3. Gender Division is a form of hierarchical social division to be
considered as natural and uncatchable. It is not based on
biological but social expectations and stereotypes.
Boys and girls are bought up to believe that the main
responsibility of women is housework and bringing up the
children. It is reflected in Sexual Division of Labour.
Though women have started working in rural as well as urban
area, their work is not appreciated and valued. Due to this
division, women role in public life, especially in politics is
4. As women started raising the issue of their rights and political
equality and after agitation in many parts of the world, they were
provided with voting right. Nowadays, women are provided with
educational and career opportunities.These movements are called
As Gender Division was raised on the political platform, women
condition started improving their social life. Women started doing
various jobs which were the monopoly of males. Only
Scandinavian countries have highest percentage of women
participation in politics.
5. In our country, women are discriminated various
sections of society, society is still male dominated and
family are patriarchal. Women face discrimination,
disadvantages and oppression in various ways.
Education: women still have less literacy rate than men as
parents don’t want to spend on girl’s education as they
would get married and go to other’s house.
Workplace; women are paid less than their male
counterpart though both do same amount of work.
6. o Sex ratio: A birth of girl child is still considered as a burden on the family.
Boys are considered the name carrier of the family so many girls are
killed before they are born.
o Family; they are not safe even within their own home from beating,
harassment and other forms of domestic violence. All house works are
done by women though they work outside and earn money.
o Politics: In India women participation is very low. Now Lok Sabha has
crossed 10% of women participation. In State Assembly women could
not possess more than 5 %, but in Local Self Government due to
reservation there are 10 lakh representatives. Last some year women
are the demand that 1/3 reservation should be given in Central and
State Assembly. (Women’s Bill)
7. Relation between Religion & Politics
Gandhiji’s Statement: He used to say that religion can
never be separated from politics. He meant for that
politics should be guided by the ethics of all religions.
Family Laws: Women organization has demand to change
the family laws to bring equality for women.
Communal Riots; Human Rights groups have argued that
during communal rights the maximum victims are from
minority group as power is misused by majority
8. Religion starts becoming a problem when it is considered to the
base of nation and it is started being used through politics. One
religion tries to show its superiority on other by neglecting their
powers and rights.
When state power is used to establish domination of one
religious group over the rest.This manner of using religion in
politics is communal politics.
Communal politics is based on the idea that religion is the
principal basis of social community. Communalism involves
thinking along the following lines. People who follow different
religion cannot be from same social community.
9. In its extreme form communalism leads to the belief that
people belonging to different religions cannot live as equal
citizens within one nation. Either, one of them has to dominate
the rest or they have to form different nations.
Communalism can take various forms in politics:
▪ Everyday Beliefs
▪ Political Dominance
▪ Selection of Candidates
▪ Use religious signs and symbols
▪ Religious Speeches
▪ Communal Riots
10. Secular State – Constitutional Provisions
No official Religion
Freedom of Religion
Prohibits the discrimination on the ground of Religion
The state doesn’t interfere in the matter of religion
unless it harms the harmony of the society
Education cannot be denied on the ground of Religion
11. All societies have some kind of social inequalities and
some form of division of labour. Caste system is the
extreme of this division. Occupational divisions are
hereditary and they form a social community and
practice the same kind of job, get married within own
group and don’t share food with other caste groups.
In this system, the groups which are considered to be
outcaste and inferior are discriminated and excluded
from the society. Untouchability is the worst impact of
this caste system in India.
13. Caste System has undergone many changes
but it’s not completely eradicated
Groups who could not receive proper education
14. Selection of candidates
Appeals caste Sentiments
Mobilize the people on caste
15. The focus on caste in politics can sometimes
give an impression that elections are all about
caste and nothing else. But it is not true.This can
be explained with the help of following
Constituency: No constituency in India has a
clear majority of one particular caste group.
Vote Bank: No party wins the 100% votes of
particular caste group.
16. Same Caste Candidates; It might happen in election
one caste group has many candidates and some caste
groups have no candidates to vote
Losing : Many times, it is seen that sitting MLAs &
MPs are losing in the next election
Other Factors:When one voter castes his vote, he
might check the background of candidates, he might
vote looking to his personal interest or he is loyal to
particular political party and the candidates.
17. o New kinds of caste groups have come up in
political arena like backward and forward.
o Each caste group is trying to become bigger
by incorporating with other smaller groups.
o Various small caste groups and political
parties are making coalition by dialogue and