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PSYCHODYNAMIC APPROACH.pptx

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PSYCHODYNAMIC APPROACH.pptx

  1. 1. PSYCHODYNAMIC APPROACH
  2. 2. DESCRIPTION The psychodynamic approach consists of several different ways of looking at leadership. There is no single model or theory. One fundamental concept underlies the psychodynamic approach: Personality
  3. 3. Although it focuses on the personality of the leader and of followers, the psychodynamic approach ultimately is a way to look at the relationship between the leader and follower.
  4. 4. Assumptions personality characteristics of individuals, being deeply ingrained, are very difficult to change in any significant way people have motives and feelings that are beneath immediate awareness—that is, in the unconscious. Thus, a person’s behavior results from observable actions and responses and the emotional residue of prior experiences.
  5. 5. The psychodynamic approach begins with an examination of the roots of the individual in the family. Our first experience with leadership occurs the day we are born. Mom and Dad, or those who are our primary caregivers, become our leaders The ego state and the conflict between the 3 ego inside us
  6. 6. Eric Berne and Transactional Analysis A unified system of individual and social psychiatry. The important aspect of that title is the notion of social psychiatry, one that focuses not only on the individual but also on one’s relationship with others. There are three ego states in TA: parent, adult, and child
  7. 7. • In a further development of TA, the parent and child ego states have been subdivided so that a person can be in either a controlling or a nurturing parent state Egogram
  8. 8. Sigmund Freud and Personality Types The three personality types Freud offered were erotic, obsessive, and narcissistic. Erich Fromm subsequently added a fourth: marketing
  9. 9. The erotic personality • seeks to love and be loved. • enjoys talking with others for the simple pleasure of • Enjoy having a conversation and getting to know someone. • want the group or team to become a close-knit family of nice people • who get along. • dependent and needy.
  10. 10. obsessive personality • live up to standards • follow rules, and obey a strict conscience • stability rather than acceptance and liking. • following the rules and regulations of society and the organization • having a strong conscience • This kind of person searches for ways • to improve, and particularly to become more knowledgeable and competent. • can be very aggressive and domineering. • They believe they are right and do not want to be questioned.
  11. 11. narcissistic personality • Maccoby stressed the need to clearly set the narcissist apart from egotistical or egoistic • The narcissist is not vain and does not attempt to impress, but takes pride in and will talk about actual accomplishments. In fact, pointed out that one of the important characteristics of the narcissist is • self-directed. On the positive side • clear vision of what to do and does not take into account what other people say or do in the pursuit of that vision.
  12. 12. The marketing personality • highly adaptable • align themselves with the right people and situations. • Marketers easily adapt to changes in society • good at facilitating and networking, and at using and enjoying the process of collaboration in order to achieve consensus.
  13. 13. Maccoby distinguished between productive and unproductive versions of each type. There can be productive erotic, unproductive obsessives, and productive marketing types, or their opposites. five key elements to define the productive free and not dependent, active or proactive, understands his or her own situation and has a purpose in life. Maccoby (2003) added perseverance to the list of characteristics of a productive person. At the other end of the spectrum are unproductive people, characterized as limited and averse to risk, irrational, reactive, superficial, aimless, and uncommitted.
  14. 14. Maccoby sensed that the best executives were productive narcissists. Why do we need productive narcissists and when?
  15. 15. Strengths and Weaknesses of the Productive Narcissist
  16. 16. Changes in Social Character The net result of the shift from the bureaucratic to the interactive social character is that persons in organizations no longer want to be followers but rather want to be collaborators in a joint effort with their leaders
  17. 17. Carl Jung and Personality Types Based on Four Dimensions The first concerns where a person derives her or his energy (either internally or externally). The second involves the way in which a person gathers information (either in a precise, sequential way or in a more intuitive and random way). The third is the way in which a person makes decisions (either rationally and factually or in a subjective and personal way). The fourth concerns the difference between a person who plans and is organized and one who is more spontaneous and pliant.
  18. 18. These became the basis of the classification of types • Extraversion versus introversion • Thinking versus feeling • Judging versus perceiving • Sensing versus intuiting
  19. 19. Dealing With Followers! Suppose the leader is primarily an extravert and is dealing with an introverted Follower!! Intuition leader and a sensor follower!! As can be seen from these examples, an understanding and awareness of psychological preferences and types can be useful in communicating effectively and getting work done. The differences between the types can lead to frustration and perhaps antagonism.
  20. 20. HOW DOES THE PSYCHODYNAMIC APPROACH WORK? The primary aim of the psychodynamic approach is to raise the awareness of leaders and followers to their own personality types and the implications of those types on work and relationship
  21. 21. STRENGTHS The greatest strength of the psychodynamic approach is that it results in an analysis of the relationship between the leader and the follower Another strength of the psychodynamic approach is that it emphasizes the need for awareness on the part of the leader. That awareness is obtained by bringing it into consciousness and dealing with ego states or psychological types. By being knowledgeable about these issues, the leader comes to understand his or her reactions to subordinates’ actions and to see why followers react as they do to certain actions by the leader. The ability to understand actions and the responses they produce allows the leader to control these actions. CRITICISMS based on clinical observation and treatment of people with serious mental difficulties It does not take into account organizational factors.

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