If the therapy is non-directive it could not be effective. • 4. This approach is unrealistically optimistic. • 5. Less expected to be useful with those who are not self- motivated to change. • 6. May not be effective for those who endorsed the psychopath • 7. Lack appropriate techniques to deal with problems rather
  6. 1-CLIENT CENTERED COUNSELING Areas of applications The client-centered approach has found to be effective with individuals, groups and families.  It is effective in treating the wide range of problems such as anxiety disorders, psychosomatic problems, depression, and personality disorders and with those who are facing interpersonal difficulties. This approach is more beneficial for those who are intrinsically motivated to change.  Best fit for those who, wants to enhance their self- reliance and innate abilities to solve their problems.
  7. AREAS OF APPLICATIONS The basic approach has also application to education from elementary to graduate level. The approach allows the teacher to discover their own path to freedom and personal development and growth.  client-centered climate in classrooms lead towards more learning, more problem solving and more creativity. Such climate offers the students to become self-directed and responsible for their choices that facilitate
  8. BEHAVIOURAL COUNSELING Introduction  Behavioural counseling approach is based on the assumption that environment determines the human behaviour.  People respond to particular situation in a particular way because that behaviour has been reinforced at their childhood.  Behaviourist believed that if the behaviour is “learned” so it can also be “unlearnt”.  The goal of this approach is to modify the undesirable behaviour and adapt the new appropriate behaviour that is desirable. Rather than identifying the root cause of the problem.
  9. BEHAVIOURAL COUNSELING Strengths 1. Behavioural approach of counseling is rich, has wide variety of techniques that may be utilized. 2. Put greater emphasis on ethical consideration and accountability by addressing the “how to change behaviour”. 3. Uses scientific methods to validate the treatment outcomes empirically. 4. There no bias related to what behaviour should be changed.
  10. Weaknesses 1. Theoretically based on assumptions that are formed by working with animals. 2. It only provides the description of behaviour on the basis of “stimulus-response”. 3. It only deals with symptoms of the problem rather than the issues and causes. 4. It does not provide the in-depth understanding of the underlying concepts and problems why change is needed. 5. Free will and cognitive process are denied in some counseling process.
  11. BEHAVIOURAL COUNSELING AREAS OF APPLICATIONS  Behavioural approach to counseling is used to treat various psychological disorders; anxiety disorders, depression, interpersonal and marital problems, chronic mental conditions, childhood disorders, eating disorders and obsessive-compulsive disorder etc.  It can also be applied to resolve the problem of school children such as lateness, truancy (consistent inconsistency in school attendance) and poor study habits and skills.  It is also be beneficial to teach social and communication skills, to increase student's self-efficacy and self-esteem.  The wide range of behavioural techniques and methods are used to fulfill the needs of wide diversity of individuals to learn the appropriate behaviour.
  12. GESTALT COUNSELING Introduction  “Gestalt” which means whole comprises of two or more interrelated parts.  It rejects the dualities of mind, body and soul because perls had the view that people are not made of separate parts, they function as a whole.  Wholeness refers to the integration of person’s mind and body as a unit rather than as separate parts.  It also refers to the persons working in relation to environment by filling all their parts (mind, soul, body, thinking and feelings) together into the environment.  The goal of gestalt counseling is to produce the awareness of self, others and the environment that bring about growth.  For being psychologically healthy a person should or has to be
  13. STRENGTH 1.Several empirical researches support this approach. 2.Gestalt therapy is as useful as other therapies especially its impact is greater in treating various disorders. 3.It is effective approach in treating personality disorders and its effect is stable. 4.This approach work with past and make it relevant to the future. 5.It is a versatile and flexible having several
  14. WEAKNESSES 1.This approach demands high on the part of counselor to be personally highly developed. 2.It lacks sound theoretical background. 3. Diagnosis and testing techniques are not involved rather only deals with “here and now” 4.It has greater emphasis on self development so considered as self-centered approach to counseling. 5. Potential threat in this approach is the over authority of the counselor and threat to abuse
  15. GESTALT COUNSELING AREAS OF APPLICATION It is used to provide therapeutic treatment for the anxiety, depression and clients with personality disorders. While applied to treat children with anxiety and depression that block their emotions and senses, the counselor can apply various techniques to foster and regulate the child’s natural capacities and self- regulatory process. It is helpful and effective with overly socialized and reserved clients. However, it is not appropriate approach to deal with the clients that are severely disturbed, and with fragile